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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Tunnel and Underground Space
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Rock Mechanics
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Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 13, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
The Effect of Cement Milk Grouting on the Deformation Behavior of Jointed Rock Mass
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 13, issue 5, 2003, Pages 331~343
Though the Grouting has been in use for a long time, it is still regarded as an technique rather than engineering. The study of ground improvement by grouting is rare especially in jointed rock mass. In this study, biaxial compression tests were performed in the jointed rock mass models with .ough surfBce joints assembled with blocks before and after grouting. The load-deformation curves of the jointed rock masses showed a non-linear relationship before grouting but showed a relatively linear deformaion behavior after grouting. Improvement ratio (deformation modulus after grouting/deformation modulus before grouting) decreased with increasing joint spacing and lateral stress. Improvement ratio decreased exponentially with increasing deformation modulus of the rock mass model before grouting. Three-dimensional FDM analysis was performed to a highway tunnel case using experimental data of grouted rock. The convergence of the tunnel predicted after grouting by the numerical modelling coincided with those attained from the field measurement.
A study of the Sampling Bias Correction on Joint Data from 1D Survey Line
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 13, issue 5, 2003, Pages 344~352
The procedures to correct sampling biases for discontinuity data obtained from 1D survey line(borehole or scanline) is addressed. The Probability of intersection between the survey line and a circular discontinuity is considered, and a correction far orientation bias is developed assuming discontinuities as equivalent circular disks. The correction incorporates the effect of the angle between the direction of survey line and each discontinuity plane belonging to the discontinuity cluster, size of each discontinuity and length of the survey line. A procedure is provided to estimate unbiased discontinuity spacing parameters using the discontinuity spacing data based on the measurements carried out on a finite length of the survey line.
A Case Study for Evaluating Groundwater Condition in RMR and Q Rock Mass Classification on Bard Rock Tunnel
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 13, issue 5, 2003, Pages 353~361
For RMR and Q rock mass classification at the design and construction stage, evaluation of groundwater condition is usually based upon the experience due to the restriction of available methods. Based on the results of Taejon LNG Pilot Cavern which acquire joint water pressure, inflow rate of ground water and hydraulic conductivity model, estimates from numerical analysis and analytical solutions were compared to verify each evaluation method. As the result, the Raymer(2001) approach was found to be efficient for estimating inflow rate and corresponding value.
Mechanical Characteristics of Cementing Plane in Concrete Repair under Various Cementing Conditions
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 13, issue 5, 2003, Pages 362~372
Since the occurrence of Portland cement, a great number of concrete structures were constructed. But the concrete structures have their own life times, which inevitably demand repairing treatments, especially on their surface parts. Currently many various methods have been developed and are being applied fer this purpose. In this study, a newly developed method using pneumatic chipping machine and anchor pin was adopted far repair of old concrete structure and the mechanical characteristics of cementing plane between existing and new concrete were tested. Comparing the removal methods for the decrepit part of existing concrete using pneumatic chipping machine and hydraulic breaker, the peak cohesion was higher when using chipping machine at the cementing plane. On the other hand, the residual cohesion was higher for the case of breaker. Step shaped chipping on the cementing plane was effective in increasing peak cohesion, which results 14% increase in the case of 30 mm step height and 22% in 50 mm height when compared with planar chipping plane. The use of anchor pin increased the residual cohesion, which restricted shear slip on the cementing plane after peak shear stress and the tensile strength of 32% compared with that of non-anchored case. According to the combined effect of step shaped chipping of 30 mm and anchor pin with an interval of 15 cm, the peak cohesion reached up to 77% and the residual cohesion showed 180% of the ones of the fresh concrete, respectively.
Rock Joint Trace Detection Using Image Processing Technique
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 13, issue 5, 2003, Pages 373~388
The investigation on the rock discontinuity geometry has been usually undergone by direct measurement on the rock exposures. But this sort of field work has disadvantages, which we, for example, restriction of surveying areas and consuming excessive times and labors. To cover these kinds of disadvantages, image processing could be regarded as an altemative way, with additional advantages such as automatic and objective tools when used under adequate computerized algorithm. This study was focused on the recognition of the rock discontinuities captured in the image of rock exposure by digital camera and the production of the discontinuity map automatically. The whole process was written using macro commands builtin image analyzer, ImagePro Plus. ver 4.1(Media Cybernetic). The procedure of image processing developed in this research could be divided with three steps, which are enhancement, recognition and extraction of discontinuity traces from the digital image. Enhancement contains combining and applying several filters to remove and relieve various types of noises from the image of rock surface. For the next step, recognition of discontinuity traces was executed. It used local topographic features characterized by the differences of gray scales between discontinuity and rock. Such segments of discontinuity traces extracted from the image were reformulated using an algorithm of computer decision-making criteria and linked to form complete discontinuity traces. To verify the image processing algorithms and their sequences developed in this research, discontinuity traces digitally photographed on the rock slope were analyzed. The result showed about 75～80% of discontinuities could be detected. It is thought to be necessary that the algorithms and computer codes developed in this research need to be advanced further especially in combining digital filters to produce images to be more acceptable for extraction of discontinuity traces and setting seed pixels automatically when linking trace segments to make a complete discontinuity trace.
Modification of the Cubic law for a Sinusoidal Aperture using Perturbation Approximation of the Steady-state Navier-Stokes Equations
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 13, issue 5, 2003, Pages 389~396
It is shown that the cubic law can be modified regarding the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations by using perturbation approximation method for a sinusoidal aperture variation. In order to adopt the perturbation theory, the sinusoidal function needs to be non-dimensionalized for the amplitude and wavelength. Then, the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations can be solved by expanding the non-dimensionalized stream function with respect to the small value of the parameter (the ratio of the mean aperture to the wavelength), together with the continuity equation. From the approximate solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, the basic cubic law is successfully modified for the steady-state condition and a sinusoidal aperture variation. A finite difference method is adopted to calculate the pressure within a fracture model, and the results of numerical experiments show the accuracy and applicability of the modified cubic law. As a result, it is noted that the modified cubic law, suggested in this study, will be used for the analysis of fluid flow through aperture geometry of sinusoidal distributions.
Probabilistic Displacement Analysis Using Stochastic Finite Element Method
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 13, issue 5, 2003, Pages 397~402
Generally it is likely that rock mass properties are expressed not by a mean value but by values with variation due to its characteristic uncertainty. This characteristic is one of the most important parts for the design of undergound structures, but yet to be fully examined. Stochastic finite element method (SFEM) is contrary to deterministic finite element method in its concept as the former has been developed in order to take the randomness of structural systems into account. Using SFEM, the response variability of structural system can be obtained and it leads probabilistic stability of structure to be analyzed. In this study, displacement response variability of circular opening with hydrostatic stress field are analyzed in terms of rock mass properties having a certain mean and a standard deviation using the SFEM. The analyzed response variability shows that the necessity of probabilistic stability analysis of underground structures using reliable mean value and standard deviation of deformation modulus.
Numerical Analysis on Controlled Tunnel Blasting by Heck Charge
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 13, issue 5, 2003, Pages 403~411
Controlled tunnel blasting by deck charge was suggested and simulated by PFC and FEM analyses. Analyzed results showed that suggested method is efficient in fragmentation and able to decrease in vibration level because of decreased amount of charge per delay and dispersion of deck charge. This phenomena was explained by failure mechanism and proved that it can be successfully applied to tunnel blasting.