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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Remote Sensing
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
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Aerosol Optical Thickness Retrieval Using a Small Satellite
Wong, Man Sing ; Lee, Kwon-Ho ; Nichol, Janet ; Kim, Young J. ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 6, 2010, Pages 605~615
This study demonstrates the feasibility of small satellite, namely PROBA platform with the compact high resolution imaging spectrometer (CHRIS), for aerosol retrieval in Hong Kong. The rationale of our technique is to estimate the aerosol reflectances by decomposing the Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectances from surface reflectance and Rayleigh path reflectances. For the determination of surface reflectances, the modified Minimum Reflectance Technique (MRT) is used on three winter ortho-rectified CHRIS images: Dec-18-2005, Feb-07-2006, Nov-09-2006. For validation purpose, MRT image was compared with ground based multispectral radiometer measurements and atmospherically corrected Landsat image. Results show good agreements between CHRIS-derived surface reflectance and both by ground measurement data as well as by Landsat image (r>0.84). The Root-Mean-Square Errors (RMSE) at 485, 551 and 660nm are 0.99%, 1.19%, and 1.53%, respectively. For aerosol retrieval, Look Up Tables (LUT) which are aerosol reflectances as a function of various AOT values were calculated by SBDART code with AERONET inversion products. The CHRIS derived Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) images were then validated with AERONET sunphotometer measurements and the differences are 0.05~0.11 (error=10~18%) at 440nm wavelength. The errors are relatively small compared to those from the operational moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue algorithm (within 30%) and MODIS ocean algorithm (within 20%).
A Satellite View of Urban Heat Island: Causative Factors and Scenario Analysis
Wong, Man Sing ; Nichol, Janet ; Lee, Kwon-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 6, 2010, Pages 617~627
Although many researches for heat island study have been developed, there is little attempt to link the findings to actual and hypothetical scenarios of urban developments which would help to mitigate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) in cities. The aim of this paper is to analyze the UHI at urban area with different geometries, land use, and environmental factors, and emphasis on the influence of different geometric and environmental parameters on ambient air temperature. In order to evaluate these effects, the parameters of (i) Air pollution (i.e. Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT)), (ii) Green space Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), (iii) Anthropogenic heat (AH) (iv) Building density (BD), (v) Building height (BH), and (vi) Air temperature (Ta) were mapped. The optimum operational scales between Heat Island Intensity (HII) and above parameters were evaluated by testing the strength of the correlations for every resolution. The best compromised scale for all parameters is 275m resolution. Thus, the measurements of these parameters contributing to heat island formation over the study areas of Hong Kong were established from mathematical relationships between them and in combination at 275m resolution. The mathematical models were then tabulated to show the impact of different percentages of parameters on HII. These tables are useful to predict the probable climatic implications of future planning decisions.
Speeding up the KLT Tracker for Real-time Image Georeferencing using GPS/INS Data
Tanathong, Supannee ; Lee, Im-Pyeong ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 6, 2010, Pages 629~644
A real-time image georeferencing system requires all inputs to be determined in real-time. The intrinsic camera parameters can be identified in advance from a camera calibration process while other control information can be derived instantaneously from real-time GPS/INS data. The bottleneck process is tie point acquisition since manual operations will be definitely obstacles for real-time system while the existing extraction methods are not fast enough. In this paper, we present a fast-and-automated image matching technique based on the KLT tracker to obtain a set of tie-points in real-time. The proposed work accelerates the KLT tracker by supplying the initial guessed tie-points computed using the GPS/INS data. Originally, the KLT only works effectively when the displacement between tie-points is small. To drive an automated solution, this paper suggests an appropriate number of depth levels for multi-resolution tracking under large displacement using the knowledge of uncertainties the GPS/INS data measurements. The experimental results show that our suggested depth levels is promising and the proposed work can obtain tie-points faster than the ordinary KLT by 13% with no less accuracy. This promising result suggests that our proposed algorithm can be effectively integrated into the real-time image georeferencing for further developing a real-time surveillance application.
CCD Signal Processing for Optimal Non-Uniformity Correction
Kong, Jong-Pil ; Lee, Song-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 6, 2010, Pages 645~652
The performance of the payload Electro-Optical System (EOS) in satellite system is affected by various factors, such as optics design, camera electronics design, and the characteristics of the CCD (Charge Coupled Device) used, etc. Of these factors, the camera electronics design is somewhat unique in that its operational parameters can be adjusted even after the satellite launch. In this paper, the effect of video gain on the non-uniformity correction performance is addressed. And a new optimal non-uniformity correction scheme is proposed and analyzed using the data from real camera electronics unit based on a TDI (Time Delayed Integration) type of CCD. The test results show that the performance of the conventional non-uniformity correction scheme is affected significantly when the video gain is added. On the other hand, in our proposed scheme, the performance is not dependent on the video gain. The insensitivity of the non-uniformity performance on the video-gain is mainly due to the fact that the correction is performed after the dark signal is subtracted from system response.
