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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Nov 2007
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Aug 2007
Volume 26, Issue 2 - May 2007
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
Effects of Multi-modality Cues on Personal Navigation in Wearable Computing
Jeon, Ha-Young ; Chae, Haeng-Suk ; Hong, Ji-Young ; Han, Kwang-Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.001
Navigation system or way finding in Wearable computer help disabled and impaired persons and it is impossible to be safe and efficient for drivers as well as pedestrian. Wearable computing situation must be multi-tasking simultaneously and users need minimal attention. In this paper, we used virtual environment as real way-finding similarly. The direction cues of navigation system are investigated as visual only, visual & auditory, and visual & speech. In the paper, the trial demonstrates the difference of performance in detection of directing and performance of motor and subjective satisfaction of user.
Evaluating Performance of Pointing Interface of Dynamic Gain Control in Wearable Computing Environment
Hong, Ji-Young ; Chae, Haeng-Suk ; Han, Kwang-Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 9~16
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.009
Input devices of wearable computer are difficult to use, so a lot of alternative pointing devices have been considered in recent years. In order to resolve this problem, this paper proposed a dynamic gain control method which is able to improve the performance of wearable pointing device and showed an experimental result comparing this method with conventional method. Also the effects of methods were compared in terms of device (wearable and desktop). The result of calculating throughputs(index of performance) by Fitts' law showed that the pointing performance in dynamic gain condition was improved 1.4 times more than normal gain.
Eye-Tracking and Protocol Analyses of Expert and Novice Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control
Hyun, Suk-Hoon ; Lee, Kyung-Soo ; Kim, Kyeong-Tae ; Sohn, Young-Woo ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 17~24
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.017
Analyses of eye tracking and think-aloud protocol data were performed to examine novice-expert differences in perceptual and cognitive aspects of air traffic controllers' situation awareness. In Experiment 1, three groups of field air traffic controllers (experts, intermediates, novices) were asked to perceive situations that were manipulated by situation complexity. In Experiment 2, protocol analysis for previous situation awareness tasks was performed to extract different task models and strategy models as a function of expertise. Then delayed-recall task and interviews about air control plans for the recalled situations were also executed. Results showed that expert controllers concentrate only on several critical features and have their own strategies to reduce mental workloads.
Strength and Endurance of the Deep Neck Flexors of Industrial Workers With and Without Neck Pain
Kim, Jae-Cheol ; Yi, Chung-Hwi ; Kwon, Oh-Yun ; Oh, Duck-Won ; Jeon, Hye-Seon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 25~31
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.025
The purpose of this study was to investigate the strength and endurance of the deep neck flexor muscles in individuals with work-related neck pain. Subjects consisted of two groups: twenty industrial workers with neck pain and twenty age-matched healthy subjects. To evaluate the strength and endurance of deep cervical flexors, maximum voluntary contractile strength (MVCS) and a sustained time at sub-maximal voluntary contractile strength (SMVCS) (80% and 50% of MVCS) were measured using a pressure biofeedback unit and a stop watch in supine. The MVCS of deep neck flexor muscles was 29.67
4.56 in neck pain group and 54.27
6.78㎜Hg in normal group. The sustained time at 80% SMVCS was 12.42
2.64 seconds and 55.12
12.76 seconds in the groups with and without neck pain. The sustained time at 50% SMVCS was 25.40±5.88 seconds and 109.70
31.50 seconds in the groups with and without neck pain. The difference of the lower jaw position was 16.75
3.57㎜ and 23.03
2.51㎜. The MVCS, endurance at the two sub-maximal levels and the difference of the lower jaw position were significantly greater in the group without neck pain than with neck pain (p$<$0.05). The findings indicate that the maximal strength and endurance of the deep neck flexors were decreased in the workers with neck pain compared to those without neck pain. Therefore, it is necessary to include strengthening and endurance exercises of the deep neck flexor muscles in therapeutic program of work-related musculoskeletal disorders involving neck pain.
Research of Measurement and Evaluation of White Uniformity Considering Visual Angle on TFT-LCD
Chang, Sung-Ho ; Seo, Sang-Won ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 33~39
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.033
In the full white pattern, white uniformity means the degree of uniform distribution of white color and luminance across the whole screen. Among the FPDs(Flat Panel Displays), the TFT-LCD has weak point of viewing angle. The viewing angle considering location and direction can cause different image quality of the TFT-LCD. Therefore, white uniformity of the TFT-LCD must consider viewing angle. Based on international standards, this study proposes an alternative that is realistic and ergonomic measurement of white uniformity of the TFT-LCD.
