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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Tunnel and Underground Space
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Rock Mechanics
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Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 4 - Dec 1999
Volume 9, Issue 3 - Sep 1999
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Jun 1999
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Mar 1999
Selecting the target year
A numerical study on the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of discontinuous rock mass
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 9, issue 1, 1999, Pages 1~11
A finite element code was developed to analyze coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena. This code is based on the finite element formulation provided by Noorishad et al. (1984) and Joint behavior was simulated Goodman's joint constitutive model. The developed code was applied for T-H-M coupling analysis for two kinds of shaft models, with a joint or without a joint respectively. For a model without a joint, temperature increased from the shaft wall to outward evidently. The radial displacement showed opposite directions of outward and inward at some distance from shaft wall. For a model with a joint, closure of joint was found due to thermal expansion. The temperature distribution along a joint showed relatively lower than that of rock matrix because of low thermal conductivity and high specific heat of water. And it could be concluded that effects of thermal flow to joint were more than that of hydraulic flow in a rock mass.
A case study on the effect of blasting conditions on ground vibration
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 9, issue 1, 1999, Pages 12~19
In this study, ground vibrations of a surface blasting for golf links and a tunnel blasting for highway construction were measured to investigate the effect of blasting conditions such as total charge and distance from blasting point. In surface blasting, site factor K and n were 74.1 and -1.37, respectively, which were analyzed by means of cube root scaled distance. The more were measuring distance, the higher were absolute value of K and n. Principal frequency was in range of 5~60 Hz in surface blasting, where that of 80 percent was in range of 10~30 Hz. On the other hand it was in range of 25~98 Hz in tunnel blasting, which showed higher than of surface blasting.
Design of the reinforced concrete lining in bakun diversion tunnels
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 9, issue 1, 1999, Pages 20~26
The completion of the Bakun Diversion Tunnel is subsequently to the Main Dam construction. Therefore, the completion date is very important for the Bakun Hydroelectric Project. Generally, the tunnel lining work as a finishing phase of the tunnelling project occupies a important portion as well as an excavation and a support work of the tunnels in respect to the construction cost and period. Internal section of Bakun Diversion Tunnel is designed circular shape to reduce the roughness of the water flow with 12 meters in diameter of total length 4314.6 meters of 3 tunnels. The lining thickness is varied between 500 mm and 700 mm depending on the structural condition. From the original Tender design of the Bakun tunnels, the required quantity of steel bars was 5,985 ton designed by Reinforced Concrete (RC) through the entire tunnel linings. During the detail design stage by the consideration of the rock conditions and various load conditions, we could suggest five kinds of RC lining type including plain concrete lining type. Through the detail design modification, we could reduce the required amount of steel bars to 2,178 ton, as a half of original Bill of Quantity. Finally, this design modification give us the time and cost saving effect to catch up the construction progress in time.
Transient heat conduction in rock mass around arch shape cold storage cavern and estimation of in-situ thermal properties
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 9, issue 1, 1999, Pages 27~35
The characteristics of heat conduction for the heat source boundary like an arch shape cavern are different from those for the semi-infinite or circular boundary which can be driven theoretically. A new form of transient heat conduction equation in rock mass around the arch shape cavern is evaluated with analyzing the pattern of the rock temperature distribution measured at the cold storage pilot plant. The new equation, which is driven by adopting a shape function,
to the solution for a semi-infinite boundary, has the semi-radial form of temperature variation with distance. And, thermal properties of rock mass are estimated by comparing the rock temperature distributions by this equation with those by measurement. Thermal conductivity and specific heat of rock mass are estimated as giving the difference of 20~25% compared to those of laboratory scale. This difference seems to be caused by discontinuity like joint and water content in rock mass.
A study on characteristics of blast vibration waveform by vibration time history analysis
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 9, issue 1, 1999, Pages 36~47
For cautious controlled blasting, it is necessary to understand characteristics of the blasting vibration. In this study, a series of tests were carried out to investigate the several characteristics of blasting vibration waveform by vibration time history analysis. Separation between impulse vibration and free vibration from blasting vibration, duration time, effects of overlap of free vibration upon the level of vibration and changes of waveform according to increase of charge weight per delay etc. were studied with waveform analysis.
A study on the development of tunnel soundness evaluation system using artificial neural network
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 9, issue 1, 1999, Pages 48~55
One of the major roles of concrete lining is the supplementary support of ground load. Therefore, if there are cracks or deformation found in the lining, the causes should be carefully examined. Tunnel Soundness Evaluation System (DW-TSES) was developed to meet such requirements. Main facility of the system was intended to find the probable causes on the basis of the apparent changes in lining and the environmental conditions. It also includes facilities for evaluating the soundness of a tunnel and indicating the method for repair or reinforcement. The characteristic feature of damages is used for reasoning in case of deterioration and leakage, and artificial neural network is used in external pressure. This process depends on the results of the case analyses and FDM, which have a collection of the typical features of different types of damages as well as the unusual changes caused by the external pressure. The comparison of the outputs of this system with those of expert's diagnoses draws the following conclusions. 1) Artificial neural network was a suitable tool to find to causes of damages by external pressure. 2) The environmental conditions improved the accuracy in reasoning. 3) The result of finding causes and evaluating soundness was helpful to suggest effective methods concerning tunnel maintenance.
Numerical analysis of rock behavior with crack model implementation
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 9, issue 1, 1999, Pages 56~63
Rock behaves in a complex way due to the discontinuities. To describe the complicated failure and deformation behavior of rock, many researches were focused on the development of crack models. This study discusses the validity of the sliding and shear crack model to systematically fractured rock, i.e. coal. The model was also implemented into a numerical analysis. For that, a finite element program was modified in several ways. To describe the transverse isotropy in two-dimensional analysis, the stress-strain relationship was modified for the direction of the axis of symmetry. Also, the changes of the effective elastic moduli according to the crack growth were calculated. A simple example of two-dimensional laboratory uniaxial compression test was analyzed. The results coincided with the observations obtained from the laboratory tests.
Numerical study on the charateristics of fracture growth in fracture controlled blasting using notched blasthole
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 9, issue 1, 1999, Pages 64~71
A numerical analysis was performed to investigate the effects of notched blasthole in controlling the fracture plane. Analyzed were elastic and elasto-plastic response of rock, and fracture propagation under static and dynamic load conditions. Results showed that the region exceeding the tensile strength extended up to three times the radius of a normal blasthole in elastic analysis, while fifteen times in elasto-plastic analysis. It was shown that a crack was driven from the notch tip up to the distance of 23 times the hole radius in the case of a notched blasthole with a notch of 5 mm in depth and 30 mm in length.
Estimation of critical vibration level on structural damage of brick house induced by blasting
Tunnel and Underground Space, volume 9, issue 1, 1999, Pages 72~77
New criteria to evaluate blasting damage to structure is proposed considering environmental caused daily deformation of cracks in structures. Results from 3 brick houses in fishing village shows that more than 10 times higher vibration level than design criteria of 0.5 kine is required to cause structural damage.