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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Tunnel and Underground Space
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Rock Mechanics
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Dec 2005
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Oct 2005
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Aug 2005
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Jun 2005
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Apr 2005
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Feb 2005
Selecting the target year
Convergence Monitoring Technologies for Traffic Tunnels - State of the Art
Chung So-Keul ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 15, issue 1, 2005, Pages 1~8
Measurement of convergence was/is carried out manually throughout the world for tunnels under construction. However, manual method has certain limitations in terms of applicability for the tunnels in operation. This paper describes state of the art of convergence monitoring systems which are available for measuring displacement of existing tunnels. These technologies are analyzed as follows: 1 The Sofo system using the fiber optic sensors has been applied to the stress measurement of the tunnel lining. It has not yet been used for the monitoring of tunnel convergence because of its cost and reliability 2. A TPMS(Tunnel Profile Monitoring System) using tilt sensors and displacement sensors is used for the convergence monitoring of highway tunnels, subway tunnels and underground ducts. 3. A BCS(Bassett Convergence System) using a pair of tilt sensors can be used for the convergence monitoring of tunnels, however the accuracy of the measurement has to be improved because it uses AC input voltage during data acquisition. The system has to be validated before it can be applied to the tunnels in operation. Convergence monitoring systems using TPMS and/or BCS are recommended to be evaluated and improved by a series or tests in tunnels under construction in order to be applied to the main measuring section and the tunnels in operation.
Recent Issues in the Fire-Induced Damage to Underground Structures
Chang Soo-Ho ; Lee Gyu-Phi ; Bae Gyu-Jin ; Choi Soon-Wook ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 15, issue 1, 2005, Pages 9~21
TBM Project in Norway
Park Yeonjun ; Park Chulwhan ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 15, issue 1, 2005, Pages 22~27
This paper presents an article explaining a TBM project overall in Norway. The paper which published in Norwegian TBM Tunnelling by Norwegian Soil and Rock Eng. Assoc. in 1998, contains most of the items considered in TBM tunnelling. New powerplants, tunnels and dams have been built at Meraker in Central Norway. A total of 44 km of tunnels with cross sections varying from
have been excavated in hard rock formation. Tunnel of 10 km with the 3.5 m diameter was excavated by a HP TBM in a year. his project gives the special attention to the TBM drive and equipment selection, including planning, site organization and performance.
Visual Interpretation about the Underground Information using Borehole Camera
Matsui Kikuo ; Jeong Yun-Young ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 15, issue 1, 2005, Pages 28~38
According to the recent development of measurement system utilizing one or a set of boreholes, visualization of the explored underground became to be a major issue. It induced even the introduction of monitoring apparatuses on the borehole wall with multi-function tool, but the usage of these was often limited by where is unfavorable rock condition and a few of engineers can approach. And so, a portable type of borehole camera with only the essential function has been investigated and a few of commercial models about this is recently being applied into the field condition. This paper was based on the monitoring results obtained using a commercial model by Dr. Nakagawa. Discontinuities in rock mass were the topic for the visualization, and it was studied how can visualize their three dimensional distribution and what a numerical formulation is needed and how to understand the visualization result. The numerical formulation was based on the geometric correlation between the dip direction / dip of discontinuous plane and the trend / plunge of borehole, a set of the equation of a plane was induced. As field application of this into two places, it is found that the above visualization methodology will be especially an useful geotechlical tool for analyzing the local distribution of discontinuities.
Comparison of the RMR Ratings by Tunnel Face Mappings and Horizontal Pre-borings at the Fault Zone in a Tunnel
Kim Chee-Hwan ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 15, issue 1, 2005, Pages 39~46
The RMR ratings, one by horizontal pre-boring in a tunnel and another by tunnel face mapping, are compared at the fault zone in a tunnel. Generally. the horizontal pre-borings were so effective as to forecast reasonably the supporting patterns after tunnel excavation. But the maximum difference in RMR ratings estimated by two methods was about 50 at a certain section of a tunnel. The differences were analyzed on each parameter of the RMR system: the rating differences were 24 in the condition of discontinuities, 15 in the RQD and 13 in the uniaxial compressive strength of rock. To minimize the gap between RMR by pre-borings and by face mappings, it is necessary to select the horizontal pre-boring location where tunnel stability could be critical and to evaluate in detail the sub-parameters of the condition of discontinuities.