A Study on the Short Break Time on VDT Work using EMG
Kim, Yu-Chang ; Lee, Jun-Pal ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 41~47
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.041
This paper suggested the best work conditions including short break time and the number of mouse clicks on the computer work for the prevention of MSDs on VDT work. Fatigue measures included EMG based parameters. The short break time conditions are grouped into 7, 15, and 30 seconds after every work for 10 min and the number of mouse clicks are divided into 10, 20, and 30 clicks/min. The result of the ANOVA of the shift value of %MVC(Maximum Voluntary Contraction) showed the following: 1) There was a considerable difference as regards to the break time except the number of mouse clicks on the upper trapezius muscle(p$<$0.05). The best conditions were shown in 15 sec after every 10 min and 30 clicks/min. 2) There were considerable differences as regards to the number of mouse clicks except the break time on the extensor digitorum muscle and extensor carpi ulnaris muscle(p$<$0.05). The best conditions were shown in 7 sec after every 10min and 10 clicks/min.
Determination of the Optimal Handle Position for Cartons through the Evaluation of Youth User's Preferences
Jung, In-Ju ; Jung, Hwa-S. ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 49~56
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.049
Handles on objects are very important to increase the safety and efficiency of manual handling of people who use them. In this study, four different prototype cartons combined with auxiliary handles were designed to determine the optimal handle position of cartons through the evaluation of user preferences. Twenty male students are participated in the experiment. Likert-5 point summated rating method was applied to evaluate the user preferences for provided handles of the carton among upper, middle, and lower position under the four different sizes and materials handling conditions(carrying positions). The results show that the subjects preferred upper part of the handle on the small cartons regardless of the carrying positions while upper and middle parts of the handle on the big cartons for handling above the waist height were preferred. An optimal handle position depending on the different sizes of carton and the different carrying positions were recommended based on the results of evaluation. It is thus recommended that the cartons provide handles on its relevant position depending on the size and materials handling condition to reduce the musculoskeletal stress and in turn to increase the user satisfaction.
Expert Evaluation Method for the Suitability of Universal Design
Jung, Kwang-Tae ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 57~64
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.057
In the world, the old population is growing fast and many countries went into an advanced age society. Therefore the development of everyday products, electric appliances, and welfare services considering old people is more important than ever. In particular, the complexity of products can cause many problems for old people. Universal design is an approach to create environments and products that recognizes the diversity of users, regardless of their ability or age. Universality evaluation for a product is very important to verify old people's accessibility and usability for the product. Universality means how good a product was designed in view of universal design principles. In this study, UNIX, a method to evaluate the universality of a product was developed. UNIX was based on seven universal design principles; equitable use, flexibility in use, simple and intuitive, perceptible information, tolerance for error, low physical effort, size and space for approach and use. UNIX is a kind of expert evaluation and very simple method. The method is consisted of two steps. In the first step, relative weights for seven principles and subjective ratings on design suitability for each principle are obtained. In the second step, universality index (UNIX) of each product is obtained by weighted average multiplying relative weights and rating scores. As a case study, this method was applied for mouse designs. In conclusion, this method could be effectively applied to evaluate the universality of a product.
Workflow-based Usability Evaluation of Mobile Phone Messaging Functions
Choi, Jae-Hyun ; Kong, Yong-Ku ; Jung, Myung-Chul ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 65~73
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.065
This study evaluated the short message service (SMS) and multimedia message service (MMS) usability of mobile phones and wireless internet services by performance failure rates and flowcharts that adopted the concept of state diagrams. Forty-eight participants who had an experience of using mobile phones were recruited by posting an advertisement on websites for the experiment. They carried out both SMS and MMS tasks with the mobile phones of LG Cyon and Samsung Anycall as well as the wireless internet services of LGT ez-i, KTF magicN, and SKT NATE. In general, Cyon had the lower performance failure rate than Anycall for SMS, and ez-i had the lowest performance failure rate than the other services for MMS. More specifically through the workflow analysis, most participants used hot keys to take 7-8 steps to send a SMS including a symbol and had a difficulty in typing the symbol. They also took 10-11 steps to send a MMS after taking and attaching two pictures. Anycall, magicN, and NATE had significantly large error and failure rates due to the limited option of the menu paths that users could take and poor compatibilities of menu names and between menu and navigation keys. This study showed the possibility of use of flowcharts for systematic and specific usability evaluation methods and found the causes of performance errors and failures with mobile phones and wireless internet services to provide insight into their design.
