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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Nov 2007
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Aug 2007
Volume 26, Issue 2 - May 2007
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
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Development and Application of an Ergonomic Evaluation System for Functional Clothing: Evaluation of Flame-proof Clothing and Identification of Design Problems
Cho, Ja-Young ; Jeong, Jung-Rim ; Yeon, Soo-Min ; Chang, Joon-Ho ; You, Hee-Cheon ; Kim, Hee-Eun ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 1~13
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.001
Ergonomic methods have been effectively applied to design and evaluation of functional clothing. The goals of the present study are to: (1) develop an ergonomic evaluation system for the systematic analysis of functional clothing and (2) examine the usefulness of the proposed evaluation system by applying to flame-proof clothing. Based on the survey of literature and the brainstorming of experts in clothing design and ergonomics, factors considered for clothing evaluation were selected, classified, and complemented, resulting in an ergonomic clothing evaluation system consisting of four factor categories (clothing construction, user, work and environment, and user response). Using the proposed system, a field survey and a laboratory experiment were conducted for flame-proof clothing to identify its design problems. The field survey to workers found a comprehensive set of problems on the flame-proof clothing design in terms of pattern, textile, and color. The laboratory experiment identified additional design problems using a questionnaire that was developed based on an analysis on the relationship between clothing design components and ergonomic evaluation measures. The present study showed the ergonomic evaluation system and the relationship analysis of clothing design components and ergonomic evaluation measures are of use to identify design problems of functional clothing in a comprehensive and analytic manner.
Literature Survey on Assessment Techniques for Korean Characters Entry Methods of Mobile Phones
Kee, Do-Hyung ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 15~20
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.015
The purpose of this study is to compare assessment techniques for Korean characters entry methods of mobile phones. This study was performed based on survey of relevant existing studies. The assessment techniques were classified into three: 1) predicting entry time using conceptual models such as Fitts' law, Hick-Hyman's law and KLM-GOMS model (conceptual model); 2) counting the number of pressing button(number of pressing button); and 3) measuring performance or rating subjective measures using real mobile phones(real mobile phone). The comparison revealed that the assessment results were different depending upon the techniques used. The results from the conceptual model using only Fitts' law and the number of pressing button were opposite to those from techniques of the real mobile phone and conceptual model using Fitts' and Hick-Hyman's laws. Based on this result and suggestions provided by the literature, it is recommended that for more precisely assessing interfaces of mobile phones such as Korean characters entry method, real mobile phones be used instead of the conceptual models.
An Experimental Study on the Impacts of Luminance Contrast Upon Readability in VDT Environments
Lee, Su-Jin ; Kim, Jin-Woo ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 21~33
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.021
The study investigates the effects of luminance contrast, which is the contrast between text color and background color, on readability in VDT environments. Our research goals are to prove that the relationship between luminance contrast and readability is not linear and to explore the best luminance contrast level for optimal readability. We conducted two pretests before the main experiment to determine the operational readability and luminance contrast levels. We also conducted a controlled main experiment, in which luminance contrast, reading amount and screen size were tested in terms of its relation with readability. The results of the main experiment indicate that the readability has a non-linear relation with luminance contrast, and the optimal readability is obtained when the contrast is equal to 0.951. Furthermore, the non-linear function and optional point stay constant regardless of screen size and reading amount. The paper ends with implications of the results that maximal contrast does not always mean the optimal readability.
Comparison of Muscle Strength for One-hand and Two-hands Lifting Activity
Kim, Hong-Ki ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 35~44
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.035
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a major problem in industries in which manual materials handling is performed by workers. To prevent these WMSDs, it is necessary to understand the muscular strength capability and use this knowledge to design job and selection and assignment of workers. Even though two-hands lifting activity of manual materials handling tasks are prevalent at the industrial site, many manual materials handling tasks which require the worker to perform one-hand lifting are also very common at the industrial site and forestry and farming. However, a few researches have been done for one-hand lifting activity of manual materials handling tasks. The objective of this study is to compare one-hand and two-hands lifting strength in terms of static and dynamic strength of the lifting activity for the ranging from the height of knuckle to elbow. It is shown in this study that the isometric lifting strength of one-hand is ranging from 54.7 to 63.3% of the one of two-hands. However, it is found that there is no significant difference between a person's isometric lifting strength for left-hand and right-hand. It is also shown that there is no significant difference between the peak force under the dynamic sub-maximal loading with one-hand and two-hands lifting activity. Similar results were obtained for the peak acceleration and peak velocity under the dynamic sub-maximal loading with one-hand and two-hands lifting activity. Isometric lifting strength at the height of knuckle was ranging from 2 to 3 times of the dynamic peak force during sub-maximal lifting. It is concluded that the dynamic peak forces under the sub-maximal loading are not highly correlated with the isometric lifting strength in similar postures.
