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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Tunnel and Underground Space
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Rock Mechanics
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 4, Issue 3 - Dec 1994
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Sep 1994
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Apr 1994
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A Theoretical and Numerical Study on Channel Flow in Rock Joints and Fracture Networks
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 4, issue 1, 1994, Pages 1~16
The study on the flow characteristics and analysis of groundwater in discontinuous rock mass is very important, since the water inflow into the underground opening during excavation induces serious stability and environmental problems. To investigate the flow through single rock joint, the effect of various aperture distribution on the groundwater flow has been analyzed. Observed through the analysis is the "channel flow", the phenomenon that the flow is dominant along the path of large aperture for given joint. The equivalent hydraulic conductivity is estimated and verified through the application of the joint network analysis for 100 joint maps generated statistically. Both the analytic aproach based on isotropic continuum premise and the joint network analysis are tested and compared analyzing the gorundwater inflow for underground openings of different sizes and varying joint density. The joint network analysis is considered better to reflect the geometric properties of joint distribution in analyzing the groundwater flow.ater flow.
A Back-Analysis of Tunnels in Multi-Layered Underground Structures
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 4, issue 1, 1994, Pages 17~23
This study consists of two procedures on back analysis and forward analysis which is a basic tool of the former. For a safe and economical construction of underground structures, it is required to identify the structural parameters and analyze the structural behavior as exactly as possible. In this paper, a boundary element method to analyze the behavior of multi-alyered underground structures is studied, in which body forces and initial stresses are considered. That is, each layer is discritized into subregions using infinite fundamental solutions, and terms of body forces and initial stresses are transformed into boundary integral where the applied direct integral method is used. And the system of equations containing body forces and initial stresses are considered. That is, each layer is discritized into subregions using infinite fundamental solutions, and terms of body forces and initial stresses are transformed into boundary integral where the applied direct integral method is used. And the system of equations containing body forces and initial stresses are composed, then the method to solve unknowns is used with applying compatibility and equilibrium conditions between interfaces. As well, the direct search method is applied in back analysis problems. By Powell's method as a technique to search unknown parameters, assuming displacements calculated from boundary element analysis as in-situ displacements, elastic moduli and initial stresses are presumed. As consequences of this study, the results of boundary element analysis of the behavior of multilayered structure considering body forces and initial stresses are agreed with those of finite element analysis. And results of back analysis of elastic moduli and initial stresses in each layers are agreed with exact values with a little difference. Therefore, it is known that this study can be efficiently applied for analyzing the behavior of underground structures including back analysis problems.
Groundwater Flow model of Drawdown and Recovery Due to Watertight Tunnel Excavation and Design Example for Lining
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 4, issue 1, 1994, Pages 24~30
Although a dry-system tunnel is not good for reasons fo economy and construction, it has been applied to some tunnels under construction owing to the advantages of good long-term maintenance of tunnel, prevention of consolidation settlement due to the drawdown of groundwater, preservation of the ecosystem, cutailment of operation cost, and so on. The stability of groundwater and the change of the applied water pressure after water proofing were analysed by the finite element method. Using this result, an example of designing the secondary lining for the dry-system tunnel which is to be constructed in low-permeability hard rock was presented.
Effects of Artificial Vibrations on Strength and Physical Properties of Curing Concrete
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 4, issue 1, 1994, Pages 31~37
The effects of blasting and ground vibratons on curing concrete have not been well studied. As a results unrealistic and costly ground vibration constraints have been placed on blasting and piling when it occurs in the vicinity of curing concrete. To study the effects of ground vibrations, a shaking table was made to produce peak particle velocities in the nearly same frequency range as found in construction blasting. Concrete blocks of 33.3X27.7X16.2cm were molded and placed on the shaking table. Different sets of concrete blocks were subjected to peak vibrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10cm/sec. The impulses were applied at two hour intervals for thirty seconds. Along with unvibrated concrete blocks, the vibrated concrete samples with 60.3mm in diameters were measured for elastic moduli, sonic velocity, tensile and uniaxial compressive strength. Test results showed that the vibrations in curing concrete generally have effects on the uniaxial compressive strength or physical properties of the concrete.
Blast Design of Hilly Rock Excavation Adjacent to Structures and Facilities
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 4, issue 1, 1994, Pages 38~46
This paper concerns the design of blasts adjacent to structures and facilities. In order to investigate the site characteristics, measurements of in-situ wave propagation and laboratory tests of rock cores taken from the boreholes were carried out. Effects of rock media and delay intervals on ground vibration levels were identified from over sixty measurements of three times of test blasts. For practical use in the field, an empirical propagation equation was derived so as to reflect the characteristics of rock media and delay effects. Safe limits of vibration level for structures were conservatively established based on various suggested criteria. Safe limits for facilities were adopted so that vibration levels induced by blasting should not exceed the allowable limits specified in the manufacturer's installation condition. Suggested were blast pattern and operation to enhance the rock fracturing and to reduce the ground vibration levels under the restricted conditions.
Norwegian Method of Tunnelling
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 4, issue 1, 1994, Pages 47~54
NATM has been applied most of tunnel design and construction in Korea these days. But, if you observe the tunnel designing method and construction conditions, you can see that the NATM isn's usually the most suitable to Korean geology. Also most of engineers feel that it is necessary to understand the NATM correctly adn to introduce another tunnelling principle which can be applied more economically and safely. So, we'd like to introduce a new tunnelling concept. Norwegian Method of Tunnelling(NMT) by comparing the NATM. The main character of NMT is that the forward prediction of conditions and the support of tunnel is done through geological investigation in details. And it can be compared with NATM, in which the support pattern is decided by monitoring of tunnel deformation on the construction.
Estimation of in-situ Stresses and the Effect of a Preexisting Inclined Fracture by Hydraulic Fracturing
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 4, issue 1, 1994, Pages 55~62
The hydraulic fracturing in a field site was performed for the measurement of in-situ stresses. For the estimation of the effect of a preexisting inclined fracture, the test on a preexisting fracture zone was also conducted. From the measurements at three shallow depths, the ratios of max. to min. horizontal stress showed the range of 1.19-1.56 and the K values showed the range of 2.62-3.86. In case of a preexisting fracture with the inclination of 15 degrees, the stresses calculated as upper bound values by considering it. It seemed from this that the inclination less than 15 degrees had small effect on the stress calculation.
The Study on the Prediction and Measurement for the Behaviour of Structures and Weathered Soil & Rock in Excavating the Ventilation Shaft
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 4, issue 1, 1994, Pages 63~76
This paper discusses contents of the existing design, the behaviours prediction on the strut and retaining wall around subsurfaces, and also evaluates the measured results in comparison with the management criterion during excavation period of ventilation shaft at Pusan-Subway 220. Field measurements showed that maximum displacement 23.74 mm at boundary site of multistratification and the weathered rock to be formed at 0.2~0.6 H of total excavating depth(H), 68 ton of maximum axial force and 4.4X102 kg/cm2 of stress on strut. The measured axial force exceeds prediction levels by up to 50 percent at the weathered soil & rock, and the others come under the category of their levels. The great gap of both field measurements and prediction on behaviour makes a difference of the site situation at the design stage and the practical working. This measured value is greatly safety in comparison with that of the safety criterion, but axial force at 4~5 strut of ventilation shaft l is higher than the prediction.