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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Tunnel and Underground Space
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Rock Mechanics
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
The State of the Technology: Application of Cementitious Materials to Deep Repository Tunnels for Radioactive Waste Disposal
Kim, Jin-Seop ; Kwon, Sang-Ki ; Cho, Won-Jin ; Cho, Gye-Chun ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 19, issue 5, 2009, Pages 373~387
Considering the current construction technology and research status of deep repository tunnels for radioactive waste disposal, it is inevitable to use cementitious materials in spite of serious concern about their long-term environmental stability. Thus, it is an emerging task to develop low pH cementitious materials. This study reviews the state of the technology on low pH cements developed in Sweden, Switzerland, France, and Japan as well as in Finland which is constructing a real deep repository site for high-level radioactive waste disposal. Considering the physical and chemical stability of bentonite which acts as a buffer material, a low pH cement limits to
and pozzolan-type admixtures are used to lower the pH of cement. To attain this pH requirement, silica fume, which is one of the most promising admixtures, should occupy at least 40 wt% of total dry materials in cement and the Ca/Si ratio should be maintained below 0.8 in cement. Additionally, selective super-plasticizer needs to be used because a high amount of water is demanded from the use of a large amount of silica fume.
Reinforcing Effect of Pre-Tensioned Rock Bolts in the Jointed Rocks Condition
An, Joung-Hwan ; Lee, Sang-Duk ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 19, issue 5, 2009, Pages 388~396
Rock bolt is one of the most important supports for tunnelling to prevent excessive ground relaxation at the primary tunnel excavation stage. It forms a ground arch band by confining the ground around a tunnel. Rock bolt has various effects, such as support or hanging effect, internal pressure effect, arching effect, ground improvement effect etc. Most studies on rock bolt focused on the concept of support, but only a few researches on the ground reinforcing effect by pre-tensioning a rock bolts. In this study, large scale model tests are performed to investigate the ground reinforcing effect of rock bolts for regularly jointed rocks. Simple beam model was built to find out the reinforcing effect of jointed rocks, which was reinforced by pre-tensioned rock bolts. Settlement of model beam was analyzed through measuring its sagging for various installation intervals.
Execution Case Study on the Explosive Demolition of a Large-Section RC Special Structure
Park, Hoon ; Suk, Chul-Gi ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 19, issue 5, 2009, Pages 397~406
Recently, the number of industrial structures that must be demolished due to structural deterioration and unsatisfactory functional conditions has been increased. To minimize environmental hazardous factors created during the process of demolition, the explosive demolition method has been applied increasingly. This execution case was intended to describe an application of the explosive demolition method to the demolition of a Crusher & Screen structure, which was a large-section reinforced concrete special structure. It was deemed necessary due to its structural deterioration and unsatisfactory functional condition. Various pre-weakening processes and blasting patterns were applied to the large-section reinforced concrete members, and to reduce blasting vibration and impact vibration, time intervals were established for blasting in the same column and for blasting between blasting blocks. By applying the explosive demolition method to the demolition of a large-section reinforced concrete special structure, the explosive demolition was completed safely and efficiently, without causing any damage to surrounding facilities.
Investigation of Indicator Kriging for Evaluating Proper Rock Mass Classification based on Electrical Resistivity and RMR Correlation Analysis
Lee, Kyung-Ju ; Ha, Hee-Sang ; Ko, Kwang-Buem ; Kim, Ji-Soo ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 19, issue 5, 2009, Pages 407~420
In this study geostatistical technique using indicator kriging was performed to evaluate the optimal rock mass classification by integrating the various geophysical information such as borehole data and geophysical data. To get the optimal kriging result, it is necessary to devise the suitable technique to integrate the hard (borehole) and soft (geophysical) data effectively. Also, the model parameters of the variogram must be determined as a priori procedure. Iterative non-linear inversion method was implemented to determine the model parameters of theoretical variogram. To verify the algorithm, behaviour of object function and precision of convergence were investigated, revealing that gradient of the range is extremely small. This algorithm for the field data was applied to a mountainous area planned for a large-scale tunneling construction. As for a soft data, resistivity information from AMT survey is incorporated with RMR information from borehole data, a sort of hard data. Finally, RMR profiles were constructed and attempted to be interpreted at the tunnel elevation and the upper 1D level.