Analysis of BRD Components Over Major Land Types of Korea
Kim, Sang-Il ; Han, Kyung-Soo ; Park, Soo-Jea ; Pi, Kyoung-Jin ; Kim, In-Hwan ; Lee, Min-Ji ; Lee, Sun-Gu ; Chun, Young-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 6, 2010, Pages 653~664
The land surface reflectance is a key parameter influencing the climate near the surface. Therefore, it must be determined with sufficient accuracy for climate change research. In particular, the characteristics of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) when using earth observation system (EOS) are important for normalizing the reflected solar radiation from the earth's surface. Also, wide swath satellites like SPOT/VGT (VEGETATION) permit sufficient angular sampling, but high resolution satellites are impossible to obtain sufficient angular sampling over a pixel during short period because of their narrow swath scanning. This gives a difficulty to BRDF model based reflectance normalization of high resolution satellites. The principal objective of the study is to add BRDF modeling of high resolution satellites and to supply insufficient angular sampling through identifying BRDF components from SPOT/VGT. This study is performed as the preliminary data for apply to high-resolution satellite. The study provides surface parameters by eliminating BRD effect when calculated biophysical index of plant by BRDF model. We use semi-empirical BRDF model to identify the BRD components. This study uses SPOT/VGT satellite data acquired in the S1 (daily) data. Modeled reflectance values show a good agreement with measured reflectance values from SPOT satellite. This study analyzes BRD effect components by using the NDVI(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and the angle components such as solar zenith angle, satellite zenith angle and relative azimuth angle. Geometric scattering kernel mainly depends on the azimuth angle variation and volumetric scattering kernel is less dependent on the azimuth angle variation. Also, forest from land cover shows the wider distribution of value than cropland, overall tendency is similar. Forest shows relatively larger value of geometric term (
) than cropland, When performed comparison between cropland and forest. Angle and NDVI value are closely related.
Vegetation Classification Using Seasonal Variation MODIS Data
Choi, Hyun-Ah ; Lee, Woo-Kyun ; Son, Yo-Whan ; Kojima, Toshiharu ; Muraoka, Hiroyuki ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 6, 2010, Pages 665~673
The role of remote sensing in phenological studies is increasingly regarded as a key in understanding large area seasonal phenomena. This paper describes the application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time series data for vegetation classification using seasonal variation patterns. The vegetation seasonal variation phase of Seoul and provinces in Korea was inferred using 8 day composite MODIS NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) dataset of 2006. The seasonal vegetation classification approach is performed with reclassification of 4 categories as urban, crop land, broad-leaf and needle-leaf forest area. The BISE (Best Index Slope Extraction) filtering algorithm was applied for a smoothing processing of MODIS NDVI time series data and fuzzy classification method was used for vegetation classification. The overall accuracy of classification was 77.5% and the kappa coefficient was 0.61%, thus suggesting overall high classification accuracy.
A Preliminary Analysis of the Impact of Urban Green Spaces on the Urban Heat Island Effect Using a Temperature Map
Myeong, Soo-Jeong ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 6, 2010, Pages 675~680
Temperature is one of the main issues in climate change, and the urban heat island effect in highly developed urban areas is an important issue that we need to deal with. This study analyzed the extent of the cooling effects of urban green spaces. The study used a surface temperature map of Seoul. It found that the cooling effects of green space was observed within limited distances, although it varied a little depending on the parks investigated. The cooling effect distance ranged from 240m to 360m, averaging about 300m. It also found the size of an urban green space does not make much difference in cooling the surrounding areas. Although further investigation with diverse urban areas should be conducted on this matter, the results did imply that many small green spaces in the neighborhood are more effective than a single big green space in mitigating the heat island effects of cities.