Development of a Workload Assessment Model for Overhead Crane Operation
Kwon, O-Chae ; Lee, Sang-Ki ; Cho, Young-Seok ; Park, Jung-Chul ; Jung, Ki-Hyo ; You, Hee-Cheon ; Han, Sung-H. ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 45~59
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.045
The operating tasks of overhead crane have caused undue stress to the operators from physical, mental, and environmental workload. Existing workload assessment models for musculoskeletal disorders such as OWAS, RULA, and QEC have limited applicability to the crane operating tasks because they focus mainly on physical factors and do not consider the relative importance of each factor. The present study was to develop a workload assessment model customized to overhead crane operation, following a systematic process: (1) analyzing task characteristics, (2) selecting workload factors, (3) developing assessment methods, (4) establishing action levels, and (5) computerizing the assessment model. Based on literature review, worksite survey, and focus group interview, 4 physical factors (awkward posture, static posture, repetitive motion, and excessive force), 6 mental factors (visual demand, auditory demand, task complexity and difficulty, time urgency, work schedule related stress, and safety related stress), and 4 environmental factors (noise, vibration, dust, and temperature) were selected and their rating scales and relative weights were determined. Then, based on the workload assessment results of 8 overhead cranes operated at different workplaces, the action levels of each factor category were established. Finally, the crane operation assessment model was computerized for effective analysis and report preparation. The present approach is applicable to develop a customized workload assessment model for an operating task under consideration.
A Structured Method of User Data for User Interface Design in Home Network
Jung, Ji-Hong ; Kim, R.Young-Chul ; Pan, Young-Hwan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 61~66
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.061
The networked home is connected to the external world using a high speed network. The devices inside the house are connected using a wired and wireless network. Acquiring the user data is an essential step for designing the user interface in user centered design. In networked home, the numbers of use cases are exponentially increased because connected use cases are considered. Because the user data for networked home are too complicated, they are acquired and analyzed by a structured methodology. We surveyed 40 people to acquire the context data home and analyzed by 5W1H (Who, Where, What, When, Why, How). We established a framework for the user data using tasks, user, time, space, objects and environment. The data for home context was structured by our framework. This framework makes simple the home context and is helpful for user interface design in home network.
The Perceived Discomfort in the Daily Activities of Korean Elderly
Lee, Dong-Hun ; Na, Seok-Hee ; Ahn, Eun-Seon ; Chung, Min-K. ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 67~79
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.067
The objective of this study is to investigate a perceived discomfort and cause of Korean elderly in various activities such as work and leisure as well as in daily activities. 120 subjects (30 female and 30 male for each age: the young and elderly) participated in the interview type of questionnaire. Each participant answered to 41 items of activities of daily living. The examination of each item was progressed with 3 steps: whether to do the activity or not, degree of activity discomfort, and the reasons or causes of discomfort. Borg's CR10 scale is used to measure the degree of discomfort of daily activities. As a result, there are differences for the proportion of performers between two age groups, except for essential activities such as individual maintenance and housekeeping. The elderly complained about their daily activities more than the young did, and the degree of discomfort of women was significantly larger than that of men with aging. There are seven items, the mean degree of discomfort of which is over three points for the elderly, and they showed significant difference between two age groups. It was the important reason that physical capacities such as muscle strength and suppleness are declined. The results showed the characteristics of Korean elderly in the whole daily activities. These will be used to understand various life styles of them and to propose a field or direction of study related to the aging.
Work Posture Analysis Using Digital Ergonomic Simulation
Kim, Nam-Du ; Yim, Hyun-June ; Park, Hee-Sok ; Cha, Tae-In ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 81~88
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.081
The objective of this study was to investigate the validity of the digital ergonomic simulation (DES) method as a prospective alternative to the ergonomic analyses conducted by experts. The DES method utilizes commercial digital manufacturing software, and can compute the RULA scores continuously throughout the simulated work cycle. It was shown in a case study that the accuracy and objectivity of the DES method are superior to those obtained by experts. Also, it was demonstrated that the DES method has a distinct capability to simulate and validate a proposed work plan. Major limitations of the current DES method lie in the extensive time and efforts required for accurate digital simulation, which may be overcome through an automatic module for RULA data acquisition and a motion capture system.
A Study on Driver's Characteristics in Long Tunnel Using Driving Simulator
Park, Hyung-Jin ; Hwang, Kyung-Joo ; Shin, Hyun-Joo ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 89~102
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.089
Generally, it is well known that driving in tunnel imposes large burden to driver because of spatial constraint, limited visual field and so on. And such a burden of driver result in high accident occurrence. In this reason, studies dealing with features of driving and traffic flow in tunnel have been performed. However, information about characteristics of drivers and traffic in a very long tunnel is not accumulated yet. The purpose of this study is to identify the relations between tunnel length and burden of driver, driving patterns, traffic flow characteristics using the tunnel simulator that realizing various tunnel situations. For this, the tunnel simulation program was developed along 11km-length section. And biological data of 10 subjects gained from driving condition in simulation program was analyzed and compared with the result of real driving condition.