Suggestions of a New Method for Schmidt Hammer Blowing and Data Analysis on Rocks (II)
Min, Tuk-Ki ; Moon, Jong-Kyu ; Lee, Sang-Il ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 19, issue 5, 2009, Pages 421~431
As an indirect method, Schmidt hammer test has been employed to investigate correlation between uniaxial compressive strengths and blow values. To conduct the experiment, researchers have examined 11 types (1,417 blocks) of rock, which include igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks in Korea. Every kind of rocks shows different blow behaviors in which correlations of rocks have been analyzed, thus leading to results in new formulas for strength predictions. Cross-check for reliability demonstrates high confidence. Newly proposed test method is highly valued for future research on Korean rocks.
A Study on the Dynamic Amplification Characteristics of the Domestic Seismic Observation Sites using Shear- and Coda-Wave
Kim, Jun-Kyoung ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 19, issue 5, 2009, Pages 432~439
For more reliable estimation of seismic source, attenuation properties and dynamic ground property, site amplification function should be considered. Among various estimation methods, this study used the Nakamura's method (1989) for estimating site amplification characteristics. This method was originally applied to the surface waves of background noise and therefore there are some limitations in applying to general wave energy. However, recently this method has been extended and applied to the S wave energy successfully. This study applied the method to S wave and Coda wave energy, which is equivalent to the backscattered S wave energy. We used more than 60 observed ground motions from 5 earthquakes which were occurred recently, with magnitude range from 3.6 to 5.1. Each station showed characteristic site amplification property in low-, high- and resonance frequencies. Some of the stations showed as high as 4 times of site amplification in the range of specific frequencies, which may imply abnormal small scale geologic strata below the station or development of various trapped modes in the basin structure. Moreover, removal of site amplification can give us more reliable seismic source and attenuation parameters, addition to the seismic hazard estimation.
Numerical Analysis on Fragmentation Mechanism by Indentation of Disc Cutter in a Rock Specimen with a Single Joint
Lee, Seung-Joong ; Choi, Sung-O. ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 19, issue 5, 2009, Pages 440~449
LCM test is one of the most powerful and reliable methods of experiment for the cutter head design and the performance prediction of TBM. In many cases, however, the predicted design model can be directly applied to the field design, because this test may have an uppermost limit in preparation and/or transportation of the large size rock samples and the test for the jointed rock mass is not easy. When the proper and reasonable numerical modeling is considered to overcome this limit, the most adequate cutter head design for TBM could be presented without any complicate preconsideration in the field. In this study, the crack propagation patterns dependent on the contact point of disc cutter and the angle of rock joint are analyzed for the rock specimen with a single joint using the UDEC. The authors could derive the appropriate contact points of disc cutters and their space with respect to the joint angle in rock mass thru the numerical analysis.
Behavioral Characteristics of Rocks on Indirect Tests
Min, Tuk-Ki ; Moon, Jong-Kyu ; Ro, Jai-Sool ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 19, issue 5, 2009, Pages 450~462
To analyze the behavioral characteristics of rocks on indirect tests and uniaxial compressive strength, researchers have investigated 1417 pieces of rock block, which include igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks in Korea. The same behavioral characteristics have been shown in every type of sedimentary rock and in the same species of rock in the case of Brazilian strength application. This suggests that correlations of rocks for geological considerations can lead to high reliability of the experimental results in case of an indirect method.
Application of Fuzzy Reasoning Method for Prediction of Subsidence Occurrences in Abandoned Mine Area
Choi, Sung-O. ; Kim, Jae-Dong ; Choi, Gwang-Su ;
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 19, issue 5, 2009, Pages 463~472
Many old domestic mines were excavated with the room and pillar method or the sublevel caving method and they involve the great possibility of surface subsidence, especially in the shallow depth mines. In most of these cases, the mine roadways and openings are very irregular in shape and the information about the local geology is uncertain. Consequently it is not simple to standardize the estimation method for the possibility of subsidence, especially the sinkhole subsidence. In this study, the fuzzy reasoning method has been applied for development of estimating the possibility of subsidence occurrence in abandoned mine area. This method has the advantage in producing the reliable estimation results with a simple performance procedure even when the precise information on the local geology and mining conditions is rare. For the verification of applicability of this method, the developed method has been applied to Kumho mine in Bonghwa, Kyungbook province and the Choong-ju mine in Iryu, Choongbook province where the surface subsidence occurred already.