Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Tunnel and Underground Space
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Rock Mechanics
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Dec 2001
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
Selecting the target year
Inference of RMR Value Using Fuzzy Set Theory and Neuro-Fuzzy Techniques
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 11, issue 4, 2001, Pages 289~300
In the design of tunnel, it contains inaccuracy of data, fuzziness of evaluation, observer error and so on. The face observation during tunnel excavation, therefore, plays an important role to raise stability and to reduce supporting cost. This study is carried out to minimize the subjectiveness of observer and to exactly evaluate the natural properties of ground during the face observation. For these purpose, fuzzy set theory and neuro-fuzzy techniques in artificial intelligent techniques are applied to the inference of the RMR value from the observation data. The correlation between original RMR vague and inferred RM
values from fuzzy set theory and neuro-fuzzy techniques is investigated using 46 data. The results show that good correlation between original RMR value and infected RM
value is observed when the correlation coefficients are ｜R｜=0.96 and ｜R｜=0.95 respectively. From these results, applicability of fuzzy set theory and neuro-fuzzy techniques to rock mats classification is proved to be sufficiently high enough. enough.
Fracture of Multiple Flaws in Uniaxial Compression
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 11, issue 4, 2001, Pages 301~310
Gypsum blocks with sixteen flaws have been prepared and tested in uniaxial compression. Results from these experiments are compared with observations from the same material with two and three flaws. The results indicate that the cracking pattern observed in specimens wish multiple flaws is analogous to the pattern obtained in specimens with two and three flaws such as initiation and propagation of wing, and secondary cracks and coalescence. Wing cracks initiate at an angle with the flaw and propagate in a stable manner towards the direction of maximum compression. Secondary cracks initiate and propagate in a stable manner. As the load is increased, secondary cracks may propagate in an unstable manner and produce coalescence. Two types of secondary cracks are observed: quasi-coplanar, and oblique secondary cracks. Coalescence is produced by the linkage of two flaws: wing and/or secondary cracks. From the sixteen flaws test, four types of coalescence are observed. Observed types of coalescence and initiation stress of wing and secondary crackle depend on flaw geometries, such as spacing, continuity, flaw inclination angle, ligament angle, and steppings.
A Study on Graphical Determination of RQD variation in 3-D Space and Its Application into Field Survey Data
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 11, issue 4, 2001, Pages 311~318
RQD is used to evaluate the degree of fracture in the rock mass and is also used as input into rock mass classification scheme, such as RMR and Q-system. However there are some drawbacks of the RQD caused by anisotropy and calculation length. Thus it is important to understand the variation of RQD in 3-D space in order to evaluate the properties of rock mass. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the distribution of RQD in the equal-angle stereo net, to investigate the effects of scanline length and joint frequency and to inquire the effect on the selection of rock mass strength parameters in the numerical analysis. Analysis has been extended to field joint survey data using same method. The results can be applied to contribute for more accurate interpretation of the results of engineering geological survey for better design and construction work.
On-site Application of a Vehicle Tunnel Ventilation Simulator
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 11, issue 4, 2001, Pages 319~327
Introduction of new design tools has been required to optimally design and operate the ventilation system of long vehicle tunnels.. The demand has led to wide spread use of the simulation technique throughout the would to analysis the dynamic relationship among the variables associated with vehicle tunnel ventilation. This paper aims at performing on-site study at local tunnels to test the applicability of NETVEN, a simulation model vehicle tunnel ventilation. The study was carried out at four urban as well as highway tunnels model of vehicle tunnel ventilation. The study was carried out at four urban as well as highway tunnels employing different ventilation systems as well as traffic methods. There were some discrepancies sound between the simulation output and measurements and the following four factors are considered to mainly cause those disagreement. (1) The real situation shows distinctive transient and retarding characteristics with respect to air flow and contaminant dispersion, while ventilation forces are not steady-state and in particular those traffic and climatic variables show significant instantaneous variation. (3) Near the exit portal, the CO levels show bigger differences. The general trend is that data with higher CO concentrations carry bigger discrepancies. Turbulent diffusion is though to be the main reason for it and also contribute to the fact hat the highest CO concentrations are found at the locations somewhat inward, not at the exit portals. (4) Higher traffic rate results in higher discrepancies of ventilation velocity. Along with the exhaust characteristics, the vehicle aerodynamic characteristics need to be studied continuously in order to reduce the velocity disagreement.
