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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Ergonomics' Role for Preventing Musculoskeletal Disorders
Jeong, Byung-Yong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 393~404
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.393
The purpose of this study is to identify the trends and features of existing articles on work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD), and to suggest the direction for future work. Articles on WMSD were reviewed and analyzed by research objects and characteristics. This paper describes a number of issues related to strategies and practices which were done in order to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders; 1) trends and characteristics of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, 2) legal enforcement related to systems preventing WMSD, 3) workplace assessment methods and guidelines for manual material handling, 4) ergonomic intervention, ergonomics program and its effectiveness. A list of recommendations presented in this study can be used to provide a baseline for the prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
Status and Characteristics of Occurrence of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders
Kim, Kyoo-Sang ; Park, Jung-Keun ; Kim, Day-Sung ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 405~422
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.405
Occupational musculoskeletal disorders currently account for the largest proportion of the occupational illnesses in Korea. In this research, status of musculoskeletal disorders among the occupational illnesses was examined through workers' compensation claims data. Types and characteristics of musculoskeletal disorders were looked at other data set as well. The data sets included epidemiological investigation data reported by Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, and data collected from occupational disease surveillance reports and Korean occupational health-related scientific journals. Number of cases, incidence rate and insurance benefits for occupational musculoskeletal disorders in Korea are increasing every year. In addition, musculoskeletal disorders occurrence is shifted from large enterprises group to small-and-medium group, from manufacturing to service sector, and from production workers to office and professional workers. Although low back pain is still most common, its occurrence characteristics is gradually shifted from traumatic to cumulative while musculoskeletal disorders are somewhat seemingly moved from lumbar to upper limb body part. Musculoskeletal disorders were observed to be more diverse and prevalent in epidemiological investigations or surveillance data rather in workers' compensation claims data. Musculoskeletal disorders occurrence is related to demographic factors, occupational psychosocial factors, and ergonomic risk factors at workplace for which appropriate preventive measures needed to be made accordingly.
A Study on the Prevention System of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korea and Other Countries
Lee, Dong-Kyung ; Kim, Jeung-Ho ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 423~433
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.423
The presence of musculoskeletal burden tasks and work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) at Industrial workers was not well-known until 2000 in Korea. Since The Occupational Safety & Health Law was registered a business of proprietor duty in preventing work-related MSDs of workers In July of 2003 WMSDs became a big issue in Korea. A social previous interest was focused on the manufacturing industry just like auto and shipping industry in manufacturing sectors but nowadays it is spreading out to non-manufacturing fields gradually. Nevertheless, we have WMSD prevention Law and System in Korea to reduce WMSDs effectively and systematically we recognized some mistakes and problems of WMSD Law and System. In this paper we study these recent problems in Korea from about 10 years experience and proposed some proposals as discussion.
A Survey on the Workload Evaluation Methods and Their Applications to WMSD Work in Industries
Park, Jae-Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 435~444
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.435
To identify and evaluate the risk factors in WMSD work, a number of ergonomic workload evaluation methods have been developed. In the legal examination of WMSD risk factors, simple observational workload evaluation methods are widely used instead of using costly measurement equipments such as EMG and motion analyzer. The simple workload evaluation methods can be categorized into three groups; risk factor checklist methods, posture observation methods, and manual material handling task evaluation methods. In terms of the categories, this survey summarized several representative workload evaluation methods and compared them each other. Then some industrial application cases referring each the workload evaluation methods were surveyed. Due to the characteristics of each method, the selection and application procedure of workload evaluation method should be appropriate for the corresponding work. Therefore, some guidelines for the selection and application procedure of workload evaluation method were suggested.
Biomechanical Measuring Techniques for Evaluation of Workload
Kim, Jung-Yong ; Park, Ji-Soo ; Cho, Young-Jin ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 445~453
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.445
It is necessary to quantitatively evaluate the workload of workers in order to improve the level of safety and efficiency as well as to prevent workers from musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this study is to introduce biomechanical methods that are largely used to quantitatively evaluate workload. The biomechanical methods use kinematics and kinetics to analyze the movement and force of biomechanical body. Motion analysis, joint angle measurement, ground reaction force, mathematical model, and electromyography (EMG) were introduced as a tool or device for biomechanical evaluation. In this study, the special feature of each method was emphasized and important tips for field measurement were summarized. The information and technique disclosed in this summary can be used to evaluate and design the workplace better by effectively control the workload of field workers.