A Sequential LiDAR Waveform Decomposition Algorithm
Jung, Jin-Ha ; Crawford, Melba M. ; Lee, Sang-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 6, 2010, Pages 681~691
LiDAR waveform decomposition plays an important role in LiDAR data processing since the resulting decomposed components are assumed to represent reflection surfaces within waveform footprints and the decomposition results ultimately affect the interpretation of LiDAR waveform data. Decomposing the waveform into a mixture of Gaussians involves two related problems; 1) determining the number of Gaussian components in the waveform, and 2) estimating the parameters of each Gaussian component of the mixture. Previous studies estimated the number of components in the mixture before the parameter optimization step, and it tended to suggest a larger number of components than is required due to the inherent noise embedded in the waveform data. In order to tackle these issues, a new LiDAR waveform decomposition algorithm based on the sequential approach has been proposed in this study and applied to the ICESat waveform data. Experimental results indicated that the proposed algorithm utilized a smaller number of components to decompose waveforms, while resulting IMP value is higher than the GLA14 products.
Integrating Spatial Proximity with Manifold Learning for Hyperspectral Data
Kim, Won-Kook ; Crawford, Melba M. ; Lee, Sang-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 6, 2010, Pages 693~703
High spectral resolution of hyperspectral data enables analysis of complex natural phenomena that is reflected on the data nonlinearly. Although many manifold learning methods have been developed for such problems, most methods do not consider the spatial correlation between samples that is inherent and useful in remote sensing data. We propose a manifold learning method which directly combines the spatial proximity and the spectral similarity through kernel PCA framework. A gain factor caused by spatial proximity is first modelled with a heat kernel, and is added to the original similarity computed from the spectral values of a pair of samples. Parameters are tuned with intelligent grid search (IGS) method for the derived manifold coordinates to achieve optimal classification accuracies. Of particular interest is its performance with small training size, because labelled samples are usually scarce due to its high acquisition cost. The proposed spatial kernel PCA (KPCA) is compared with PCA in terms of classification accuracy with the nearest-neighbourhood classification method.
Filtering Effect in Supervised Classification of Polarimetric Ground Based SAR Images
Kang, Moon-Kyung ; Kim, Kwang-Eun ; Cho, Seong-Jun ; Lee, Hoon-Yol ; Lee, Jae-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 6, 2010, Pages 705~719
We investigated the speckle filtering effect in supervised classification of the C-band polarimetric Ground Based SAR image data. Wishart classification method was used for the supervised classification of the polarimetric GB-SAR image data and total of 6 kinds of speckle filters were applied before supervised classification, which are boxcar, Gaussian, Lopez, IDAN, the refined Lee, and the refined Lee sigma filters. For each filters, we changed the filtering kernel size from
to investigate the filtering size effect also. The refined Lee filter with the kernel size of bigger than
showed the best result for the Wishart supervised classification of polarimetric GB-SAR image data. The result also showed that the type of trees could be discriminated by Wishart supervised classification of polarimetric GB-SAR image data.
Adaptive Reconstruction of Multi-periodic Harmonic Time Series with Only Negative Errors: Simulation Study
Lee, Sang-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 6, 2010, Pages 721~730
In satellite remote sensing, irregular temporal sampling is a common feature of geophysical and biological process on the earth's surface. Lee (2008) proposed a feed-back system using a harmonic model of single period to adaptively reconstruct observation image series contaminated by noises resulted from mechanical problems or environmental conditions. However, the simple sinusoidal model of single period may not be appropriate for temporal physical processes of land surface. A complex model of multiple periods would be more proper to represent inter-annual and inner-annual variations of surface parameters. This study extended to use a multi-periodic harmonic model, which is expressed as the sum of a series of sine waves, for the adaptive system. For the system assessment, simulation data were generated from a model of negative errors, based on the fact that the observation is mainly suppressed by bad weather. The experimental results of this simulation study show the potentiality of the proposed system for real-time monitoring on the image series observed by imperfect sensing technology from the environment which are frequently influenced by bad weather.
Region Growing Segmentation with Directional Features
Lee, Sang-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 26, issue 6, 2010, Pages 731~740
A region merging technique is suggested in this paper for the segmentation of high-spatial resolution imagery. It employs a region growing scheme based on the region adjacency graph (RAG). The proposed algorithm uses directional neighbor-line average feature vectors to improve the quality of segmentation. The feature vector consists of 9 components which includes an observation and 8 directional averages. Each directional average is the average of the pixel values along the neighbor line for a given neighbor line length at each direction. The merging coefficients of the segmentation process use a part of the feature components according to a given merging coefficient order. This study performed the extensive experiments using simulation data and a real high-spatial resolution data of IKONOS. The experimental results show that the new approach proposed in this study is quite effective to provide segments of high quality for the object-based analysis of high-spatial resolution images.