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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Remote Sensing
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
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Retrieval of Spherical Ocean Wave Parameters Using RADARSAT-2 SAR Sensor Observed at Chukk, Micronesia
Chaturvedi, Sudhir Kumar ; Yang, Chan-Su ; Song, Jung-Hwan ; Ouchi, Kazuo ; Shanmugam, P. ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 213~223
DOI : 10.7780/kjrs.2011.27.3.213
The purpose of this study is to estimate the spherical wave parameters that appears in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image acquired over the coast of Chukk, Micronesia. The retrieval of ocean wave parameters consists of two main stages: the first is to determine the dominant wavelengths by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) over 16 sub-image areas and the second is to estimate wave slopes and heights using dispersion relationship under various water wave conditions. It is assumed that the spherical waves are linear and progressive. These type of waves have the range and azimuth components traveling in radial directions. The azimuth travelling waves are more affected by the velocity bunching mechanism and it is difficult to estimate the wave parameters for these affected areas in SAR imagery. In order to compensate these effects, the velocity bunching ratio (VBR) based on modulation transfer function (MTF) was compared with the intensity ratio for neighbor area in the radial direction in order to assign the spherical wave properties for azimuthally travelling waves. Dispersion relation provides the good estimates for the wave heights for all the selected sub-image areas in the range of 1m to 2m. VBR based on MTF was found to be 0.78 at wave height of 1.36m, while the intensity-based VBR was 0.69 which corresponds to the height of 1.75m. It can be said that the velocity bunching accounts for azimuthally travelling spherical waves and the difference results from the sea-bottom effects.
Retrieval of surface parameters in tidal flats using radar backscattering model and multi-frequency SAR data
Choe, Byung-Hun ; Kim, Duk-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 225~234
DOI : 10.7780/kjrs.2011.27.3.225
This study proposes an inversion algorithm to extract the surface parameters, such as surface roughness and soil moisture contents, using multi-frequency SAR data. The study areas include the tidal flats of Jebu Island and the reclaimed lands of Hwaong district on the western coasts of the Korean peninsula. SAR data of three frequencies were accordingly calibrated to provide precise backscattering coefficients through absolute radiometric calibration. The root mean square (RMS) height and the correlation length, which can describe the surface roughness, were extracted from the backscattering coefficients using the inversion of the Integral Equation Method (IEM). The IEM model was appropriately modified to accommodate the environmental conditions of tidal flats. Volumetric soil moisture was also simultaneously extracted from the dielectric constant using the empirical model, which define the relations between volumetric soil moistures and dielectric constants. The results obtained from the proposed algorithm were verified with the in-situ measurements, and we confirmed that multi-frequency SAR observations combined with the surface scattering model for tidal flats can be used to quantitatively retrieve the geophysical surface parameters in tidal flats.
Climatological variability of surface particulate organic carbon (POC) and physical processes based on ocean color data in the Gulf of Mexico
Son, Young-Baek ; Gardner, Wilford D. ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 235~258
DOI : 10.7780/kjrs.2011.27.3.235
The purpose of this study is to investigate climatological variations from the temporal and spatial surface particulate organic carbon (POC) estimates based on SeaWiFS spectral radiance, and to determine the physical mechanisms that affect the distribution of pac in the Gulf of Mexico. 7-year monthly mean values of surface pac concentration (Sept. 1997 - Dec. 2004) were estimated from Maximum Normalized Difference Carbon Index (MNDCI) algorithm using SeaWiFS data. Synchronous 7-year monthly mean values of remote sensing data (sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface wind (SSW), sea surface height anomaly (SSHA), precipitation rate (PR)) and recorded river discharge data were used to determine physical forcing factors. The spatial pattern of POC was related to one or more factors such as river runoff, wind-derived current, and stratification of the water column, the energetic Loop Current/Eddies, and buoyancy forcing. The observed seasonal change in the POC plume's response to wind speed in the western delta region resulted from seasonal changes in the upper ocean stratification. During late spring and summer, the low-density river water is heated rapidly at the surface by incoming solar radiation. This lowers the density of the fresh-water plume and increases the near-surface stratification of the water column. In the absence of significant wind forcing, the plume undergoes buoyant spreading and the sediment is maintained at the surface by the shallow pycnocline. However, when the wind speed increases substantially, wind-wave action increases vertical motion, reducing stratification, and the sediment were mixed downward rather than spreading laterally. Maximum particle concentrations over the outer shelf and the upper slope during lower runoff seasons were related to the Loop Current/eddies and buoyancy forcing. Inter-annual differences of POC concentration were related to ENSO cycles. During the El Nino events (1997-1998 and 2002-2004), the higher pac concentrations existed and were related to high runoffs in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, but the opposite conditions in the western Gulf of Mexico. During La Nina conditions (1999-2001), low Poe concentration was related to normal or low river discharge, and low PM/nutrient waters in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, but the opposite conditions in the western Gulf of Mexico.
