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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Remote Sensing
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
Classification of Convective/Stratiform Radar Echoes over a Summer Monsoon Front, and Their Optimal Use with TRMM PR Data
Oh, Hyun-Mi ; Heo, Ki-Young ; Ha, Kyung-Ja ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 465~474
Convective/stratiform radar echo classification schemes by Steiner et al. (1995) and Biggerstaff and Listemaa (2000) are examined on a monsoonal front during the summer monsoon-Changma period, which is organized as a cloud cluster with mesoscale convective complex. Target radar is S-band with wavelength of 10cm, spatial resolution of 1km, elevation angle interval of 0.5-1.0 degree, and minimum elevation angle of 0.19 degree at Jindo over the Korean Peninsula. For verification of rainfall amount retrieved from the echo classification, ground-based rain gauge observations (Automatic Weather Stations) are examined, converting the radar echo grid data to the station values using the inverse distance weighted method. Improvement from the echo classification is evaluated based on the correlation coefficient and the scattered diagram. Additionally, an optimal use method was designed to produce combined rainfalls from the radar echo and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM/PR) data. Optimal values for the radar rain and TRMM/PR rain are inversely weighted according to the error variance statistics for each single station. It is noted how the rainfall distribution during the summer monsoon frontal system is improved from the classification of convective/stratiform echo and the use of the optimal use technique.
Spatio-Temporal Variations of Harmful Algal Blooms in the South Sea of Korea
Kim, Dae-Hyun ; Denny, Widhiyanuriyawan ; Min, Seung-Hwan ; Lee, Dong-In ; Yoon, Hong-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 475~486
Harmful algal blooms (HAB) caused by the dominant species Cochlodinium polykrikoides (C. polykrikoides) appear in the South Sea of Korea and are particularly present in summer and fall seasons. Environmental factors such as water temperature, weather conditions (air temperature, cloud cover, sunshine, precipitation and wind) influence on the initiation and subsequent development of HAB. The purpose of this research was to study spatial and temporal variations of HAB in the Yeosu area using environmental (oceanic and meteorological) and satellite data. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were calculated using Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) images by an Ocean Chlorophyll 4 (OC4) algorithm, and HAB were estimated using the Red tide index Chlorophyll Algorithm (RCA). We also used the surface velocity of sequential satellite images applying the Maximum Cross Correlation method to detect chlorophyll-a movement. The results showed that the water temperature during HAB occurrences in August 2002-2008 was
. In terms of the frequency of the mean of cell density of C. polykrikoides, the cell density of the HAB found at low (<300 cells/ml), medium (300-1000 cells/ml), and high (>1000 cells/ml) levels were 27.01%, 37.44%, and 35.55%, respectively. Meteorological data for 2002-2008 showed that the mean air temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and sunshine duration were
, 6.54 mm/day, 3.98 m/s (southwesterly), and 1-11.7 h, respectively. Our results suggest that HAB events in the Yeosu area can be triggered and extended by heavy precipitation and massive movement of HAB from the East China Sea. Satellite images data from July to October 2002-2006 showed that the OC4 algorithm generally estimated high chlorophyll-a concentration (
) throughout the coastal area, whereas the RCA estimated concentrations at
. The surface velocity of chlorophyll-a movement from sequential satellite images revealed the same patterns in the direction of the Tsushima Warm Current.
An improvement of Simplified Atmospheric Correction : MODIS Visible Channel
Lee, Chang-Suk ; Han, Kyung-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 487~499
Atmospheric correction of satellite measurements is a major step to estimate accurate surface reflectance of solar spectrum channels. In this study, Simplified Method for the Atmospheric Correction (SMAC) radiative transfer model used to retrieve surface reflectance from MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance. It is fast and simple atmospheric correction method, so it uses for work site operation in various satellite. This study attempts a test of accuracy of SMAC through a sensitivity test to detected error sources and to improve accuracy of surface reflectance using SMAC. The results of SMAC as compared with MODIS surface reflectance (MOD09) was represented that low accuracy (
, Root Means Square Error (RMSE) = 0.00031, bias = - 0.0859). Thus sensitivity analysis of input parameters and coefficients was conducted to searching error sources. Among the input parameters, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is the most influence input parameter. In order to modify AOD term in SMAC code, Stepwise multiple regression was performed with testing and remove variable in three stages with independent variables of AOD at 550nm, solar zenith angle, viewing zenith angle. Surface reflectance estimation by using Newly proposed AOD term in the study showed that improve accuracy (
, RMSE = 0.00672, bias = - 0.000762).
Study of the Tidal Channels Appeared on SAR Images
Kim, Tae-Rim ; Park, Jong-Jib ; Choi, Byoung-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 501~505
Quasi-linear bright features persistently appeared on ENVISAT ASAR images as well as X-SAR images along the tidal channels in Gyung-Gi Bay, Korea during the ebb tides. These features are induced by spatial backscatter variations caused by surface convergence (divergence) through the interaction between tidal currents and bathymetry. In order to validate this mechanism, a numerical tidal model simulation is performed on the realistic bathymetry with the tidal boundary conditions. The tide model reproduces the current convergence zone along the tidal channel during the ebb tides, which exactly coincides with the location of bright line features on SAR images.
