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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Remote Sensing
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Design and Construction of Spectral Library for the Korean Peninsular
Shin, Jung-Il ; Kim, Sun-Hwa ; Lee, Kyu-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 5, 2010, Pages 465~475
Spectral library is a database that archives spectral reflectance and related metadata of earth surface materials. Spectral library plays important role to assist analyzing several types of remote sensor data, to determine suitable wavelength band for detecting a certain material, and to classify hyperspectal image data. This paper describes the structure and content of a spectral library that is suitable for the environment of the Korea peninsula while existing spectral libraries have certain limitations to apply for surface materials covering the region. We designed a spectral library that includes vegetation and man-made materials indigenous to the region. The spectral library also includes spectra of mineral and rock, soil, liquid, and some man-made materials from existing spectral libraries. Newly augmented spectra of vegetation and man-made materials were obtained by spectral measurements in laboratory and field. The spectral library viewer was developed to increase efficiency of usage and searching.
Segment-based land Cover Classification using Texture Information in Degraded Forest land of North Korea
Kim, Eun-Sook ; Lee, Seung-Ho ; Cho, Hyun-Kook ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 5, 2010, Pages 477~487
In North Korea, forests were intensively degraded by forest land reclamation for food production and firewood collection since the mid-1970s. These degraded forests have to be certainly recovered for economic support, environmental protection and disaster prevention. In order to provide detailed land cover information of forest recovery project (A/R CDM), this study was focused to develop an improved classification method for degraded forest using 2.5m SPOT-5 pan-sharpened image. The degraded forest of North Korea shows various different types of texture. This study used GLCM texture bands of segmented image with spectral bands during forest cover classification. When scale factor 40/shape factor 0.3 was used as a parameter set to generate segment image, segment image was generated on suitable segment scale that could classify types of degraded forest. Forest land cover types were classified with an optimum band combination of Band1, Band2, band3, GLCM dissimilarity (band2), GLCM homogeneity (band2) and GLCM standard deviation (band3). Segment-based classification method using spectral bands and texture bands reached an 80.4% overall accuracy, but the method using only spectral bands yielded an 70.3% overall accuracy. As using spectral and texture bands, a classification accuracy of stocked forest and unstocked forest showed an increase of 23~25%. In this research, SPOT-5 pan-sharpened high-resolution satellite image could provide a very useful information for classifying the forest cover of North Korea in which field data collection was not available for ground truth data and verification directly. And segment-based classification method using texture information improved classification accuracy of degraded forest.
Noise Band Extraction of Hyperion Image using Quadtree Structure and Fractal Characteristic
Chang, An-Jin ; Kim, Yong-Il ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 5, 2010, Pages 489~495
Hyperspectral imaging obtains information with a wider wavelength range a large number of bands. However, a high correlation between each band, computation cost, and noise causes inaccurate results in cases of no pre-processing. The noises of band extraction and elimination positively necessary in hyperspectral imaging. Since the previous studies have used a characteristic the whole image, a local characteristic of the image is considered for the noise band extraction. In this study, the Quadtree, which is a data structure algorithm. and the fractal dimension are adopted for noise band extraction in Hyperion images. The fractal dimensions of the segments divided by the Quadtree structure are calculated, and variation is used. We focused on the extraction of random noise bands in Hyperion images and compared them with the reference data made by visual decisions. The proposed algorithm extracts the most bands, including random noises. It is possible to eliminate more than 30 noise bands, regardless of images.
Application of SAR DATA to the Study on the Characteristics of Sedimentary Environments in a Tidal Flat
Kim, Kye-Lim ; Ryu, Joo-Hyung ; Kim, Sang-Wan ; Choi, Jong-Kuk ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 5, 2010, Pages 497~510
In this study, comparisons of the backscattering coefficients and the coherence values which had been extracted from SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images such as JERS-1, ENVISAT and ALOS satellites with surface roughness, surface geometric and soil moisture content were carried out. As the results of analysis using the backscattering coefficient and coherence values from SAR images, the coherence was shown high in the region containing more of mud fraction due to higher viscosity of fine grain-size. A lot of tidal channels were well developed in the Ganghwa tidal flat, affecting the drainage of seawater and subsequent soil moisture content by exposure time of tidal flat. The backscattering coefficient. consequently, appeared to be lower in sand flat and mix flat with decrease of soil moisture. In contrast, most mud flats were distributed at high elevation so that soil moisture was not much influenced by seawater. The backscattering coefficient in mud flat seemed to have a relationship with the density of tidal channel. In addition, lowering backscattering coefficients in the all Ganghwa tidal flat was observed when surface remnant water increased according to the amount of rainfall. The correlation between backscattering coefficient, coherence and sediment environment factors in the Ganghwa tidal flat was investigated. In the future, more quantitative spatial analysis will be helpful to well understand the sedimentary influence of various sediment environment factors.
