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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Remote Sensing
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Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Jun 1994
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Jun 1994
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A SAR Signal Processing Algorithm using Wavenumber Domain
Won, Joong-Sun ; Yoo, Hong-Ryong ; Moon, Wooil-M. ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 10, issue 2, 1994, Pages 1~15
Since Seasat SAR mission in 1978, SAR has become one of the most important surface imaging tools in satellite remote sensing SAR achieves high resolution by signal processing synthesizing a larger aperture. Therefore, SAR signal processing along with antenna technology has been centered upon SAR technologies. Thus interpreters of SAR imagery as well as those who involved in signal processing require the knowledge of the principal SAR processing algorithm. Although the conventional range-Doppler approach has been widely adopted by many SAR processors, azimuth compression including the range migration has been problematic. The recent development of the wavenumber domain approace is able to provide high precision SAR focusing algorithm. Compared with the wavenumber domain algorithm derived by applying Born (first) approximation, the transfer function of the conventional range-Doppler algorithm accounts only for the first order approximation of the exact transfer function. The results of a simulation and an actual test using airborne C-band SAR configuration demonstrate the dxcellent performance of the wavenumber domain algorithm.
A Semi-empirical Model for Microwave Polarimetric Radar Backscattering from Bare Soil Surfaces
Oh, Yi-Sok ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 10, issue 2, 1994, Pages 17~35
A semi-empirical model for microwave polarimetric radar backscattering from bare soil surfaces was developed using polarmetric radar measurements and the knowledge based on the theoretical and numerical solutions. The microwave polarimetric backscatter measurements were conducted for bare soil surfaces under a variety of roughness and moisture conditions at L-, C-, and X-band frequencies at incidence angles ranging from 10` to 70`. Since the accrate target parameters as well as the radar parameters are necessary for radar scattering modeling, a complete and accurate set of ground truth data were also collected using a laser profile meter and dielectric probes for each surface condition, from which accurate measurements were made of the rms height, correlation length, and dielectric constant. At first, the angular and spectral dependencies of the measured radar backscatter for a wide range of roughnesses and moisture conditions are examined. Then, the measured scattering behavior was tested using theoretical and numerical solutions. Based on the experimental observations and the theoretical and numerical solutions, a semi-empirical model was developed for backscattering coeffients in terms of the surface roughness parameters and the relative dielectric constant of the soil surface. The model was found to yield very good agreement with the backscattering measurements of this study as well as with independent measurements.
On Mathematical Representation and Integration Theory for GIS Application of Remote Sensing and Geological Data
Moon, Woo-Il M. ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 10, issue 2, 1994, Pages 37~48
In spatial information processing, particularly in non-renewable resource exploration, the spatial data sets, including remote sensing, geophysical and geochemical data, have to be geocoded onto a reference map and integrated for the final analysis and interpretation. Application of a computer based GIS(Geographical Information System of Geological Information System) at some point of the spatial data integration/fusion processing is now a logical and essential step. It should, however, be pointed out that the basic concepts of the GIS based spatial data fusion were developed with insufficient mathematical understanding of spatial characteristics or quantitative modeling framwork of the data. Furthermore many remote sensing and geological data sets, available for many exploration projects, are spatially incomplete in coverage and interduce spatially uneven information distribution. In addition, spectral information of many spatial data sets is often imprecise due to digital rescaling. Direct applications of GIS systems to spatial data fusion can therefore result in seriously erroneous final results. To resolve this problem, some of the important mathematical information representation techniques are briefly reviewed and discussed in this paper with condideration of spatial and spectral characteristics of the common remote sensing and exploration data. They include the basic probabilistic approach, the evidential belief function approach (Dempster-Shafer method) and the fuzzy logic approach. Even though the basic concepts of these three approaches are different, proper application of the techniques and careful interpretation of the final results are expected to yield acceptable conclusions in cach case. Actual tests with real data (Moon, 1990a; An etal., 1991, 1992, 1993) have shown that implementation and application of the methods discussed in this paper consistently provide more accurate final results than most direct applications of GIS techniques.
