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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Tunnel and Underground Space
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Rock Mechanics
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Dec 2000
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Sep 2000
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Jun 2000
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Mar 2000
Selecting the target year
암반공학 분야에서 수치해석의 적용성에 관하여
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 257~270
암반 내 쉴드터널의 영향해석과 시공
Tetsushi, Sonoda ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 271~277
개별요소법에 의한 터널의 안정성 해석에 있어 설계정수의 결정
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 278~290
탄소성이론을 이용한 절리면의 비선형 거동 모사
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 291~300
Changes of Effective Elastic Moduli due to Crack Growth in Rock
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 301~308
Non-linear behavior of rock under compression can be predicted by a crack model. Crack growth in rock renders rock anisotropic. The degree of anisotropy is explained in terms of elastic moduli as a function of load level. In this study, we calculate the changes of elastic moduli due to crack growth numerically by using a crack model and compare these values with experimental results obtained from the measurement of ultrasonic wave velocities. Image processing technique is used to obtain the initial crack information needed for the numerical calculation of elastic moduli.
Determination of the Representative Elementary Volume of Granite by Using Homogenization Theory
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 309~315
For proper sampling of a rock and preparation of specimens, the representative elementary volume (REV) should be determined in rock mechanical test and numerical analysis. Mechanical properties of a rock, in general, would be strongly affected by mineral composition. In this reason REV of Youngju granite is determined by using stereoscopic microscope observation and homogenization numerical analysis. As the area of analysis model exceeds approximately 702
(900 elements), the change of the mineral composition is not observed. The calculated results indicate that Young's modulus is fluctuated with increase of the number of elements in homogenization numerical analysis mesh. However, as the number of elements exceeds 1156 (area of about 900
), Young's modulus does not change apparently.
Numerical Simulation of Tensile Strength Test by Ring-type Specimen
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 316~319
Stress variation due to size variation and the eccentricity of ring type tensile specimen was analyzed by FLAC program. To get the stable tensile strength the ratio of inner to outer ring diameter should be within a certain range. Diameter ratio of 0.3 was suggested to be adequate. It seemed to be difficult to determine the tensile strength because of stress distortion if eccentricity exceeded some limit. To limit the error in 10%, lateral and axial eccentricity was analyzed to be in the limits of 3% and 10%, respectively.
Fracture Toughness Evaluation and Influence Parameter Analysis by Numerical Simulation of Brazilian Test
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 320~328
The numerical simulation of Brazilian fracture toughness test is carried out using PFC code and the influence parameters are analyzed such as shape of loading plane, size of Brazilian disc and unit particle of model, loading angle and loading rate. The flattened Brazilian disc is adopted for applying uniform load. The range of loading angle(2
) necessary to induce the tensile crack at disc center and to obtain the load-displacement curve giving the critical load for the stable crack propagation is shown as 20°∼40°. In condition that the loading angle is 20°, the mode-I fracture toughness is evaluated almost constant in the range of particle size less than 1 mm and loading rate less than 0.01㎜/s. This range of influence parameters seems appropriate condition for the tensile crack initiation at disc center and the control of stable crack propagation, which can give the reliance in evaluation of fracture toughness by Brazilian test.
Rock Joint Survey System by image Processing and Stereophotogrammetry
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 329~343
Rock joint survey consists of measurement of orientation and face mapping for trace informations. We have developed a new alternative approach called rock joint survey system by stereophotogrammetry and image processing to replace the conventional manual method. For the measurement of orientations and face mapping, we applied a stereophotogrammetry and developed two hybrid approaches using image processing techniques, respectively. These methods have advantages in making it possible to measure the orientations of joints and perform face mapping rapidly and objectively in unaccessible and dangerous areas.