Estimation of Rainfall Intensity for MTSAT-1R Data using Microwave Rainfall
Jee, Joon-Bum ; Lee, Kyu-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 5, 2010, Pages 511~525
Rainfall intensity was estimated using the MTSAT-1R infrared channels and the microwave satellite precipitation data. Brightness temperature of geostationary satellite is matched temporal and spatial to a variety of microwave satellite(SSM/I, SSMIS, AMSU-B, AMSRE, TRMM) precipitation data. Rainfall intensity was calculated by the look -up table using relationships of MTSAT-1R brightness temperature and microwave precipitation. Estimated rainfall is verified using by precipitation of TRMM satellite(TRMM3B42) and ground rainfall as AWS from Jul. 21 2008 to Jul. 25 2008. The results of rainfall estimated TRMM 2A12(TMI) that validated by AWS and TRMM3B42 precipitation are represented highly 0.38 and 0.61 by correlation coefficient, 5.81 mm/hr and 2.44 mm/hr by RMSE, 0.79 and 0.84 by POD and 0.65 and 0.87 by PC, respectively. Overall, estimated rainfall using by microwave satellite calculated 5 mm/hr or more comparing by AWS and 5 mm/hr or more comparing by TRMM3B42 precipitation, respectively. Validation results of correlation coefficient are shown series of TRMM 2A12, AMSRE, SSM/I, AMSU-B and SSMIS.
Development of GRD Measurement Method using Natural Target in Imagery
Kim, Jae-In ; Jeong, Jae-Hoon ; Kim, Tae-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 5, 2010, Pages 527~536
This paper reports a reliable GRD (Ground Resolved Distance) measurement method of using natural targets instead of the method using artificial targets. For this, we developed an edge profile extraction technique suitable for natural targets. We demonstrated the accuracy and stability of this technique firstly by comparing GRD values generated by this technique visually inspected GRD values for artificial targets taken in laboratory environments. We then demonstrated the feasibility of GRD estimation from natural targets by comparing GRD values from natural targets to those from artificial targets using satellite images containing both artificial and natural targets. The GRDs measured from the proposed method were similar to the values from visual inspection and the GRDs measured from the natural targets were similar to the values from artificial targets. These results support our proposed method is able to measure reliable GRD from natural targets.
Retrieval of the Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) using SPOT/VEGETATION over Korea
Pi, Kyoung-Jin ; Han, Kyung-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 5, 2010, Pages 537~547
The importance of vegetation in studies of global climate and biogeochemical cycles is well recognized. Especially. the FPAR (fraction of photosynthetically active radiation) is one of the important parameters in ecosystem productivity and carbon budget models. Therefore, accurate estimates of vegetation parameters are increasingly important in environmental impact assessment studies. In this study, optical FPAR using the Terra MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), SPOT VEGETATION and ECOCLIMAP data reproduced on the Korean peninsula. We applied the empirical method which is usually estimated as a linear or nonlinear function of vegetation indices. As results, we estimated the accurate expression which is 0.9039 of
in cropland and 0.7901 of
in forest. Finally, this study could be demonstrated to calibrate that produced FPAR while the overall pattern and random noise through the comparative analysis of FPAR on the reference data. Optimal use of input parameter on the Korean peninsula should be helping the accuracy of output as well as the improved quality of research.
Program Development for Automatic Extraction and Transformation of Standard Metadata of Geo-spatial Data
Han, Sun-Mook ; Lee, Ki-Won ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 5, 2010, Pages 549~559
In geo-spatial information system building and operation, metadata is one of the crucial factors. Therefore, international and domestic organizations or associations for standardization have developed and distributed geo-based standard metadata to meet public demands. However, because metadata is composed of complicated elements and needs XML storage and management, individual organization which implement and operate practical application system is inclined to define and use its own metadata specifications. In this study, metadata extraction program, that metadata elements are directly extracted from geo-based file formats was developed to easily utilize standard metadata such as ISO/TC 19115, TTAS.KO-10.0139 and TTAS.IS-19115, and those elements are processed into XML. Furthermore, geo-based images sets are applied to another metadata of ISO/TC 19115-2. As well, metadata transformation is needed due to inconsistent or non-corresponding definition among standard metadata; in this program, transformation modules are also implemented to interoperable uses between standard metadata specifications. Widely used data formats are dealt with in this program, but extension for other formats and other metadata specifications is possible, and it is expected that availability of standard metadata is increased, through this kind of development.