Detection of short-term changes using MODIS daily dynamic cloud-free composite algorithm
Kim, Sun-Hwa ; Eun, Jeong ; Kang, Sung-Jin ; Lee, Kyu-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 259~276
DOI : 10.7780/kjrs.2011.27.3.259
Short-term land cover changes, such as forest fire scar and crop harvesting, can be detected by high temporal resolution satellite imagery like MODIS and AVHRR. Because these optical satellite images are often obscured by clouds, the static cloud-free composite methods (maximum NDVI, minblue, minVZA, etc.) has been used based on non-overlapping composite period (8-day, 16-day, or a month). Due to relatively long time lag between successive images, these methods are not suitable for observing short-term land cover changes in near-real time. In this study, we suggested a new dynamic cloud-free composite algorithm that uses cut-and-patch method of cloud-masked daily MODIS data using MOD35 products. Because this dynamic composite algorithm generates daily cloud-free MODIS images with the most recent information, it can be used to monitor short-term land cover changes in near-real time. The dynamic composite algorithm also provides information on the date of each pixel used in compositing, thereby makes accurately identify the date of short-term event.
Development of Snowfall Retrieval Algorithm by Combining Measurements from CloudSat, AQUA and NOAA Satellites for the Korean Peninsula
Kim, Young-Seup ; Kim, Na-Ri ; Park, Kyung-Won ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 277~288
DOI : 10.7780/kjrs.2011.27.3.277
Cloudsat satellite data is sensitive to snowfall and collected during each month beginning with Dec 2007 and ending Feb 2008. In this study, we attempt to develop a snowfall retrieval algorithm using a combination of radiometer and cloud radar data. We trained data from the relation between brightness temperature measurements from NOAA's Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit-B(AMSU-B) and the radar reflectivity of the 2B-GEOPROF product from W-band(94 GHz) cloud radar onboard Cloudsat and applied it to the Korea peninsula. We use a principal components analysis to quantify the variations that are the result of the radiometric signatures of snowfall from those of the surface. Finally, we quantify the correlation between the higher principal component (orthogonal to surface variability) of the microwave radiances and the precipitation-sensitive CloudSat radar reflectivities. This work summarizes the results of applying this approach to observations over the East Sea during Feb. 2008. The retrieved data show reasonable estimation for snowfall rate compared with Cloudsat vertical image.
Sub-class Clustering of Land Cover over Asia considering 9-year NDVI and Climate Data
Lee, Ga-Lam ; Han, Kyung-Soo ; Kim, Do-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 289~301
DOI : 10.7780/kjrs.2011.27.3.289
In this paper an attempt has been made to classify Asia land cover considering climatic and vegetative characteristics. The sub-class clustering based on the 13 MODIS land cover classes (except water) over Asia was performed with the climate map and the NOVI derived from SPOT 5 VGT D10 data. The unsupervised classification for the sub-class clustering was performed in each land cover class, and total 74 clusters were determined over the study area. Via these clusters, the annual variations (from 1999 to 2007) of precipitation rate and temperature were analyzed as an example by a simple linear regression model. The various annual variations (negative or positive pattern) were represented for each cluster because of the various climate zones and NOVI annual cycles. Therefore, the detailed land cover map as the classification result by the sub-class clustering in this study can be useful information in modelling works for requiring the detailed climatic and vegetative information as a boundary condition.
