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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 4 - Dec 2005
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Sep 2005
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Jun 2005
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Mar 2005
Selecting the target year
Lessons from FIFE on Scaling of Surface Fluxes at Gwangneung Forest Site
Hong Jinkyu ; Lee Dongho ; Kim Joon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 7, issue 1, 2005, Pages 4~14
CarboKorea and HydroKorea are the domestic projects aiming to improve our understanding of carbon and water cycles in a typical Korean forest located in a complex terrain with a watershed connected to large rivers. The ultimate goal is to provide a nowcasting of these cycles for the whole Peninsula. The basic strategy to achieve such goal is through the inter- and multi-disciplinary studies that synthesize the in-situ field observation, modeling and remote sensing technology. The challenge is the fact that natural ecosystems are nonlinear and heterogeneous with a wide range of spatio-temporal scales causing the variations of mass and energy exchanges from a leaf to landscape scales. Our paradigm now shifts from temporal variation at a point to spatial patterns and from spatial homogeneity to complexity of water and carbon at multiple scales. Yet, a large portion of our knowledge about land-atmosphere interactions has been established based on tower observations, indicating that the development of scaling logics holds the key to the success of CarboKorea and HydroKorea. Here, we review the pioneering work of FIFE (First ISLSCP Field Experiment) on scaling issues in a temperate grassland and discuss the lessons from it for the application to Gwangneung forest site.
Stable Isotope Studies for Constraining Water and Carbon Cycles in Terrestrial Ecosystems: A Review
Lee Dongho ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 7, issue 1, 2005, Pages 15~27
The water and carbon cycles in terrestrial ecosystems are the essential database for better understanding of the causes and the current processes of climate change and for the prediction of its future change. CarboKorea and HydroKorea are dedicated research efforts to develop technologies to quantitatively interpret and forecast carbon/water cycles in typical landscapes of Korea. For this, stable isotope studies have been launched to genetically partition various components of carbon/water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. From stable isotope studies, practical deliverables such as evaporation, transpiration and gross primary productivity (GPP) can be provided at scales from tower (footprint) to large watersheds. Such reliable field-based information will form an important database to be used for validation of the results from various eco-hydrological models and satellite image analysis which constitute main components of Carbo/HydroKorea project. Stable isotope studies, together with other relevant researches, will contribute to derive quantitative interpretation of carbon/water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems and support Carbo/HydroKorea to become a leading research infrastructure to answer pending scientific and socio-economic questions in relation to global changes.
A Study on Methods of Separating Soil Respiration by Source
Koo Jin-Woo ; Son Yowhan ; Kim Rea-Hyun ; Kim Joon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 7, issue 1, 2005, Pages 28~34
We review three methods of separating soil respiration into root and soil microbial contribution: (1) component integration, (2) root exclusion, and (3) isotopic method. Among these methods, component integration and root exclusion are most commonly used. Root respiration contribution to soil respiration estimated by the root exclusion method is higher than those by other two methods. Trenching has little environmental disturbances in soil or on surface of site compared to other methods in root exclusion such as root removal and gap formation. Isotopic method has an advantage over other methods because of minimal soil and root disturbances, but this method is costly and requires techniques for the complex analysis. Trenching seems to be an appropriate in situ method for calculating component contributions to soil respiration with minimum disturbances in site. However, the method overestimates the contribution of microbial respiration because of root decay, and realistic results could be obtained by estimating root decay or avoiding large roots in trenched plots.