Numerical Analysis of the Mechanical and Hydraulic behavior of Concrete Plug in Underground Storage Cavern
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 344~354
The concrete plug in an underground cavern prevents the stored product (oil, gas, etc) from leaking and the excessive inflow of underground water, so it plays an important role in construction and operation of the storage cavern. Additionally, it should maintain its stability under every possible loading condition. Once the plug is constructed, the cavern is isolated from the external access. Therefore, mechanical and hydraulic consideration should be made in construction to fulfill its function. Therefore, in this study, numerical analyses were conducted to study the optimal shape and thickness of the plug with respect to the various conditions of installation depth, the shape of the plug, in-situ stress ratio (K), the condition of rock-plug interface, and the effect of Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ). This paper also presents the effect of slot depth on the hydraulic behavior of the plug. These analyses were carried out by using the 2-dimensional finite difference code, rm FLAC, and the 3D code, rm FLAC
A Numerical Study on Thermo-hydro-mechanical Coupling in Continuum Rock Mass Based on the Biot's Consolidation Theory
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 355~365
As large underground projects such as radioactive waste disposal, hot water and heat storage, and geothermal energy become influential, the study, which consider all aspects of thermics, hydraulics and mechanics would be needed. Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical coupling analysis is one of the most complex numerical technique because it should be implemented with the combined three governing equations to analyze the behavior of rock mass. In this study, finite element code, which is based on Biot's consolidation theory, was developed to analyze the thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling in continuum rock mass. To verify the implemented program, one-dimensional consolidation model under the isothermal and non-isothermal conditions was analyzed and was compared with the analytic solution. The parametric study on two-dimensional consolidation was also performed and the effects of several factors such as poisson's ratio and hydraulic anisotropy on rock mass behavior were investigated. In the future, this program would be revised to be used for analysis of general discontinuous media with incorporating discrete joint model.
A Numerical Analysis on the Shear and Hydraulic behavior of Single Rock Joint with Roughness
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 366~377
The development of proper joint model, which can describe real phenomena exactly and still can be used easily, is one of the most important element for the analysis of the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of discontinuous rock mass. In this study, an elasto-plastic constitutive model of joint behavior considering asperity degradation was extended with the concept of first and second order asperities. The proposed model was implemented to numerical code with discrete finite joint element. The parametric study with the various asperity angles and degradation coefficients showed that the model can reproduce the shear behavior of typical rough joints well. Results of laboratory monotonic and cyclic shear tests were compared with those of numerical tests to validate the model. The hydraulic model considering the relations between gouge production and aperture was introduced to the mechanical mode1. In an attempt to examine the performance of the model, comparative numerical test was conducted. Permeability between joint surfaces increased rapidly at the first stage, but became nearly constant with increasing shear displacement due to gouge production and uniform variation of aperture distribution.
A Study on the Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport in Discontinuous Rock Mass Using Fracture Network Analysis: An Estimation of Equivalent Permeability on Discontinuous Rock Mass
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 378~386
This paper presents groundwater flow characteristics in discontinuous rock mass using fracture network program(NAPSAC) by statistical approach. Equivalent permeability coefficients are estimated from borehole data around Mabuk test tunnel site and fracture map on the arch of the tunnel. The reliability of fracture network model is obtained from determination of input data for statistical fracture network analysis from the real data(data of fracture network, data of hydraulic tests). The variation of permeability and mean anisotropic permeability coefficients are calculated from the realized model by increasing the size. As a result of analysis, a strong anisotropy of permeability is observed according to the direction of the fracture sets around the test tunnel.
Numerical Studies of Subsidence and Hydraulic Conductivity Enhancement Due to Underground Excavation
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 387~394
This is study investigates the changes of subsidence and hydraulic conductivity by underground mining Coupling between post-mining induced strains and strain-dependent hydraulic conductivities is obtained by idealizing a jointed rock mass as an equivalent porous medium in which the hydraulic conductivity of a single joint is defined through parallel plate description. Results indicate that post-mining hydraulic conductivities are directly related to the strain field occurred by subsidence induced deformation. Maximum subsidence and hydraulic conductivity values increase as a panel width does widen. Joint spacing has an effect on the intensity of the changes in hydraulic conductivity.
Stability Analysis of High Speed Railway Tunnel Passing Through the Abandoned Mine Area
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 395~402
The influence of the mined-out caves on the stability of the high speed railway tunnel was investigated with a series of geological logging and in-situ tests on the one hand, and with the rock mass classification using the multiple regression analysis on the other hand. The rock mass in this area can be classified as 'fair', and the condition of the discontinuities plays the most important role in the classification of the rock mass. The results of the analysis obtained by the FLAC showed that the western part of the tunnel locating at 50m above the mine cavities could be affected by subsidence associated with a considerable deformation, the magnitude of which might depend on the properties of the rock mass.
Rock-support Interaction behavior for Ground Condition based on Numerical Modelling
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 403~409
It is very important to control the final load that acts on a support system, in tunnel engineering. A reliable analysis is needed to carry out technically reasonable design and safe construction. Also, a series of procedures of construction and the rock-support interaction behavior must be considered. Most existing studies have been performed as the limited analysis based on the simplified assumption. In this study, through the analysis of a circular tunnel using a 2-D finite differential code, the rock-support interaction behaviors in the variation of rock and stress conditions are analyzed and compared with the results from the closed form solutions. Consequently, more realistic rock-support interaction curves are obtained by including the effects of initial stresses and rock condition. These curves are very useful to predict the required support pressure in the initial design stage.