An Efficiency Assessment for Reflectance Normalization of RapidEye Employing BRD Components of Wide-Swath satellite
Kim, Sang-Il ; Han, Kyung-Soo ; Yeom, Jong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 303~314
DOI : 10.7780/kjrs.2011.27.3.303
Surface albedo is an important parameter of the surface energy budget, and its accurate quantification is of major interest to the global climate modeling community. Therefore, in this paper, we consider the direct solution of kernel based bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models for retrieval of normalized reflectance of high resolution satellite. The BRD effects can be seen in satellite data having a wide swath such as SPOT/VGT (VEGETATION) have sufficient angular sampling, but high resolution satellites are impossible to obtain sufficient angular sampling over a pixel during short period because of their narrow swath scanning when applying semi-empirical model. This gives a difficulty to run BRDF model inferring the reflectance normalization of high resolution satellites. The principal purpose of the study is to estimate normalized reflectance of high resolution satellite (RapidEye) through BRDF components from SPOT/VGT. We use semi-empirical BRDF model to estimated BRDF components from SPOT/VGT and reflectance normalization of RapidEye. This study used SPOT/VGT satellite data acquired in the S1 (daily) data, and within this study is the multispectral sensor RapidEye. Isotropic value such as the normalized reflectance was closely related to the BRDF parameters and the kernels. Also, we show scatter plot of the SPOT/VGT and RapidEye isotropic value relationship. The linear relationship between the two linear regression analysis is performed by using the parameters of SPOTNGT like as isotropic value, geometric value and volumetric scattering value, and the kernel values of RapidEye like as geometric and volumetric scattering kernel Because BRDF parameters are difficult to directly calculate from high resolution satellites, we use to BRDF parameter of SPOT/VGT. Also, we make a decision of weighting for geometric value, volumetric scattering value and error through regression models. As a result, the weighting through linear regression analysis produced good agreement. For all sites, the SPOT/VGT isotropic and RapidEye isotropic values had the high correlation (RMSE, bias), and generally are very consistent.
Assessing the Extent and Rate of Deforestation in the Mountainous Tropical Forest
Pujiono, Eko ; Lee, Woo-Kyun ; Kwak, Doo-Ahn ; Lee, Jong-Yeol ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 315~328
DOI : 10.7780/kjrs.2011.27.3.315
Landsat data incorporated with additional bands-normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and band ratios were used to assess the extent and rate of deforestation in the Gunung Mutis Nature Reserve (GMNR), a mountainous tropical forest in Eastern of Indonesia. Hybrid classification was chosen as the classification approach. In this approach, the unsupervised classification-iterative self-organizing data analysis (ISODATA) was used to create signature files and training data set. A statistical separability measurement-transformed divergence (TD) was used to identify the combination of bands that showed the highest distinction between the land cover classes in training data set. Supervised classification-maximum likelihood classification (MLC) was performed using selected bands and the training data set. Post-classification smoothing and accuracy assessment were applied to classified image. Post-classification comparison was used to assess the extent of deforestation, of which the rate of deforestation was calculated by the formula suggested by Food Agriculture Organization (FAO). The results of two periods of deforestation assessment showed that the extent of deforestation during 1989-1999 was 720.72 ha, 0.80% of annual rate of deforestation, and its extent of deforestation during 1999-2009 was 1,059.12 ha, 1.31% of annual rate of deforestation. Such results are important for the GMNR authority to establish strategies, plans and actions for combating deforestation.
Identification of two common types of forest cover, Pinus densiflora(Pd) and Querqus mongolica(Qm), using the 1st harmonics of a Discrete Fourier Transform
Cha, Su-Young ; Pi, Ung-Hwan ; Yi, Jong-Hyuk ; Park, Chong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 329~338
DOI : 10.7780/kjrs.2011.27.3.329
The time-series normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) product has proven to be a powerful tool to investigate the phenological information because it can monitor the change of the forests with very high time-resolution, This study described the application of the DFT analysis over the 9 year MODIS data for the identification of the two types of vegetation cover, Pinus densiflora(Pd) and Querqus mongolica(Qm) which are dominant species of evergreen and broadleaved deciduous forest, respectively, The total number of samples was 5148 reference cycles which consist of 2160 Pd and 2988 Qm. They were extracted from the pixel-based MODIS scenes over the 9 years from 2000 to 2008 of South Korea. The DFT analysis was mainly focused on the 0th and
harmonic components, each of which represents the mean value and the variation amplitude of the NDVI over the years, respectively. The
harmonic values of the vegetation Pd and Qm averaged over the 9 years were 0.74 and 0.65, respectively. This implies that Pd has a higher NDVI than Qm. Similarly obtained
harmonic values of Pd and Qm were 0.19 and 0.27, respectively. This can be intuitively understood considering that the seasonal variation of Qm is much larger than Pd. This distinctive difference of the
harmonic value has been used to identify evergreen and deciduous forests. Overall agreement between the Fourier analysis-based map and the actal vegetation map has been estimated to be as high as 75%. This study found that the DFT analysis can be a concise and repeatable method to separate and trace the changes of evergreen and deciduous forest using the annual NDVI cycles.