Survey and Analysis of Pedestrians' Preferences on Walking Directions
Jung, In-Ju ; Jung, Hwa-S. ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 75~83
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.075
Why do some countries walk on the right and others on the left? People have a dominant hand which leads to a natural tendency to favor one side of the road or another depending on the means of transportation being used. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the stereotype of Korean regarding preferred walking direction in encountering various facilities and provide the appropriate information to traffic policy makers. Six hundred Korean male and female subjects aging from 12 to 83 were selected to investigate the various statistics about their preferred walking direction and their employment characteristics on walking diverse facilities. The walking directions of eleven different facilities were asked along with other relative subjects' characteristics(e.g., age, gender, hand and foot dominance) to determine the relationship among these obtained data. The descriptive statistics showed that 73.7% and 26.3% were preferred walking right and left direction respectively. Moreover, various statistical analysis revealed that general tendency of walking direction was varied by hand and foot dominances. There were strong tendency that right-handed people prefer walking right side of the road and vise versa, hence this should be considered in setting up traffic policies. As a concluding remark, it is better to design traffic policies and regulations in the way that peoples' preference and expectation.
Application of Quality Function Deployment to Ergonomic Design of a Plier
Park, Hee-Sok ; Lee, Mi-Ran ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 85~90
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.085
This study shows a way to develop ergonomic design of a plier through quality function deployment (QFD) approach. User needs for pliers, as well as the engineering characteristics which have influence on the ergonomic quality of pliers were determined from the interviews and questionnaires with various user groups. This information was entered in the house of quality, and the results show that the handle is the most important quality factor. A new model was proposed in which ergonomic and gender aspects were considered. QFD is considered a suitable method especially for the manufacturing and/or design fields where biomechanical or physiological background is not present.
Optimal Layout of Vehicle Pedals Depending on the Types and Positions of Vehicle Pedals
Choi, Jeong-Pil ; Jung, Eui-S. ; Jeong, Seong-Wook ; Jeong, Seong-Wook ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 91~101
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.091
The purpose of this study is to propose an optimal layout for the accelerator and brake pedals in sedan and SUV, and also to compare the pendant-type pedal with organ-type pedal. 12 male subjects participated in the experiment, the subjects were divided into 3 groups according to height percentile(under 50%ile, 50%ile to 75%ile, over 75%ile). Independent variables were seat height (H
), X and Y coordinates of the center of accelerator and brake pedals and the x and y relative distance between two pedals. Dependent variable was subjective ratings for lower body discomfort. The response surface methodology using a central composite design was employed to develop a prediction model for lower body discomfort of each pedal. It is noticeable that the lateral position of the accelerator in all groups was not statistically significant. The optimal locations of both pedals were found to be distinct according to the percentile of subjects. X distance from accelerator to brake of both-type pedals is similar. But Y distance from accelerator to brake of organ-type is less about 2-3cm than that of pedant-type.
Categorization of the Body Types and Their Characteristics of Obese Korean Men
Nam, Jong-Yong ; Park, Sung-Joon ; Jung, Eui-S. ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 103~111
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.103
The purpose of this study is to categorize and analyze the body shape of obese Korean men that are needed for industrial design. Using the anthropometric data that were surveyed through the 5
Size Korea project, this study was conducted in four steps mostly through the multivariate statistical analysis. In the first step, Broca, BMI, WHR indices are used to define obesity and select obese men from Korean adults and teens. After 34 human anthropometric variables are supposed to be related to obesity were extracted through an expect survey. In the second step, a factor analysis was executed for those human anthropometric variables. Through this analysis, we obtained the human body factors that are related to the representation of obesity. Then the third step, we used a cluster analysis from the result of the factor analysis. And ANOVA analysis was also conducted to obtain the critical obese human anthropometric variables. In the final step, we found the characteristics of the body types of obese men according to clusters and ages. The body types of obese men classified in the study are expected to be applied to product design for clothing, furniture, automobile packaging, etc.