ERS-1 AND CCRS C-SAR Data Integration For Look Direction Bias Correction Using Wavelet Transform
Won, J.S. ; Moon, Woo-Il M. ; Singhroy, Vern ; Lowman, Paul-D.Jr. ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 10, issue 2, 1994, Pages 49~62
Look direction bias in a single look SAR image can often be misinterpreted in the geological application of radar data. This paper investigates digital processing techniques for SAR image data integration and compensation of the SAR data look direction bias. The two important approaches for reducing look direction bias and integration of multiple SAR data sets are (1) principal component analysis (PCA), and (2) wavelet transform(WT) integration techniques. These two methods were investigated and tested with the ERS-1 (VV-polarization) and CCRS*s airborne (HH-polarization) C-SAR image data sets recorded over the Sudbury test site, Canada. The PCA technique has been very effective for integration of more than two layers of digital image data. When there only two sets of SAR data are available, the PCA thchnique requires at least one more set of auxiliary data for proper rendition of the fine surface features. The WT processing approach of SAR data integration utilizes the property which decomposes images into approximated image ( low frequencies) characterizing the spatially large and relatively distinct structures, and detailed image (high frequencies) in which the information on detailed fine structures are preserved. The test results with the ERS-1and CCRS*s C-SAR data indicate that the new WT approach is more efficient and robust in enhancibng the fine details of the multiple SAR images than the PCA approach.
Adaptive Reconstruction Of AVHRR NVI Sequential Imagery off Korean Peninsula
Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Kim, Kyung-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 10, issue 2, 1994, Pages 63~82
Multitemporal analysis with remotely sensed data is complicated by numerous intervening factors, including atmospheric attenuation and occurrence of clouds that obscure the relationship between ground and satellite observed spectral measurements. A reconstruction system was developed to increase the discrimination capability for imagery that has been modified by residual dffects resulting from imperfect sensing of the target and by atmospheric attenuation of the signal. Utilizing temporal information based on an adaptive timporal filter, it recovers missing measurements resulting from cloud cover and sensor noise and enhances the imagery. The temporal filter effectively tracks a systematic trend in remote sensing data by using a polynomial model. The reconstruction system were applied to the AVHRR data collected over Korean Peninsula. The results show that missing measurements are typically recovered successfully and the temporal trend in vegetation change is exposed clearly in the reconstructed series.
A Study on Comparison of Satellite-Tracked Drifter Temperature with Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperature of NOAA/NESDIS
Park, Kyung-Ae ; Chung, Joug-Yul ; Kim, Kuh ; Choi, Byung-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 10, issue 2, 1994, Pages 83~107
Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) estimated by using the operational SST derivation equations of NOAA/NESDIS were compared with satellite-tracked drifter temperatures. As a result of eliminating cloud-filled or contaminated pixels through several cloud tests, 69 matchup points between the drifter temperatures and the SSTs estimated with NOAA satellite 9, 10. 11 and 12 data from August, 1993 to July, 1994 were collected. Multi-channel sea surface temperature(MCSST) using a split window technique showed an approximately
rms error as compared with the drifting buoy temperatures for 69 coincidences. Accuracies for satellete-derived sea surface temperatures were evaluated for only NOAA-11 AVHRR data which had relatively large matchups of 35points as compared with other satellites. For the comparison of the oberved temperatures with the calculated SSTs, linear MCSST and nonlinear cross product sea surface temperature(CPSST) algorithms by the split, the dual and the triple window technique were used respectively. As a result, the split window CPSSTs showed the smallest rms error of
. Defferences between the split window SSTs and the drifter temperatures appeared th have a linear tendency against the drifter temperatures and also against the differences between AVHRR channel 4 and 5 brighness temperatures. This indicates some possibilities that satelite-derived SSTs operationally calculated from the NOAA/NESDIS equation in the seas around Korea have been underestimated as compared with actural SSTs in case sea water temperature is relatively low or the atmosphere over the sea surface is very dry like in winter, while overstimated in case of high temperature or very moist atmospheric equations based on local sea measurements around Korea instead of global measurements should be derived.