Prevention of the Musculoskeletal Disorders at Upper or Lower Extremities
Park, Hee-Sok ; Lee, Yun-Keun ; Yim, Sang-Hyuk ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 455~463
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.455
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are recognized as leading causes of significant human suffering, loss of productivity, and economic burdens on our society. WMSDs are associated with work patterns that include fixed or constrained body positions, continual repetition of movements, force concentrated on small parts of the body, cold environment and vibration. Main effort to protect workers from WMSDs should focus on avoiding repetitive patterns of work through engineering controls which may include mechanization, ergonomic design of tools and equipment, and workplace layout. Where elimination of the risk factors is not practical, administrative controls involving job rotation, job enlargement and enrichment, teamwork should be considered.
Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders and Psychosocial Factors
Kim, In-Ah ; Bae, Kyu-Jung ; Kwon, Soon-Chan ; Song, Jae-Chul ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 465~471
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.465
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have been the most common health problem covered by worker's accident compensation insurance for several years in Korea. Korean government has strengthened related regulations since 2003. People looked forward to decreasing the incidence and prevalence of WMSDs. At first, the expectation could be realized. However, we were bumped against to limit at present. The authors think it is due to the negligence of psychosocial factors for WMSDs. Many researchers reported that the various psychosocial factors were associated with WMSDs or symptoms. Job demand, social support, job satisfaction and decision latitude are the major risk factors in job stress aspect. Work pressure, lack of rest, qualified workload, workload variability and monotonous job are the significant risk factors in work context of work organization. Employment flexibility, downsizing, lean production, contingent work and pay for by the piece are also the risk factors in an organizational context. Furthermore, these risk factors are associated with each other across different dimensions of work organization. Suggestive possible pathways between these risks and WMSDs have been taken note of increasing muscle strain or ergonomic stress and of a cognitive aspect. The authors suggest these risk factors could explain the limitation of the regulation system for WMSDs. In conclusion, the strategy to manage psychosocial factors is the one of the essential approach to prevent WMSDs.
Medical Approach of Work-related Musculoskeletal Diseases
Hong, Jung-Yeon ; Koo, Jung-Wan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 473~478
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.473
For the medical approaches of work-related musculoskeletal diseases, it is important to consider occupational relatedness and occupational fitness. Clinical approach includes physical examination, radiologic tests and other related tests and we should choose proper management which is suitable to workers' status for the prevention of early disease's progression and later disabilities. Also, it suggests that occupational prevention program consultation for work-related musculoskeletal diseases considering workers' variable circumstances should be done via occupational relatedness and occupational fitness.
Prevention and Management of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Automobile-related Industries
Lim, Hyeon-Kyo ; Luo, Meiling ; Kim, Dong-Gyun ; Kim, Hong-Young ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 479~486
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.479
Automobile-related industries have been a few of leading ones among domestic industries reporting high rates of musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD's). In this paper, major ergonomic aspects of automobile-related works were reviewed with reference to WMSD's. According to the result, high repeatability of works with as short as 1 minute or less, awkward postures required, excessive forces, and vibrations due to power tools were drawn out as major physical factors. To eliminate or mitigate those factors - at least in automobile-related industries - ergonomic approach has tried for more than a decade. With all, however, ergonomists still seem to confront with several problems to be solved such as development of appropriate assessment tools, enhancement of work improvement activities, system establishment for continuous prevention and management of WMSD's. As lots of previous researches declared, it was concluded that ergonomic approach would collaborate with other approaches such as ndustrial medicine considering physical factors as well as psychosocial factors, and that the necessity of an integrated Occupational Safety and Health Management System(OHSMS) was mentioned.
A Study of the Implementation of the Ergonomics Program in a Shipbuilding Company
Kim, Yu-Chang ; Chang, Seong-Rok ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 487~493
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.487
Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) became a major problem since 2000 in shipbuilding industry. WMSDs are known to be resulted from awkward postures, high repetitive motions, excessive forces, mechanical stress and vibration. Korean government enacted a law to require companies to take measures to prevent musculoskeletal disorders at work. If there are more than 10 incidences of WMSDs or 5 incidences which are more than 10 percent of all workers in a company, this law requires a company to implement an ergonomics program. A few large companies in shipbuilding industry have already implemented or are in the process of implementing an ergonomics program. This paper presents a case study of an implementation of an ergonomics program in a Korean shipbuilding company. We audited the process of the ergonomics program in this shipbuilding company four times for 3 years. Based on the findings, this paper presents effects and problems of an ergonomics program and improvement measures of them. These findings will help companies which want to implement an ergonomics program in the future.