Survey of Customer Satisfaction of Kimchi Refrigerators with Focus on Physical User Interfaces
Lee, In-Seok ; Park, Jae-Hee ; Park, Tae-Joo ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 113~120
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.113
Kimchi refrigerator is a specific refrigerator for Kimchi, Korean traditional fermented food. It has been fast popularized since it was developed about ten years ago. In this study, a survey was conducted with 103 female voluntary respondents to understand the customer satisfaction of the Kimchi refrigerator in the aspect of physical use. The respondents showed a high satisfaction for the use of refrigerators. It was, however, shown that they felt highly uncomfortable in using the refrigerator. In particular, the high discomfort was related to the fact that the customer should bend her torso very much to put Kimchi containers into the refrigerator, take them out of it, or clean its inside. Seventy-five percent of the respondents reported the experience of body-part pains and 58.4% of them reported pain experience in the back. It is presumed that these results are highly correlated to the top-cover design of the refrigerator, which is the most popular type to improve its performance of maintaining proper temperature. Therefore, the developers should consider these usability problems related to the refrigerator and try to enhance its usability by adopting ergonomics in the design stage.
Short-Term Human Factors Engineering Measures for Minimizing Human Error in Nuclear Power Facilities
Lee, Dhong-Hoon ; Byun, Seong-Nam ; Lee, Yong-Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 121~125
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.121
The objective of this study is to develop short-term prevention measures for minimizing possible human error in nuclear power facilities. To accomplish this objective, a group of subject matter experts (SMEs) were formed, which is consisting of those from regulatory bodies, academia, industries and research institutes. Prevention measures were established for urgent execution in nuclear power facilities on a short-term basis. This study suggests short-term measures for reducing human error on three different areas; (1) strengthening worker management, (2) enhancing workplace environments and working methods, and (3) improving the technologies regulating human factors. Under the leadership of the Ministry of Science and Technology, these short-term measures will be pursued and implemented systematically by utility and regulatory agencies. The details of prevention measures are presented and discussed.
The Application of Work Domain Analysis for the Development of Vehicle Control Display
Nam, Taek-Su ; Myung, Ro-Hae ; Hong, Seung-Kweon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 127~133
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.127
The purpose of this study is to apply WDA (Work Domain Analysis) for the development of EID (Ecological Interface Design) of vehicle control display. At first, a work domain model on the automobile operation was developed using the AH (Abstraction Hierarchy) which is one of WDA tools. Secondly, information requirements that should be included in vehicle control displays were extracted on the basis of the completed model. The vehicle control information that typical automobiles interface displays currently provide occurred on the low level of the work domain model. This implies that current control displays impose too heavy cognitive workload on automobile drivers. Information requirements that can be included new vehicle control display are also discovered in the high level of the work domain model. The detailed information for EID was not proposed in this study. In the further study, the development of vehicle control display will be deeply conducted, using the results of this study.
Icon Evaluation Using Spreading Activation Model
Lee, Sun-Jung ; Myung, Ro-Hae ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 135~142
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.135
Icon conveys symbolic information which they have become ubiquitous as main element of GUI. However, users often cannot intuitively understand its functional meanings. Icon has to be designed for users to easily understand functional meanings. In order to evaluate icon, the spreading activation model can be used to effectively understand the process of information retrieval. In asymmetric spreading activation model is that in the two nodes the degree of spreading activation is different according to direction. Thus, asymmetric spreading activation theory was performed evaluating the strength of association when users see visual image to associate their verbal meaning (visual image - verbal meaning pair) and users see verbal meaning to associate their visual image (verbal meaning - visual image pair). According to the direction, this study hypothesizes that the well-designed icons have symmetric relationship rather than asymmetric relationship between the two pairs. The strength of association is measured through the reaction time and the accuracy rate. In performing SAT (spreading activation test), the ten icons were selected as word processing software icons. After first SAT, newly designed icons were developed based on Korean mental model, and second SAT was conducted using them. The results showed that the accuracy rate of newly designed icon has been improved. Also there is significant difference of reaction time between current icons and newly designed icons. Well-designed icon is confirmed that the strength of association relationship arises symmetrically rather than asymmetrically between the two pairs. User centered icons could be designed by improving the strength of association between the two pairs. Asymmetric SAT evaluates the strength of the association between the visual image and the verbal meanings to contribute to the development of icon which it related to human's association structure.