A Study on the Extraction of Groundwater Potential Area Utilizing the Remotely Sensed Data
Chi, Kwang-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 10, issue 2, 1994, Pages 109~120
The study is aimed at the extraction of the groundwater potential areas utilizing the remotely sensed data from satellites. The results of the study are summarized as follows. Analyses of the existing operational wells for groundwater supply indicate that 81% of them are related with lineaments and 51% of them are located at the intersections of lineameters. Thus the features of lineaments are considered to be one of the most important parameters to extract a high potertial area of groundwater. Taking into acount features of lineament, high potential points were extracted from Landsat TM data based on the theory developed in this research, then verifications were made through actual drilling. The result of verification indicates that 9 points produces more 200 cubic meter/day which is the amount required from economical point of view for an operational use. Since the actual boring was not made on the recommended points for 4 points due to the difficulty of access to the exact points and of the approval for boring, they did not yield enough output. The result might have been improved if the exact points were bored and if the boring bad been made deeper, since the maximum depth of boring was limited to 62 meters.
Design and Implementation of GIS Based Automatic Terrain Analysis System for Field Operation
Kim, Kyoung-Ok ; Yang, Young-Kyu ; Lee, Jong-Hoon ; Choi, Kyoung-Ho ; Jung, In-Sook ; Kim, Tae-Kyun ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 10, issue 2, 1994, Pages 121~132
A GIS based tactical terrain analysis system named ATTAS(Army Tactical Terrain Analysis Software) has been designed and implemented to support the field commanders for enhancing the capabiliy of their unit and efficiency of weapon system. This system is designed to provide computer graphics environment in which the analyst can interactively operate the entire analyzing process such as selecting the area of interest, performing analysis functions, simulating required battlefield operation and display the results. This system can be divided into three major sections; the terrain analysis modules, utilites, and graphic editor. The terrain analysis module inclused surface analysis, line of sight analysis, enemy disposition, 3D display, radar coverage, logistic route analysis, shortest path analysis, atmospheric phenomena prediction, automated IPB (Inteligence preparation of Battlefield), and other applied analysis. A combination of 2D and 3D computer graphics techniques using the X-window system with OSF/Motif in UNIX workstation was adopted as the user interface. The integration technique of remotely sensed images and GIS data such as precision registration, overlay, and on-line editing was developed and implemented. An efficient image and GIS data management technique was also developed and implemented using Oracle Database Management System.
Navigation and Find Co-location of ATSR Images
Shin, Dong-Seok ; Pollard, John-K. ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 10, issue 2, 1994, Pages 133~160
In this paper, we propose a comprehensive geometric correction algorithm of Along Track Scanning Radiometer(ATSR) images. The procedure consists of two cascaded modules; precorrection and fine co-location. The pre-correction algorithm is based on the navigation model which was derived in mathematical forms. This model was applied for correction raw(un-geolocated) ATSR images. The non-systematic geometric errors are also introduced as the limitation of the geometric correction by this analytical method. A fast and automatic algorithm is also presented in the paper for co-locating nadir and forward views of the ATSR images by using a binary cross-correlation matching technique. It removes small non-systematic errors which cannot be corrected by the analytic method. The proposed algorithm does not require any auxiliary informations, or a priori processing and avoiding the imperfect co-registratio problem observed with multiple channels. Coastlines in images are detected by a ragion segmentation and an automatic thresholding technique. The matching procedure is carried out with binaty coastline images (nadir and forward), and it gives comparable accuracy and faster processing than a patch based matching technique. This technique automatically reduces non-systematic errors between two views to .
JERS-1 SAR DATA CHARACTERISTICS FOR GEOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS
Moon, Wooil-M. ; Li, Bo ; Won, J.S. ; Yoo, H.W. ; Singhroy, V. ; Yamaguch, Y. ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 10, issue 2, 1994, Pages 161~170
The JERS-1 is an Earth Resources Satellite launched by NASDA (Natinal Space Development Agency) of Japan, in February in 1992 and has two sensors; SAR(L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar) and OPS (SWIR and VNIR radiometers). In this research note, the basic properties and data characteristics of the SAR data are summarized based on the observations made on the data sets received for the Nahanni Canadian test site, Northwest Territories. The JERS-1 SAR data quality. including the spatial resolution of the data, is, in general, excellent for most geological applications.