Comparison of Modelling Characteristics of Distinct Element Analysis Based on Implicit and Explicit Algorithm
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 410~417
The distinct element method has been effectively applied to the analysis of stability and behavior of jointed rock masses. In this paper the modelling characteristics of different types of distinct element model were investigated. Arch tunnel examples were chosen to compare the calculation results of two computer codes, NURBM and CBLOCK, where the former is based on implicit algorithm, and the other on explicit one. CBLOCK calculations show that joint properties are very important parameters in the stability analysis and that the joint stiffness ratio associated with joint configuration could be used as an indicator, whereas NURBM differ from that. Some other disagreements were also identified.
Development of Countermeasure Expert System for Tunneling Failure
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 418~429
Many Studies of tunnel and tunnelling safety have been developed continuously based on the increasing social interests in underground space since 1990's in Korea. Because the growth of population in metropolitan has been accelerated at a faster pace than the development of the cities, underground facilities have been created as a great extent in view of less land space available. In this study, a lot of types of tunnel failure were surveyed and the detail causes were studied after many cases of tunnel failure were collected. There were suggested brief countermeasure of tunnel failure through case study. An expert system was developed to predict the safety of tunnel and choose proper tunnel reinforcement system using fuzzy quantification theory and fuzzy inference rule based on tunnel information database. The comparison result between the predicted reinforcement system level and measured ones was very similar. In-situ data were obtained in three tunnel sites including subway tunnel under Han river. This system will be very helpful to make the most of in-situ data and suggest proper applicability of tunnel reinforcement system developing more resonable tunnel support method from dependance of some experienced experts for the absent of guide.
Stability Analysis of Open Pit Slopes in the Pasir Coal Field, Indonesia
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 430~440
A series of studies such as geological logging data analysis, detailed geological survey, rock mass evaluation, in-situ and laboratory tests, rock strength and mechanical properties of the rock were concerned. The stability of the slope were carried out inorder to design the pit slope and individual benches using the stereographic projection analysis and numerical methods in Roto Pit of Pasir coal field. The bedding plane was one of the major discontinuities in the Roto Pit and the dip of which is about 60
in the northern part and 83
in the southern part. The dip of bedding becomes steeper from north to south. The plane and toppling failures are presented in many slopes. In laboratory test the average uniaxial compressive strength of mudstone was 9MPa and that of weak sandstone was 10MPa. In-situ test showed that the rocks of Roto north mining area are mostly weak enough to be classified in grade from R2(weak) to R3(medium strong weak) and the coal is classified in grades from R1(Very weak) to R2(Weak). The detailed stability analysis were carried out on 4 areas of Roto north (east, west, south and north), and 2 areas of Roto south(east and west). In this paper, the minimum factor of safety was set to 1.2 which is a general criterion for open pit mines. Using the stereographic projection analysis and the limit equilibrium method, slope angles were calculated as 30∼36
for a factor of safety greater than 1.2. Then these results were re-evaluated by numerical analysis using FLAC. The final slope angles were determined by rational described above. A final slope of 34 degrees can guarantee the stability for the eastern part of the Roto north area, 33 degrees for the western part, 35 degrees for the northern part and 35 degrees for the southern part. For the Roto south area, 36 degrees was suggested for both sides of the pit. Once the pit slope is designed based on the stability analysis and the safety measures, the stability of slope should be checked periodically during the mining operations. Because the slope face will be exposed long time to the rain fall, a study such aspreventive measures against weathering and erosion is highly recommended to be implemented.
Three-dimensional Stability Analysis of A Large Underground Hall in Mined Area
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 441~446
Numerical analysis using FLAC3D has been conducted to estimate the stability of a large underground hall that is to be excavated in a mined area and constructed as an unit of a resort park. Numerical modelling is divided into two stages. The first stage is related to the analysis of the mechanical stability of the hall itself and the second to that of the influence of an adjacent mined cavity upon the hall. In the first stage, the stability of the hall is judged from the interpretation of numerical results in three respects: convergence of the unbalanced force of the model, occurrence of plastic zones and distribution of the displacement. In the second stage, variation of the stress state around the underground hall due to the existence of the cavity is compared to that in the case of the absence of the cavity. Through these analyses, it could be known that the large underground hall is not exposed to any mechanical problems and also not affected by the adjacent cavity.