Microclimatological Characteristics Observed from the Flux Tower in Gwangneung Forest Watershed
Choi Taejin ; Lim Jong-Hwan ; Chun Jung-Hwa ; Lee Dongho ; Kim Joon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 7, issue 1, 2005, Pages 35~44
Microclimate of Gwangneung forest watershed is characterized by analyzing wind, radiation, profiles of air temperature and humidity, soil and bole temperature, precipitation and soil water content measured at and around the flux tower from April 2000 to September 2003. Mountain-valley wind was prevalent due to the topographic effect with dominant wind from east during daytime and relatively weak wind from west during nighttime. Air temperature reaches its peak in July-August whereas monthly-averaged incoming shortwave radiation shows its peak in May due to summer monsoon. Albedo ranges from 0.12 to 0.16 during the growing season. Monthly-averaged bole temperature is in phase with monthly- averaged air temperature which is consistently higher. Monthly-averaged soil temperature lags behind air temperature and becomes higher with leaf fall. With the emergence of leafage in April, maximum temperature level during midday shifts from the ground surface to the crown level of 15-20m in May. Profiles of water vapor pressure show a similar shift in May but the ground surface remains as the major source of water. Vapor pressure deficit is highest in spring and lowest in winter. Monthly averaged surface soil temperatures range from 0 to 20℃ with a maximum in August. Monthly averaged trunk temperatures of the dominant tree species range from -5.8 to 21.6℃ with their seasonal variation and the magnitudes similar to those of air temperature. Annual precipitation amount varies significantly from year to year, of which >60% is from July and August. Vertical profiles of soil moisture show different characteristics that may suggest an important role of lateral movement of soil water associated with rainfall events.
and Water Vapor Flux Measurement by Eddy Covariance Method in a Paddy Field in Korea
Lee Jeongtaek ; Lee Yangsoo ; Kim Gunyeob ; Shim Kyomoon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 7, issue 1, 2005, Pages 45~50
This study was conducted to measure and understand the exchange of CO₂ and water in a rice canopy. Eddy covariance system was installed on a 10m tower along with other meteorological instruments. CO₂ flux and surface energy balance were measured throughout the whole growing season in 2003 over a typical paddy field in Icheon, Korea. During the early growth stage in May and June, most of net radiation was partitioned to latent heat flux with daytime Bowen ratio of 0.3 to 0.7. Evapotranspiration (i.e., daily integrated latent heat flux) typically ranged from 3 to 4 mm d/sup -1/, with even higher rates on sunny days. Daily integrated net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO₂ increased with increasing solar radiation and leaf area index (LAI). The NEE was especially high during the stages of young panicle formation and heading. On 1 June 2003, when the rice field was flooded, it was a weak sink of atmospheric CO₂ with an uptake rate of 9.1 gm/sup -2/d/sup -1/. Despite frequent rainy and cloudy conditions in summer, maximum NEE of 36.2 gm/sup -2/d/sup -1/ occurred on 31 July prior to heading stage. As rice crop senesced after early September, the NEE decreased.
Change of Stream water Chemistry and Contribution of Subsurface Discharge in Forest Catchment during Storm Events
Kim Su-Jin ; Jeong Yongho ; Kim Kyongha ; Yoo Jaeyun ; Jeong Changgi ; Jun Jaehong ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 7, issue 1, 2005, Pages 51~56
To understand the chemical changes in the streamwater and contribution of subsurface discharge during the storm event, we analyzed electric conductivity (EC), anions, and cations in Gwangneung deciduous and coniferous forest catchment. The stream water samples were collected three times in 2004 by using an auto-sampler: September 7-9 (E040907-D and -C; where D and C indicate deciduous and coniferous forest catchment, respectively), September 11-13 (E040911-D and -C), and September 16-18 (E040916-D and -C). We found a negative relationship between discharge intensity and EC in streamwater. The E040911 and E040916 showed slack change of stream discharge in comparison to E040907 due to contribution of base flow recharged by much precipitation. Moreover, NO/sub 3//sup -/ concentrations in E040911-C were highest, which may have resulted from forest management such as thinning in 2004. The relationship between pH and alkalinity in stream water showed that much of stream water have been recharged through subsurface. We conclude that subsurface discharge highly influences streamwater quality in a forested catchment, and the seperation of stream water discharge is therefore necessary to sustainable water management.