Development of Android Smart Phone App for Analysis of Remote Sensing Images
Kang, Sang-Goo ; Lee, Ki-Won ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 5, 2010, Pages 561~570
The purpose of this study is to develop an Android smartphone app providing analysis capabilities of remote sensing images, by using mobile browsing open sources of gvSIG, open source remote sensing software of OTB and open source DBMS of PostgreSQL. In this app, five kinds of remote sensing algorithms for filtering, segmentation, or classification are implemented, and the processed results are also stored and managed in image database to retrieve. Smartphone users can easily use their functions through graphical user interfaces of app which are internally linked to application server for image analysis processing and external DBMS. As well, a practical tiling method for smartphone environments is implemented to reduce delay time between user's requests and its processing server responses. Till now, most apps for remotely sensed image data sets are mainly concerned to image visualization, distinguished from this approach providing analysis capabilities. As the smartphone apps with remote sensing analysis functions for general users and experts are widely utilizing, remote sensing images are regarded as information resources being capable of producing actual mobile contents, not potential resources. It is expected that this study could trigger off the technological progresses and other unique attempts to develop the variety of smartphone apps for remote sensing images.
Monitoring of Shoreline Change using Satellite Imagery and Aerial Photograph : For the Jukbyeon, Uljin
Eom, Jin-Ah ; Choi, Jong-Kuk ; Ryu, Joo-Hyung ; Won, Joong-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 5, 2010, Pages 571~580
Coastal shoreline movement due to erosion and deposition is a major concern for coastal zone management. Shoreline is changed by nature factor or development of coastal. Change of shoreline is threatening marine environment and destroying. Therefore, we need monitoring of shoreline change with time series analysis for coastal zone management. In this study, we analyzed the shoreline change using airphotograph, LiDAR and satellite imagery from 1971 to 2009 in Uljin, Gyeongbuk, Korea. As a result, shoreline near of the nuclear power plant show linear pattern in 1971 and 1980, however the pattern of shoreline is changed after 2000. As a result of long-term monitoring, shoreline pattern near of the nuclear power plant is changed by erosion toward sea. The pattern of shoreline near of KORDI until 2003 is changed due to deposition toward sea, but the new pattern toward land is developed by erosion from 2003 to 2009. The shoreline is changed by many factors. However, we will guess that change of shoreline within study area is due to construction of nuclear power plant. In the future work, we need sedimentary and physical studies.
Wavelet-based Fusion of Optical and Radar Image using Gradient and Variance
Ye, Chul-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 5, 2010, Pages 581~591
In this paper, we proposed a new wavelet-based image fusion algorithm, which has advantages in both frequency and spatial domains for signal analysis. The developed algorithm compares the ratio of SAR image signal to optical image signal and assigns the SAR image signal to the fused image if the ratio is larger than a predefined threshold value. If the ratio is smaller than the threshold value, the fused image signal is determined by a weighted sum of optical and SAR image signal. The fusion rules consider the ratio of SAR image signal to optical image signal, image gradient and local variance of each image signal. We evaluated the proposed algorithm using Ikonos and TerraSAR-X satellite images. The proposed method showed better performance than the conventional methods which take only relatively strong SAR image signals in the fused image, in terms of entropy, image clarity, spatial frequency and speckle index.
Bundle Block Adjustment of Omni-directional Images by a Mobile Mapping System
Oh, Tae-Wan ; Lee, Im-Pyeong ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 5, 2010, Pages 593~603
Most spatial data acquisition systems employing a set of frame cameras may have suffered from their small fields of view and poor base-distance ratio. These limitations can be significantly reduced by employing an omni-directional camera that is capable of acquiring images in every direction. Bundle Block Adjustment (BBA) is one of the existing georeferencing methods to determine the exterior orientation parameters of two or more images. In this study, by extending the concept of the traditional BBA method, we attempt to develop a mathematical model of BBA for omni-directional images. The proposed mathematical model includes three main parts; observation equations based on the collinearity equations newly derived for omni-directional images, stochastic constraints imposed from GPS/INS data and GCPs. We also report the experimental results from the application of our proposed BBA to the real data obtained mainly in urban areas. With the different combinations of the constraints, we applied four different types of mathematical models. With the type where only GCPs are used as the constraints, the proposed BBA can provide the most accurate results,
of RMSE in the estimated ground point coordinates. In future, we plan to perform more sophisticated lens calibration for the omni-directional camera to improve the georeferencing accuracy of omni-directional images. These georeferenced omni-directional images can be effectively utilized for city modelling, particularly autonomous texture mapping for realistic street view.