A Theoretical and Numerical Study on the Effects of Prereinforcement of Tunnel Face
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 11, issue 4, 2001, Pages 328~338
Horizontal tunnel face reinforcement using Fiber Glass Tube(FGT) or steel pipe and pipe roofing techniques are frequently used when the stability of newly excavated tunnel is not guaranteed. However, the mechanical behavior of tunnels using these techniques has not been fully understood so far. Therefore, engineering rule of thumb is commonly applied during designing procedure, and it is difficult to adopt these techniques rationally. In this study, the application of a simplified numerical analysis method based on composite mechanics is verified. The mean field theory and the strain energy theory are used to obtain the equivalence elastic moduli of reinforced soil and rock. Furthermore, a parametric study on the deformational behavior of tunnel face is performed for various patterns of prereinforcement.
Ground-Tunnel Interaction Effect Depending on the Ground Stiffness
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 11, issue 4, 2001, Pages 339~343
Shield tunnel having circular section located in the soil or soft rock layer is liable to deform in such a way that its two diagonal diameters crossing each other expand and contract alternately during earthquakes. Based on this knowledge, the ground-tunnel interaction effect for this particular vibration mode is investigated. The ground surrounding a tunnel is assumed to be a homogeneous elastic medium. The bonded boundary condition on the ground-tunnel interface is considered. This suggests a firm bond between the ground and the tunnel lining. As Poisson's ratio and stiffness of the ground increases, the strain induced within the tunnel lining increases.
Numerical Simulation of Tunnel Blasting
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 11, issue 4, 2001, Pages 344~351
In the tunnelling by blasting, the calculations of charge weight and the estimations of blasting effect have been simply carried out by empirical formulas. Also, it has been rare to consider the impact energy of blasting in numerical analyses. Thus in this study a numerical modeling technique of blasting load is developed and used with the 2 dimensional distinct element method(DEM) to consider the nonlinear behaviour of discontinuous underground structures. TD examine and verify its applicability of the numerical model to actual problems, a blasting of tunnel under an embankment is numerically analysed with DEM. It is examined that the behavior of circumference structures, the displacements of above- and under-ground structures, and the propagation of particle velocities can be known by this numerical analysis. As a result, the blasting load model, proposed by this study, can be applied to actual problems. This model applied with DEM can be used in the examination of structural stability.
Measurement of Mode I Fracture Toughness of Rocks with Temperature and Moisture Conditions at Low Temperature
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 11, issue 4, 2001, Pages 352~361
Mode I fracture toughness (
) of the frozen rocks and that of the frozen-thawed rocks were obtained by using BDT and CCNBD specimens. The test temperatures ranged from +
. Wet and air-dry specimens of granite and sandstone were used in order to investigate the effect of water and porosity on fracture toughness. The SEM images of the frozen-thawed rocks were also analysed to check the density of thermal cracks. The
of the frozen rocks increased as the test temperature went down. The rate of increase was higher in wet condition than in dry condition and the rate of increase for wet granite was higher than that for wet sandstone. The
of the frozen-thawed rocks varied within 15% from the
of the rocks at room temperature. After one freeze-thaw process, thermal crack occurred in granite but no thermal cracks occurred in sandstone. And the crack density was increased as the temperature went down.n.
A Study on the Vibration Isolation Effect of Wave Barrier in Frozen Soils
Heo, Yeong ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 11, issue 4, 2001, Pages 362~367
The stiff top layer in a soil profile, which can happen in winter, may change the isolation effect of the wave barrier. The research scope of this paper is the investigation of the propagation of surface waves in layered soil with a stiff layer on its top, and the isolation effect of the solid stiff wave barrier. The investigations have been performed numerically by the Boundary-Element Method as a two-dimensional problem. A strip foundation vibrated harmonically in vertical direction was considered as the vibration source. Three soil profiles, a homogeneous half-space, two profiles with different thickness of stiff top layer, with two different types of wave barriers were investigated. The profiles with a stiff top layer show considerable reductions of the amplitude of the vibration in comparison to the homogeneous soil profile. The layered soil profiles with a stiff top layer do not show wave propagation velocities as high as they are expected from the material properties. Furthermore the vibration amplitudes in a frozen soil are much smaller with distance than in a non-frozen soil.