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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Dec 1997
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Aug 1997
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Apr 1997
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Head tracking system using image processing
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 16, issue 3, 1997, Pages 1~10
This paper is concerned with the development and evaluation of the camera calibration method for a real-time head tracking system. Tracking of head movements is important in the design of an eye-controlled human/computer interface and the area of virtual environment. We proposed a video-based head tracking system. A camera was mounted on the subject's head and it took the front view containing eight 3-dimensional reference points(passive retr0-reflecting markers) fixed at the known position(computer monitor). The reference points were captured by image processing board. These points were used to calculate the position (3-dimensional) and orientation of the camera. A suitable camera calibration method for providing accurate extrinsic camera parameters was proposed. The method has three steps. In the first step, the image center was calibrated using the method of varying focal length. In the second step, the focal length and the scale factor were calibrated from the Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) matrix obtained from the known position and orientation of the camera. In the third step, the position and orientation of the camera was calculated from the DLT matrix, using the calibrated intrinsic camera parameters. Experimental results showed that the average error of camera positions (3- dimensional) is about
, the angular errors of camera orientations are less than
and the data aquisition rate is about 10Hz. The results of this study can be applied to the tracking of head movements related to the eye-controlled human/computer interface and the virtual environment.
Generation of 3-dimensional isocomfort workspace using the robot kinematics
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 16, issue 3, 1997, Pages 11~21
The purpose of this study is to obtain 3-dimensional isocomfort workspace using the robot kinematics, which is based on perceived discomfort in varying postures for manipulating four types of controls. Fifteen healthy male subjects participated in the experiment where their perceived discomfort in the given postures was measured, in which L32 orthogonal array was adopted. The shoulder flexion and adduction-abduction, elbow flexion, types of controls, and right/left hands were selected as experimental variables. The results showed that the shoulder flexion and adduction-abduction, elbow flexion, and types of controls significantly affected the perceived discomfort at .alpha. =0.01. Depending upon the types of control used, regression equations predicting perceived dis- comfort and three dimensional isocomfort workspace were suggested based on the experiemntal cata. Using the equations, driver's isocomfort workspace in his/her cabin for pushing operation was illustrated, in which the robot kinematics was employed to describe the translational relationships between the upper arm and the lower arm/hand. It was ecpected that isocomfort workspace could be used as a valuable guideline to design workplaces ergonomically.
Physiological viewpoint of the recommended safe weights of load for manual materials handling tasks
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 16, issue 3, 1997, Pages 23~36
The objective of this study was to make a comparison of the oxygen consumption rates during the lifting activities and the physiological criteria of the recommended weights of RWL, AL, and MPL by NIOSH Guideline. The physical Work Capacity (PWC) based on the bicycle ergometer was 2562.71ml/min, and the one based on the treadmill was 2874.89ml/min for the college male students of Korea. Lifting activities with four different lifting frequencies(2, 5, 8, 11 lifts/min) for one lifting range from floor to 76cm height were studied. The oxygen consumption rates and the heart rates were measured or recorded while subjects were lifting the weight of RWL, AL, and MPL. The heart rates and the oxygen consumption rates increased as the frequency increased from 2 to lifts/min. However, those slightly decreased at the frequency of 11 lifts/ min. The measured oxygen consumption rates were ranging from 2.3% to 29.6% higher than the physiological criteria 620, 700, and 1000ml/min, respectively, of the RWL, AL, and MPL for all the lifting frequencies (5, 8, 11 lift/min) except 2 lifts/min. It si suggested that the physiological criteria of NIOSH Guideline should be based on the lifting PWC, which can consider the type of lifting activity and the frequency of the task, rather than using the PWC by ergometer or treadmill. The measured oxygen consumption rates were ranging from 13.26% to 40.11% higher than the values estimated using the models by Garg and Kim. From these findings it is suggested that the NIOSH Equation should not be directly applied to Korean without resonable modifications.