Investigation of Urban Environmental Quality Using an Integration of Satellite, Ground based measurement data over Seoul, Korea
Lee, Kwon-Ho ; Wong, Man-Sing ; Kim, Young-J. ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 339~351
DOI : 10.7780/kjrs.2011.27.3.339
This study investigates the potentials of satellite, ground measurement data, and geo-spatial information within an urban area for the mapping of the Urban Environmental Quality (UEQ) parameters. The UEQ indicates a complex and various parameters resulting from both human and natural factors, which are greenness, climate, air pollution, the urban infrastructure, and etc. Multi-spectral remote sensing data from the Landsat ETM and TM sensors for the mapping of air pollution by the Haze Optimized Transform (HOT) technique, Urban Heat Island (UHO using the emissivity-fusion method in Seoul from 2000 to 2006 in fine resolution (30m) were analyzed for the estimation of UEQ index. Although the UHI values are similar (
) during these years, the spatial coverage of "hot" surface temperature (>
) significantly increased from 2000 to 2006 due to the rapid urban development. Furthermore, high correlations between vegetation index and land surface temperature were achieved with a correlation coefficients of 0.85 (2000), 0.81 (2001), 0.84 (2002), and 0.89 (2006), respectively. It was found that the proposed method was successfully analyzed spatial structure of the UEQ and the scenarios of the best and worst areas within the city were also identified. Based on the quantifiable fine resolution satellite image parameters, UEQ can promote the understanding of the complex and dynamic factors controlling urban environment.
WorldView-2 pan-sharpening by minimization of spectral distortion with least squares
Choi, Myung-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 353~357
DOI : 10.7780/kjrs.2011.27.3.353
Although the intensity-hue-saturation (IHS) method for pan-sharpening has a spectral distortion problem, it is a popular method in the remote sensing community and has been used as a standard procedure in many commercial packages due to its fast computing and easy implementation. Recently, IHS-like approaches have tried to overcome the spectral distortion problem inherited from the IHS method itself and yielded a good result. In this paper, a similar IHS-like method with least squares for WorldView-2 pan-sharpening is presented. In particular, unlike the previous methods with three or four-band multispectral images for pan-sharpening, six bands of WorldView-2 multispectral image located within the range of panchromatic spectral radiance responses are considered in order to reduce the spectral distortion during the merging process. As a result, the new approach provides a satisfactory result, both visually and quantitatively. Furthermore, this shows great value in spectral fidelity of WorldView-2 eight-band multispectral imagery.
Pan-sharpening Effect in Spatial Feature Extraction
Han, Dong-Yeob ; Lee, Hyo-Seong ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 359~367
DOI : 10.7780/kjrs.2011.27.3.359
A suitable pan-sharpening method has to be chosen with respect to the used spectral characteristic of the multispectral bands and the intended application. The research on pan-sharpening algorithm in improving the accuracy of image classification has been reported. For a classification, preserving the spectral information is important. Other applications such as road detection depend on a sharp and detailed display of the scene. Various criteria applied to scenes with different characteristics should be used to compare the pan-sharpening methods. The pan-sharpening methods in our research comprise rather common techniques like Brovey, IHS(Intensity Hue Saturation) transform, and PCA(Principal Component Analysis), and more complex approaches, including wavelet transformation. The extraction of matching pairs was performed through SIFT descriptor and Canny edge detector. The experiments showed that pan-sharpening techniques for spatial enhancement were effective for extracting point and linear features. As a result of the validation it clearly emphasized that a suitable pan-sharpening method has to be chosen with respect to the used spectral characteristic of the multispectral bands and the intended application. In future it is necessary to design hybrid pan-sharpening for the updating of features and land-use class of a map.