Seasonal Variation of Contribution of Leaf-Litter Decomposition Rate in Soil Respiration in Temperate Deciduous Forest
Suh Sang-Uk ; Min Youn-Kyung ; Lee Jae-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 7, issue 1, 2005, Pages 57~65
In a forest ecosystem, the major source of soil carbon input is from litterfall and its decomposition. To understand the effect of litterfall and litter decomposition on seasonal variation of soil respiration and litter decomposition rates were measured in temperate deciduous forest in Korea. Annual litterfall collected from litter trap (1m x 1m) were 147.5 ± 8.2g Cm/sup -2/ yr/sup -1/ in 2003. About 47% of litterfall were Quercus serrata leaf followed by Carpinus laxiflora leaf (27 %), Carpinus cordata leaf (7 %), and others, such as other leaf, bark, branch, and acorn, were 20%. The decomposition rate was the highest in C. cordata (33.03%, k = 0.46), followed by C. laxiflora (25.73%, k = 0.30), and Q. serrata (24.17%, k = 0.28). The continuous measurement of soil respiration from January 2004 to December 2004 was carried out using AOCC (Automatic Open-Closed multi-Chamber system). The annual soil respiration rate was 629.6g Cm/sup -2/ yr/sup -1/ and the litter decomposition was 30.0g Cm/sup -2/ yr/sup -1/. The portion of litter decomposition rate on soil respiration rate was about 5%. From January to February, when the soil respiration rate was the lowest, about 11 % of soil respiration (7.4 ± l.4g Cm/sup -2/ month/sup -1/) were effected by litter decomposition rate (0.8g Cm/sup -2/ month/sup -1/). The highest soil respiration rate (111.5 ± 16.2g Cm/sup -2/ month/sup -1/) and litter decomposition rate (11.4g Cm/sup -2/ month/sup -1/) were showed in July to August. According to the regression analysis between soil respiration rate and litter decomposition, the soil respiration rate were related to litter decomposition with the correlations (r = 0.63).
A Simulation Study to Investigate Climatic Controls on Net Primary Production (NPP) of a Rugged Forested Landscape in the Mid-Western Korean Peninsula
Eum Sungwon ; Kang Sinkyu ; Lee Dowon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 7, issue 1, 2005, Pages 66~77
We have investigated microclimatic controls on the spatiotemporal variations of net primary production (NPP) of a rugged forested watershed using the process-based biogeochemical model (BIOME-BGC). To validate the model simulation of water and carbon cycles at the plot scale, we have conducted field survey over deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) and evergreen needleleaf forest (ENF) since 2000. The modeled values of soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration showed high correlation with those from the field measurements. The modeled seasonal changes of NPP showed high correlation with air temperature but no significant correlation with water related parameters. The precipitation frequency turned out to be the best climatic factor to explain the annual variation of NPP. Furthermore, NPP of ENF was more sensitive to precipitation frequency than that of DBF. With changes in vegetation cover and topography, the spatial distribution of NPP was of great heterogeneity, which was negatively correlated with the magnitude of NPP. Despite the annual precipitation of 1,400mm, NPP at the study site was constrained by the amount of water available for the vegetation. Such a modeling result should be verified by the field measurements.
Analysis of Soil Moisture Recession Characteristics on Hillslope through the ~ntensive Monitoring Using TDR
Lee Ga Young ; Kim Sang Hyun ; Kim Ki Hoon ; Lee Hye Sun ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 7, issue 1, 2005, Pages 78~90
The spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture was characterized from soil moisture data through the intensive monitoring using Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). The recession of soil moisture after a rainfall event was characterized and the empirical equation was used in the recession curve analysis. Recession analysis provides features of soil moisture variation such as recharge and stability depending upon locations of monitoring. The wetness index was useful for explaining spatial and temporal distributions of soil moisture and recession characteristics at hillslope scale.