The Application of Genetic Algorithm for the Identification of Discontinuity Sets
Sunwoo Choon ; Jung Yong-Bok ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 15, issue 1, 2005, Pages 47~54
One of the standard procedures of discontinuity survey is the joint set identification from the population of field orientation data. Discontinuity set identification is fundamental to rock engineering tasks such as rock mass classification, discrete element analysis, key block analysis. and discrete fracture network modeling. Conventionally, manual method using contour plot had been widely used for this task, but this method has some short-comings such as yielding subjective identification results, manual operations, and so on. In this study, the method of discontinuity set identification using genetic algorithm was introduced, but slightly modified to handle the orientation data. Finally, based on the genetic algorithm, we developed a FORTRAN program, Genetic Algorithm based Clustering(GAC) and applied it to two different discontinuity data sets. Genetic Algorithm based Clustering(GAC) was proved to be a fast and efficient method for the discontinuity set identification task. In addition, fitness function based on variance showed more efficient performance in finding the optimal number of clusters when compared with Davis - Bouldin index.
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Longitudinal Ventilation on the Variation of Burning Rate in Tunnel Fires
Yang Seung Shin ; Kim Sung Chan ; Ryou Hong Sun ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 15, issue 1, 2005, Pages 55~60
In this study, the 1/20 reduced-scale experiments using Froude scaling were conducted to investigate the effect of longitudinal ventilation on the variation of burning rate in tunnel fires. The methanol square pool fires with heat release rate ranging from 3.57 kW to 10.95 kW were used. The burning rate of fuel was obtained by measured mass using load cell and temperature distribution were measured by K-type theomocouples in order to investigate smoke movement. The wind tunnel was connected with one side of the tested tunnel, and logitudinal ventilation velocity in the tested tunnel was controlled by power of the wind tunnel. In methanol fire case, the increase in ventilation velocity decreased the turning rate due to the direct cooling of fire plume. For the same dimensionless velocity(V), homing rate decreased as the size of pool fire increased.
Experimental Study on the Interval of Emergency Exits in Long Traffic Tunnels
Yoo Yongho ; Yoon Sungwook ; Kim Jin ; Yoon Chanhoon ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 15, issue 1, 2005, Pages 61~70
The objective of this study was to analyze the smoke movement for the case of fire and to determine the interval between emergency exits in long tunnels. Based on Froude modeling, the 1/50 scaled model tunnel (20 m long) was constructed by acrylic tubes and tests were carried out systematically. From the strong relationship between CO propagation time and distance through the tunnel, it was found that the optimal escaping time was 6 minutes in case of 20MW fire. But, regarding passengers' psychological state under fire, another one minute of delay time should be considered. Therefore, the total escaping time should be estimated by 5 minutes. The interval between the emergency exits for vehicle passengers was calculated by 250 m with respect to the 5 minute of escaping time.
Stability Analysis on the Intersection Area of Subway Tunnels by Observational Method
Kim Chee-Hwan ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 15, issue 1, 2005, Pages 71~79
The stability of the intersection area of two tunnels is analyzed by observational method. The depth from ground surface to the intersected area is shallow and the geology around the area consists of soil and/or weathered rock. The tunnel is supported by reinforced protective umbrella method with 12 m long 3-layer steel-pipes and the intersected area is additionally reinforced with 6 m long rockbolts. The measured displacements are converged and mechanical stability of the intersected area of two tunnels is confirmed; tunnel arch settles to 6-7 mm at the crown and the sidewalls converges to about 5 mm. So based on the displacement measurements, the supporting system for the tunnel intersection proves to be effective to not only reduce the deformation of tunnels but also maintain the stability of tunnels.