In Orbit Radiometric Calibration Tests of COMS MI Infrared Channels
Jin, Kyoung-Wook ; Seo, Seok-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 369~377
DOI : 10.7780/kjrs.2011.27.3.369
Since well-calibrated satellite data is critical for their applications, calibration and validation of COMS science data was one of the key activities during the IOT. COMS MI radiometric calibration process was divided into two phases according to the out-gassing of the sensor: calibrations of the visible (VI) and infrared (IR) channels. Different from the VIS calibration, the calibration steps for the IR channels followed additional processes to secure their radiometric performances. Primary calibration steps of the IR were scan mirror emissivity correction, midnight effect compensation, slope averaging and 1/f noise compensation after a nominal calibration. First, the scan mirror emissivity correction was conducted to compensate the variability of the scan mirror emissivity driven by the coating material on the scan mirror. Second, the midnight effect correction was performed to remove unreasonable high spikes of the slope values caused by the excessive radiative sources during the local midnight. After these steps, the residual (difference between the previous slope and the given slope) was filtered by a smoothing routine to eliminate the remnant random noises. The 1/f noise compensation was also carried out to filter out the lower frequency noises caused from the electronics in the Imager. With through calibration processes during the entire IOT period, the calibrated IR data showed excellent performances.
Applicability of Geo-spatial Processing Open Sources to Geographic Object-based Image Analysis (GEOBIA)
Lee, Ki-Won ; Kang, Sang-Goo ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 379~388
DOI : 10.7780/kjrs.2011.27.3.379
At present, GEOBIA (Geographic Object-based Image Analysis), heir of OBIA (Object-based Image Analysis), is regarded as an important methodology by object-oriented paradigm for remote sensing, dealing with geo-objects related to image segmentation and classification in the different view point of pixel-based processing. This also helps to directly link to GIS applications. Thus, GEOBIA software is on the booming. The main theme of this study is to look into the applicability of geo-spatial processing open source to GEOBIA. However, there is no few fully featured open source for GEOBIA which needs complicated schemes and algorithms, till It was carried out to implement a preliminary system for GEOBIA running an integrated and user-oriented environment. This work was performed by using various open sources such as OTB or PostgreSQL/PostGIS. Some points are different from the widely-used proprietary GEOBIA software. In this system, geo-objects are not file-based ones, but tightly linked with GIS layers in spatial database management system. The mean shift algorithm with parameters associated with spatial similarities or homogeneities is used for image segmentation. For classification process in this work, tree-based model of hierarchical network composing parent and child nodes is implemented by attribute join in the semi-automatic mode, unlike traditional image-based classification. Of course, this integrated GEOBIA system is on the progressing stage, and further works are necessary. It is expected that this approach helps to develop and to extend new applications such as urban mapping or change detection linked to GIS data sets using GEOBIA.
Current Status of Tree Height Estimation from Airborne LiDAR Data
Hwang, Se-Ran ; Lee, Im-Pyeong ;
Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 389~401
DOI : 10.7780/kjrs.2011.27.3.389
Most nations around the world have expressed significant concern in the climate change due to a rapid increase in green-house gases and thus reach an international agreement to control total amount of these gases for the mitigation of global warming. As the most important absorber of carbon dioxide, one of major green-house gases, forest resources should be more tightly managed with a means to measure their total amount, forest biomass, efficiently and accurately. Forest biomass has close relations with forest areas and tree height. Airborne LiDAR data helps extract biophysical properties on forest resources such as tree height more efficiently by providing detailed spatial information about the wide-range ground surface. Many researchers have thus developed various methods to estimate tree height using LiDAR data, which retain different performance and characteristics depending on forest environment and data characteristics. In this study, we attempted to investigate such various techniques to estimate tree height, elaborate their advantages and limitations, and suggest future research directions. We first examined the characteristics of LiDAR data applied to forest studies and then analyzed methods on filtering, a precedent procedure for tree height estimation. Regarding the methods for tree height estimation, we classified them into two categories: individual tree-based and regression-based method and described the representative methods under each category with a summary of their analysis results. Finally, we reviewed techniques regarding data fusion between LiDAR and other remote sensing data for future work.