Improvement of COMS Land Surface Temperature Retrieval Algorithm
Hong, Ki-Ok ; Suh, Myoung-Seok ; Kang, Jeon-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 507~515
Land surface temperature (LST) is a key environmental variable in a wide range of applications, such as weather, climate, hydrology, and ecology. However, LST is one of the most difficult surface variables to observe regularly due to the strong spatio-temporal variations. So, we have developed the LST retrieval algorithm from COMS (Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite) data through the radiative transfer simulations under various atmospheric profiles (TIGR data), satellite zenith angle (SZA), spectral emissivity, and surface lapse rate conditions using MODTRAN 4. However, the LST retrieval algorithm has a tendency to overestimate and underestimate the LST for surface inversion and superadiabatic conditions, respectively. To minimize the overestimation and underestimation of LST, we also developed day/night LST algorithms separately based on the surface lapse rate (local time) and recalculated the final LST by using the weighted sum of day/night LST. The analysis results showed that the quality of weighted LST of day/night algorithms is greatly improved compared to that of LST estimated by original algorithm regardless of the surface lapse rate, spectral emissivity difference (
) SZA, and atmospheric conditions. In general, the improvements are greatest when the surface lapse rate and
are negatively large (strong inversion conditions and less vegetated surface).
Fusion Techniques Comparison of GeoEye-1 Imagery
Kim, Yong-Hyun ; Kim, Yong-Il ; Kim, Youn-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 517~529
Many satellite image fusion techniques have been developed in order to produce a high resolution multispectral (MS) image by combining a high resolution panchromatic (PAN) image and a low resolution MS image. Heretofore, most high resolution image fusion techniques have used IKONOS and QuickBird images. Recently, GeoEye-1, offering the highest resolution of any commercial imaging system, was launched. In this study, we have experimented with GeoEye-1 images in order to evaluate which fusion algorithms are suitable for these images. This paper presents compares and evaluates the efficiency of five image fusion techniques, the
trous algorithm based additive wavelet transformation (AWT) fusion techniques, the Principal Component analysis (PCA) fusion technique, Gram-Schmidt (GS) spectral sharpening, Pansharp, and the Smoothing Filter based Intensity Modulation (SFIM) fusion technique, for the fusion of a GeoEye-1 image. The results of the experiment show that the AWT fusion techniques maintain more spatial detail of the PAN image and spectral information of the MS image than other image fusion techniques. Also, the Pansharp technique maintains information of the original PAN and MS images as well as the AWT fusion technique.
Preliminary Results of Polarimetric Characteristics for C-band Quad-Polarization GB-SAR Images Using H/A/
Polarimetric Decomposition Theorem
Kang, Moon-Kyung ; Kim, Kwang-Eun ; Lee, Hoon-Yol ; Cho, Seong-Jun ; Lee, Jae-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 531~546
The main objective of this study is to analyse the polarimetric characteristics of the various terrain targets by ground-based polarimetric SAR system and to confirm the compatible and effective polarimetric analysis method to reveal the polarization properties of different terrain targets by the GB-SAR. The fully polarimetric GB-SAR data with HH, HV, VH, and VV components were focused using the Deramp-FFT (DF) algorithm. The focused GB-SAR images were processed by the H/A/
polarimetric decomposition and the combined H/
and Wishart classification method. The segmented image and distribution graphs in H/
plane using Cloude and Pottier's method showed a reliable result that this quad-polarization GB-SAR data could be useful to classified corresponding scattering mechanism. The H/
-Wishart and H/A/
-Wishart classification results showed that a natural media and an artificial target were discriminated by the combined classification, in particular, after applying multi-looking and the Lee refined speckle filter.
Complexity Estimation Based Work Load Balancing for a Parallel Lidar Waveform Decomposition Algorithm
Jung, Jin-Ha ; Crawford, Melba M. ; Lee, Sang-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 547~557
LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) is an active remote sensing technology which provides 3D coordinates of the Earth's surface by performing range measurements from the sensor. Early small footprint LIDAR systems recorded multiple discrete returns from the back-scattered energy. Recent advances in LIDAR hardware now make it possible to record full digital waveforms of the returned energy. LIDAR waveform decomposition involves separating the return waveform into a mixture of components which are then used to characterize the original data. The most common statistical mixture model used for this process is the Gaussian mixture. Waveform decomposition plays an important role in LIDAR waveform processing, since the resulting components are expected to represent reflection surfaces within waveform footprints. Hence the decomposition results ultimately affect the interpretation of LIDAR waveform data. Computational requirements in the waveform decomposition process result from two factors; (1) estimation of the number of components in a mixture and the resulting parameter estimates, which are inter-related and cannot be solved separately, and (2) parameter optimization does not have a closed form solution, and thus needs to be solved iteratively. The current state-of-the-art airborne LIDAR system acquires more than 50,000 waveforms per second, so decomposing the enormous number of waveforms is challenging using traditional single processor architecture. To tackle this issue, four parallel LIDAR waveform decomposition algorithms with different work load balancing schemes - (1) no weighting, (2) a decomposition results-based linear weighting, (3) a decomposition results-based squared weighting, and (4) a decomposition time-based linear weighting - were developed and tested with varying number of processors (8-256). The results were compared in terms of efficiency. Overall, the decomposition time-based linear weighting work load balancing approach yielded the best performance among four approaches.
Basic Elements and Implication of Software Metadata in the Intelligent Geospatial Web
Lee, Ki-Won ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 25, issue 6, 2009, Pages 559~569
During over decades, metadata on spatial data have been developed, and they have been widely applied at the national and international metadata standards such as file structure, format, and data model. However, in the web 2.0 paradigm toward user participation and openness, sources and contents of geospatial products are also diversified, not being limited to well-organized and structured data sets or databases. Especially, software products in both open source software and commercially packaged software are considered into important resources in the geospatial domain. But there are no reports or studies regarding software metadata from the side of software engineering or information technology, till now. The motivation of this study is based on practical needs to build search engine in the intelligent geospatial web. Brief review on current metadata standards is presented, and necessity for software metadata is discussed as well as related works. Basic elements, initially considered, of software metadata are presented. This work is the first attempt for software metadata, although it just covers geospatial software products. Further practical works to meet industrial demands need to actual applications of software metadata.