The Validation of Spreading Activation Model as Evaluation Methodology of Menu Structure: Eye Tracking Approach
Park, Jong-Soon ; Myung, Ro-Hae ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 103~112
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.103
This study was designed to validate Spreading Activation Theory (SAT) for an evaluation methodology for menu structure through Eye-Tracking approach. When a visual search is on the way, more eye fixations and time are necessary to visually process complex and vague area. From the aspect of recognition, well-designed menu structures were hypothesized to have fewer numbers of fixations and shorter duration because well-designed menu structures reflecting the users' mental model would be well matched with the product's menu structure, resulting in reducing the number of fixations and duration time. The results show that the shorter reaction times for SAT had significantly fewer numbers of fixation and shorter duration time as the hypothesis for this study stated. In conclusion, SAT was proved to be an effective evaluation methodology for menu structure with the eye tracking equipment. In addition, using SAT instead of the real performance experiment would be useful for designing user-centered systems and convenient information structures because SAT was proven to be the theoretical background for design and evaluation of menu structures.
Analysis of Musculoskeletal Disorders for Labor of Un-standardization Work; on the Subject of the Centering-Work in a Shipbuilding Industry
Koo, Bon-Ean ; Park, Keun-Sang ; Kim, Chang-Han ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 113~122
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.113
In shipbuilding industry, musculoskeletal disorders increase rapidly since 2001. Musculoskeletal disorders was occurred the number of 735 in 2003 and the number of 479 on the whole in 2002 and is increased. About this, it is in progress actively that a lot of research services for problem grasping and technology seminar for prevention of musculoskeletal disorders of shipbuilding industry with KOSHIPA (The Korea Shipbuilding Association) in the center in 2002. But, it is actuality that the research is in many difficulties by absence of basic data in shipbuilding industry that most un-standardization work forms. Therefore, this study analyzed present condition of musculoskeletal disorders to shipbuilding industry that most un-standardization work forms. Also, we analyzed on the subject of the Centering-work that appearance extremely much musculoskeletal disorders.
Risk Factors Analysis System: Current Issues and Future Directions
Jeong, Byung-Yong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 123~129
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.123
In 2003 the Korean Government introduced 'the risk factors analysis system' in order to prevent the work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In addition, the proclamation by the Ministry of Labor delineated eleven spheres of work associated with musculoskeletal disorders. According to Occupational Safety and Health Regulations, business proprietors who have workers engaged in tasks associated with musculoskeletal disorders are required to carry out a survey on risk factors every three years. Effective risk factors analysis principles and practices will succeed by refining the workplaces continuously. However, numerous difficulties arise during the application of risk factors analysis to the various industries. We discuss a number of issues related to risk factors analysis system, and suggest a number of directions for future work in this area.
Development of the Active Ankle Foot Orthosis to Induce the Normal Gait for the Paralysis Patients
Hwang, Sung-Jae ; Kim, Jung-Yoon ; Hwang, Seon-Hong ; Park, Sun-Woo ; Yi, Jin-Bock ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 131~136
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.131
In this study, we developed an active ankle-foot orthosis(AAFO) which can control dorsi/ plantar flexion of the ankle joint to prevent foot drop and toe drag during walking. 3D gait analyses were performed on five healthy subjects under three different gait conditions: the normal gait without AFO, the SAFO gait with the conventional plastic AFO, and the AAFO gait with the developed AFO. As a result, the developed AAFO preeminently induced the normal gait compared to the SAFO. Additionally, AAFO prevented foot drop by proper plantarflexion during loading response and provided enough plantarflexion moment as a driving force to walk forward by sufficient push-off during pre-swing. AAFO also could prevent toe drag by proper dorsiflexion during swing phase. These results indicate that the developed AAFO may have more clinical benefits to treat foot drop and toe drag, compared to conventional AFOs, and also may be useful in patients with other orthotic devices.
Survey of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Dentists
Cha, Joo-Hyoung ; Ryu, Tae-Beum ; Choi, Hwa-Soon ; Lee, Jai-Bong ; Kim, Myeng-Ki ; Chung, Min-K. ; Jeong, Cheol-Hyun ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 137~147
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.137
Dentists are known to be highly exposed to the musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). The present study investigated the prevalence of MSD among Korean dentists and association between their MSD and physical workload. In addition, work-related causes of high physical workload were identified and needs of dentists were collected for improvement of dental instrument and environment. Four types of questionnaires including the Nordic questionnaire were used to investigate body troubles, physical workload, causes of physical workload, and improvement priority of dental components. A total of 104 dentists in Seoul were participated in the survey. Neck trouble (82%) was the most prevalent in the participated dentists and shoulder (68%) and low back trouble (56%) followed, while low back trouble was reported to be most common in previous western studies. The body troubles were related to the physical workload of the corresponding body parts, although they were not associated with personal characteristics. Most dentists selected 'to keep direct view inside patient's mouth' and 'no support of the hand with dental instruments' as causes of awkward and strenuous work postures. They wanted design improvement for some components in their operating room such as operating light and arrangement of workplace.