Effect of Arrangement of Design Elements on Recognition of Complex Signs
Ishihara, Maki ; Okada, Akira ; Yamashita, Kuniko ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 143~146
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.143
Due to the expansion of cities and the increasing number of large-scale and complex public spaces, there is an increase in public signage. Moreover, the information described on these signs tends to be diverse and complicated. Complex signs that contain multiple destinations or other information must be considered to determine not only the proper size, color, etc. but also the most effective arrangement of design elements. In the previous research, the cognitive utility of complex public signs was estimated using computer simulation software. In the current research, we focused on the objective estimation of the effectiveness of the results obtained in the previous research utilizing an eye mark recording system. Two cognitive engineering experiments clarified five points for improvement in the usability of complex signs, as follows: 1) Parallel construction of characters and pictograms is more efficient. 2) Grouping elements result in rapid recognition of information chunks. 3) Visual characters and pictograms are effective, along with proper density of information. 4) Specific arrangement of sign arrows is effective. 5) Figures on signs influence the sequence of information searches.
Ergonomic Workload Evaluation and Musculo-skeletal Symptomatic Features of Street Cleaners
Lee, Hyang-Ki ; Myong, Jun-Pyo ; Jeong, Eun-Hee ; Jeong, Hye-Sun ; Koo, Jung-Wan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 147~152
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.147
The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculo-skeletal symptomatic features of municipal sanitation workers and to compare differences of the musculo-skeletal symptoms by work types. We conducted descriptive cross-sectional survey concerning the musculo-skeletal symptomatic features of 315 street cleaners in Seoul and GyeongGi Province, Korea, during 2 weeks of September 2006. Questionnaires were consisted of general characteristics, occupational characteristics and musculo-skeletal symptoms. And we observed their works and evaluated their movement and posture by REBA. For work types, tools and subjective physical work loading, there were statistical difference whether or not NIOSH symptom positive on upper limb. Musculo-skeletal symptoms on upper limb were claimed from 43.2% of street cleaners, more than in 32.4% of cleaners. Musculo-skeletal symptoms on upper limb were reported higher in the group who felt their subjective physical work loading severe than in the otherwise group. The REBA results were over 'high risk stage' in street cleaners. Street cleaners had more repetitive motions than solid waste collectors on upper limbs. Works according to the criteria of musculoskeletal burdened work by the Ministry of Labor results were over 'high risk stage' of No. 2 and No. 4 in street cleaners. We found that street cleaners complained musculo-skeletal symptoms on upper limb more than solid waste collectors. This study suggests that it is necessary for street cleaners to carry out the prevention program of musculo-skeletal diseases. For street cleaner, the measure plans such as job rotation, automatic street sweepers, reducing work hours are helpful in preventing musculoskeletal symptoms on the upper limb.
Comparison of assessment by OCRA Checklist and RULA at an auto Manufacturing Plant
Lee, Kwan-Suk ; Jung, Min-Soo ; Jeon, Seong-Jae ; Chun, Young-Ji ; Kim, Jae-Hyoung ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 26, issue 4, 2007, Pages 153~160
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2007.26.4.153
Due to the high occurrence rate of musculoskeletal disorders(MSDs), many Korean companies adopted various assessment tools to evaluate workers' musculoskeletal stress. Using the results of this evaluation, tasks were selected for improvements. However, there are still many workers who complained of musculoskeletal stress of their tasks. Their tasks usually consist of repetitive activities and a short rest cycle. This prompts a concern of reliability of the evaluation tools and especially RULA. Thus in this study, OCRA(The Occupational Repetitive Action tool) was used to check whether RULA(Rapid Upper Limb Assessment) evaluates workers' musculoskeletal stress reasonably well since OCRA has been known to be a good evaluation tool for repetitive tasks and tasks with short recovery periods. The evaluation was conducted on 142 tasks. It was found that 65 tasks showed higher action levels by OCRA than by RULA. However, 13 tasks showed the reversed result and 64 tasks showed the same level regardless of the evaluation tool. It was concluded that either RULA or OCRA alone cannot evaluate all types of tasks very well. It is suggested that OCRA needs to be used with RULA together for the evaluations of musculoskeletal stress at workplaces where repetitive activities and short recovery periods exist.