The effects of high hell on back muscle fatigue
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 16, issue 3, 1997, Pages 37~48
It is very common for women wear shoes with a high heel. It has been known that the high heel could disfigure the foot shape and cause various joint problems including back pain. However, few quantitative studies have been conducted. Therefore, in this study, the low back muscle has been investigated in order to find fatifue effect due to different heights of the heel. In particular, 0, 4, 6 and 8cm heel and two different shapes of heel have been used for an experiment. Ten healthy female subjects volunteered for the study. Isometric Trunk Exertion Frame(ITEF) and Electromyography were used to measure tha Median Frequency via Spectral analysis. The results indicated that the heel height significantly affected the local muscle fatigue of the back. After post hoc analysis, it was found that a proper heel height ougth to be lower than 5cm not to have severely fatigued back muscle after a casual walk for an hour. Such results could be applies to female industrial workers in order to prevent a cumulative trauma disorder of the back, and also to design a female dress shoes minimizing low back fatigue.
Biomechanical and postural analysis of machine repair tasks with relatively high complaints of low back pain
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 16, issue 3, 1997, Pages 49~60
Although the tasks are being mechanized or automated today, many tasks are still performed manually in several industrial settings. Manual materials handling and improper sorking postures are known to be a major cause of low back injuries, which are one of the major problems in the economic and public health aspects. In this study, two machine repair shops of a manufacturing company in Pohang were recommended by the company health care center to investigate the potential risk factors that may cause low back injuries. Five machine repair tasks were selected from each machine repair shop, which are accountable for relatively high complaints of low back pain. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the hazards of the tasks, and finally to recommend the improved methods and guidelines for safe work practices. In order to accomplish this goal, the questionnaire study and ergonomic evaluations were carried out and the results were analyzed. For most of the tasks under study, workers were found to be exposed to relatively high biomechanical stresses in low back, mainly due to the heaby objects handled and the improper working postures.
Comparative study of accident characteristics between occupational deaths and injuries
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 16, issue 3, 1997, Pages 61~70
This study is undertaken to investigate the differences of accident characteristics between occupational deaths and nonfatal injuries in overall industry of Korea. The national statistics of industrial accidents in the years 1991-1994 were extracted from the annual publications of Ministry of Labor. To make the statistical comparisons for the accident characteristics, we derived the destributions of occupational deaths and injuries in terms of injured person's age, work experience, tiem of accident, activity at time of accident, accident type, injury type, injured part of body, and agency of accident. The results show that the distributions of the occupational deaths are significantly different from those of the nonfatal injuries in all characteristics investigated in this study. These findings indicate that the accident prevention programs should be developed and implemented by taking into account the characteristics of working environments based on accident analysis.
Motion analysis system using image processing
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 16, issue 3, 1997, Pages 71~75
This paper presents the development of videobased 3-dimensional tracking system. Measurement of human motion is important in the application of ertonomics. The system uses advanced direct video measurement technology. Passive retro-reflecting markers are attached to a subject and movements of markers are observed by two CCD cameras. Infrared light emitted near the CCD cameras is reflected by the markers and is detected by the cameras. The images are captured by Samsung MVB302 board and the centers of markers are calculated by DSP program. The positions of markers are transferred from MVB02 board to the computer through AT bus. The computer then tracks the position of each marker and saves the data. This system has dynamic accuracy with 0.7% average error and 4.2% maximum error, and the sampling rate to 6 .approx. 10 Hz, and this system can analyse the trajectory and speed of the marker. The results of this study can be used for operator's motion analysis, task analysis, and hand movement characteristic analysis.
Development of a design issue management system(DIMS) for human factors engineering in nuclear power plants
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 16, issue 3, 1997, Pages 77~87
This paper describes the developement of a Design Issue Management System (DIMS). Although human factors engineering has been recognized as one of the critical activities in the design of man-machine system, it has been hardly successful nor effective in practice to cope with the hyman factors requirements by regulations. For supporting the human factors engineering in nuclear power plants, DIMS ahs three major modules : Design Requirements Data Base, Design Issue Tracking System, Issue Evaluation Support System. These modules function as formal verification architects that the licensing authority requests for verifying the safety of the equip- ment and facilities in nuclear power plants. An example application to an operator support system, named Critical Function Monitoring System, during its independent review of the human factors shows the usage and the benefit of DIMS.