A Study on the Eye-Hand Coordination for Korean Text Entry Interface Development
Kim, Jung-Hwan ; Hong, Seung-Kweon ; Myung, Ro-Hae ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 149~155
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.149
Recently, various devices requiring text input such as mobile phone IPTV, PDA and UMPC are emerging. The frequency of text entry for them is also increasing. This study was focused on the evaluation of Korean text entry interface. Various models to evaluate text entry interfaces have been proposed. Most of models were based on human cognitive process for text input. The cognitive process was divided into two components; visual scanning process and finger movement process. The time spent for visual scanning process was modeled as Hick-Hyman law, while the time for finger movement was determined as Fitts' law. There are three questions on the model-based evaluation of text entry interface. Firstly, are human cognitive processes (visual scanning and finger movement) during the entry of text sequentially occurring as the models. Secondly, is it possible to predict real text input time by previous models. Thirdly, does the human cognitive process for text input vary according to users' text entry speed. There was time gap between the real measured text input time and predicted time. The time gap was larger in the case of participants with high speed to enter text. The reason was found out investigating Eye-Hand Coordination during text input process. Differently from an assumption that visual scan on the keyboard is followed by a finger movement, the experienced group performed both visual scanning and finger movement simultaneously. Arrival Lead Time was investigated to measure the extent of time overlapping between two processes. 'Arrival Lead Time' is the interval between the eye fixation on the target button and the button click. In addition to the arrival lead time, it was revealed that the experienced group uses the less number of fixations during text entry than the novice group. This result will contribute to the improvement of evaluation model for text entry interface.
The Study on Workload Reducing Effects of Multi-Elastic Insoles
Lee, Chang-Min ; Lee, Kyun-Deuk ; Oh, Yeon-Ju ; Kim, Jin-Hoon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 157~165
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.157
The Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) can be occurred by various factors such as repetition, forceful exertions and awkward postures. Especially, occurrences of the WMSDs on the waist and lower limb are reported in workplaces, demanded standing postures for a long time, in service and manufacturing industry. The static and standing postures without movement for a long time increase work loads to the lower limb and the waist. Accordingly, anti-fatigue mat or anti-fatigue insole is used as a preventing device of the WMSDs. However anti-fatigue mats are limited in space and movement. In this study, multi-elastic insoles are designed and shown the effects of the workload reduction for a long time under the standing work. The foot pressures and EMG (Electromyography) are measured at 0 hour and after 2 hours by 6 health students in their twenties. The 6 prototype insoles are designed with three elastic (Low, Medium and High). These insoles are compared with no insole (insole type 7) as control group. The EMG measurement was conducted to waist (erector spinae muscle), thigh (vastus lateralis muscle) and calf (gastrocnemius muscle). The foot pressure is analyzed by mean pressure value and the EMG analysis is investigated through MF (Median Frequency), MPF (Mean Power Frequency) and ZCR (Zero Crossing Rate). The results of the foot pressure show that the multi-elastic insoles had smaller foot pressure value than that of no-insole. Moreover, Insole 2 and Insole 3 have the smallest increasing rate in foot pressure. The EMG results show that the multi-elastic insoles had smaller EMG shift value than that of no-insole in 2 hour, and then shift value shows the smallest value in Insole 2. Therefore, this study presents that the multi-elastic insoles have reducing effects of the work load for a long time standing work in both side of foot pressure and EMG.
A Research on EEG Synchronization of Movement Cognition for Brain Computer Interface
Whang, Min-Cheol ; Kim, Kyu-Tae ; Goh, Sang-Tae ; Jeong, Byung-Yong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 2, 2007, Pages 167~171
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.2.167
Brain computer interface is the technology of interface for next generation. Recently, user intention has been tried to be recognized for interfacing a computer. EEG plays important role in developing practical application in this area. Much research has focused on extracting EEG commander generated by human movement. ERD/ERS has generally accepted as important EEG parameters for prediction of human movement. However, There has been difference between initial movement indicated by ERD/ERS and real movement. Therefore, this study was to determine the time differences for brain interface by ERD/ERS. Five university students performed ten repetitive movements. ERD/ERS was determined according to movement execution and the significant pattern showed the difference between movement execution and movement indication of ERD/ERS.