Measurement and Analysis of Free Water Evaporation at HaeNam Paddy Field
Han Jin-Su ; Lee Bu-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 7, issue 1, 2005, Pages 91~97
Class A evaporation pan has been used throughout the world to measure free water evaporation mainly by manual observation once a day. In this study, a new automatic water level measurement method is used for understanding of free water evaporation and numerical analysis. This new technique measures the weight of buoyancy bar in water, and does not need calibration because it is not affected by water density change with water temperature. Field observations of evaporation were made near Haenam Meteorological Station over paddy field located in southwestern Korea from 20 April to 30 May 2004 and the data from ten clear days (16 - 25 May) were used for this analysis. The observed total evaporation was about 50.7mm during this period whereas the estimated from an empirical equation was 50.4mm. As expected, the pan evaporation is well correlated with wind speed and the vapor pressure deficit between the water surface and the air.
Electrical Resistivity Survey for Hydrologic Monitoring in the Gwang-neung Experimental Forest - Preliminary Results
Choi In-Hyuk ; Moon Sang-Ki ; Woo Nam-Chil ; Kim Joon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 7, issue 1, 2005, Pages 98~106
Groundwater plays an important role in water and carbon cycles in Gwangneung forest watershed located in a complex landscape. Because groundwater affects electrical resistivity (ER) of underground materials, the depth to water table and water content in subsurface can be investigated through measuring ER. Accordingly, the ER survey has been employed more frequently in recent hydrological investigations. Quantitative applications of the results of ER survey will contribute significantly to the examination of water budget closure at various spatiotemporal scales. This paper presents the preliminary results of the ER survey conducted at Gwangneung forest watershed to determine proper locations and depths of monitoring wells. Such use of ER survey, in conjunction with an integrated geophysical investigation and geographic information system, can provide more effective examination of underground structure and optimal locations of monitoring wells to further our understanding of the role of groundwater.
Intercomparison of Chamber Methods for Soil Respiration Measurement in a Phytotron System
Chae Namyi ; Kim Rae-Hyun ; Hwang Taehee ; Suh Sang-Uk ; Lee Jae-Seok ; Son Yowhan ; Lee Dowon ; Kim Joon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 7, issue 1, 2005, Pages 107~114
Soil CO₂ emission is one of the primary components in carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems. In soil CO₂ flux measurements, chamber method is currently the most common technique. Prior to compare or synthesize the data collected from different chamber methods, potential biases must be quantified for each measurement system. We have conducted an intercomparison experiment among four closed dynamic chamber systems and an automatic open-closed chamber system in a temperature-controlled phytotron. Due to the disturbed CO₂ concentrations inside the phytotron during the measurements with closed dynamic chambers and the changes in soil water content, the interpretation of the data was difficult to quantify the biases of individual methods. However, the experiment provided not only valuable information on the performance characteristics of the five instruments to varying soil temperature and CO₂ concentration but also useful insights for better designs and strategy for future intercomparison in a controlled environment.
Spatial Characteristics of Gwangneung Forest Site Based on High Resolution Satellite Images and DEM
Moon Sang-Ki ; Park Seung-Hwan ; Hong Jinkyu ; Kim Joon ;
Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, volume 7, issue 1, 2005, Pages 115~123
Quantitative understanding of spatial characteristics of the study site is a prerequisite to investigate water and carbon cycles in agricultural and forest ecosystems, particularly with complex, heterogeneous landscapes. The spatial characteristics of variables related with topography, vegetation and soil in Gwangneung forest watershed are quantified in this study. To characterize topography, information on elevation, slope and aspect extracted from DEM is analyzed. For vegetation and soil, a land-cover map classified from LANDSAT TM images is used. Four satellite images are selected to represent different seasons (30 June 1999, 4 September 2000, 23 September 2001 and 14 February 2002). As a flux index for CO₂ and water vapor, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from satellite images for three different grid sizes: MODIS grid (7km x 7km), intensive observation grid (3km x 3km), and unit grid (1km x 1km). Then, these data are analyzed to quantify the spatial scale of heterogeneity based on semivariogram analysis. As expected, the scale of heterogeneity decreases as the grid size decreases and are sensitive to seasonal changes in vegetation. For the two unit grids where the two 40 m flux towers are located, the spatial scale of heterogeneity ranges from 200 to 1,000m, which correspond well to the climatology of the computed tower flux footprint.