A Numerical Study of Hydraulic Fractures Propagation with Rock Bridges
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 447~456
Rock bridge in rock masses can be considered as one of several types of opening-mode fractures, and also it has been known to have a great influence on the stability of structures in rock mass. In the beginning of researching a rock bridge it used to be studied only in characteristics of its behavior, as considering resistance of material itself. However the distribution pattern of rock bridges, which can affect the stability of rock structures, is currently researched with a fracture mechanical approach in numerical studies. For investigating the effect of rock bridges on the development pattern of hydraulic fractures, the author analyzed numerically the stress state transition in rock bridges and their phenomena with a different pattern of the rock bridge distributions. From the numerical studies, a two-crack configuration could be defined to be representative of the most critical conditions for rock bridges, only when cracks are systematic and same in their length and angle. Moreover, coalescence stresses and onset of propagation stresses could be known to increase with decreasing s/L ratio or increasing d/L ratio. The effect of pre-existing crack on hydraulic fracturing was studied also in numerical models. Different to the simple hydraulic fracturing modeling in which the fractures propagated exactly parallel to the maximum remote stress, the hydraulic fractures with pre-existing cracks did not propagate parallel to the maximum remote stress direction. These are representative of the tendency to change the hydraulic fractures direction because of the existence of pre-existing crack. Therefore s/L, d/L ratios will be identical as a function effective on hydraulic fractures propagation, that is, the K
value increase with decreasing s/L ratio or increasing d/L ratio and its magnification from onset to propagation increases with decreasing s/L ratio. The scanline is a commonly used method to estimate the fracture distribution on outcrops. The data obtained from the scanline method can be applied to the evaluation of stress field in rock mass.
The Behavior of the Cast-in-place Pile Socketed in Rock Considering Soil-Structure Interaction
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 457~468
The design values of rock socketed pile related with properties of rock mass are not clearly established. However, the drilled shafts socketed in rock are widely used as the foundation of large scaled structure. In this study, the characteristics of behavior of rock socketed pile is researched, and the properties of interface between pile and rock considering soil-structure interaction are evaluated for numerical modeling of rock socketed pile based on the previous researches. Based on the properties of interface and rock mass, the behaviors of rock socketed piles are numerically modeled and compared with field measurement. To verify the numerical analysis, a micro pile socketed in rock is modeled and the results of numerical analysis are compared with field measurement. The numerical results show a good agreement with field measured data, especially in terms of load transfer characteristics.
A Study on Development of Rock Blasting Design Program
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 469~474
In this study, RBD(Rock Blasting Design) program was developed to perform easily on plans of rock blasting. This program has abilities as follows, that is, the test blasting plan, the bench blasting plan, and the blasting vibration analysis. The value of geological property and blasting constants was offered by database, input value of variety constants repeatedly is planned out, faster and easier. And a value of input constant may be used by user for necessity.
Effect of Rock Mass Properties on the Blast Vibration by Taguchi method
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 475~480
The propagation of blast vibration and the damping characteristics depend on both the mechanical properties of rock mass and weight charge. In this study, the characteristics of propagation and damping were analyzed by FLAC. The construction site was the second Kwang-ju circulating road. Taguchi method which is one of experimental design methods was used for determination of input data and parameter levels. The results showed that rock density was the most dominant of variables being concerned in this study, which affect the propagation of blast vibration.
A Study on the Vibration Isolation by Line-drilling Holes
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 481~485
Vibration screening trench is very effective to reduce the ground vibration, but to construct the trench in the rock mass is not easy. Various line drilling methods have been tried to replace the trenching. In this study, UDEC was applied to simulate the screening effect of drilling holes in 2 dimensional ground model. Field measurement was conducted and compared to numerical analysis.
Transformation of Measured Blasting Vibration Data to Vibration Level by Digital Filter
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 10, issue 3, 2000, Pages 486~491
Blasting vibrations velocity had been used to design blasting pattern and predict damage-possibility of structures. As vibration levels are currently required to estimate the damage concerning human-body and livestock, so measured vibration velocities must be transformed into vibration levels. In this study, the digital filter program was developed to transform measured data into vibration levels. Simple harmonic vibrations and measured data obtain by Blastmate series (Instantel Inc.) were applied to the digital filter program. As a result, simple harmonic vibrations and measured data were successfully transformed into vibration levels using the developed program. Measured data from any instrument with ASCII output-function will similarly be transformed into level units.