Evaluation of Convenience Equipment for Improve Work Efficiency and Preventing of Farm Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders
Lee, Kyung-Suk ; Kim, Kwan-Woo ; Choi, Hae-Sun ; Kim, Chang-Han ; Nam, So-Young ; Lee, Kyoung-Mi ; Choi, Youn-Woo ; Park, Keun-Sang ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 495~503
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.495
The packing and sorting processes of grape are required repetitive movements to need considerable physical load for a long time. And thereby, there is strong possibility to cause musculoskeletal disorders. In this study, ergonomically designed convenience equipments of worktable and handcart are introduced for improvement of the working movements and less physical load to increase the work efficiency. For objective analysis of the movements and the workload between the ones before and after the improvement, we measured heart rate, OWAS, RULA, REBA, LMM, moving Line and work time. Also, we used a checklist of physical fatigue regions to confirm the subjective evaluation of physical load of workers. As the result of study, it showed lower heart rate, value of Working Postures (OWAS, RULA, REBA) and LMM in the work after introduction of those convenient equipments than the work of before the introduction. The work time and moving Line were shortened and the number of grape boxes packed within the same work time was increased, too. Also the overall load as the subjective evaluation was reduced.
The Responding Strategies of Musculorskeletal Disease in Aging Society
Yang, Yeong-Ae ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 505~511
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.505
The purpose of this study was to show the occurrences of musculoskeletal disease in aging society and basic information on developments of a systematic prevention program and proposed management measures needed to prevent the disease. The Korea Occupational Safety & Health Agency has analyzed cases of industrial accidents that cause musculoskeletal disease, from 1998 to 2007. They found 30,439 people suffering from the disease during those ten years. This information is from the Ministry of Labor's industrial accident analysis and the industrial accident survey from the Korea Occupational Safety & Health Agency. The data was analyzed by age and industrial classification. In Korea, according to the studies on aging society, the occurrence of musculoskeletal disease in elderly employee's have increased, so prevention programs are needed. Psychological, mental and cognitive programs are needed, as well as other prevention programs to ensure health in old age. In this study, we were able to see the state of musculoskeletal disease in aging society and the countermeasures to prevent the disease, such as a universal design, guarantees, and recuperation services. Later, we found that studying the various elderly patients would be of great help to us.
The Desirable Direction for the Future of Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korea
Lee, Kwan-Suk ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 513~519
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.513
Since 2003 when the prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) became a responsibility of management in workplaces, the effectiveness of the Korean WMSDs law has been concern for many stakeholders of this measure including workers, workers' union, researchers, professionals, and managers as well as officials in governments. WMSDs are known to be resulted from overburden on workers' body due to tasks required at their workplaces. Korean government enacted a law to require management of companies to take measures to prevent musculoskeletal disorders at work. The objectives of this paper is to review activities and actions taken to comply with this WMSDs law and problems encountered in last 7 years since the law came intoforce and suggest resolutions for problems so that this law can contribute to fulfill the real purpose of the law and make better workplaces in Korea.
Roles and Direction of User Experience Design
Pan, Young-Hwan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 521~525
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.521
UX (User Experience) Design was an interdisciplinary approach in humanities, engineering, science and design. We classified the roles of user experience; requirement analysis which are user research, constraints analysis and direction analysis, concept design, information architecture, physical UI, graphical UI, sound UI, Olfactory UI, prototype, evaluation, launch, localization, and knowledge management/UI DB. User research methods were classified by the relation of designer, user, and product/service. We reviewed three issues of UX design; complexity management, efficiency management, and mapping management.
Effect of Product Appearance and Performance on the Consumer's Affection in the Design of Mobile Phones
Kim, Sung-Yup ; Park, Sung-Joon ; Kim, Sung-Min ; Jung, Eui-S. ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 527~532
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.527
Product developers nowadays must consider not only the technological satisfaction of consumers but their affective needs as well. These affective needs are greatly affected by the appearance and performance functions of the product, which are simply called in this study appearance-based affection and performance-based affection. This study examined these two affective factors that must be considered while designing mobile phones. Extracted relationship between the two factors was processed in five steps. The first step includes gathering potential affective expressions that are needed to evaluate the levels of consumer's affection for mobile phone design in the pool of adjectives. In the second step, a simple frequency analysis was done from a consumer survey to extract frequently used affective expression. The third step was to extract primary tasks for mobile phones and to perform an experiment or a survey for the evaluation of mobile phones using those tasks. Representative affective factors were then extracted in the fourth step based on factor analysis. Finally, using ANOVA, the extracted representative affective factors were prioritized to draw a relationship between appearance-based affection and performance-based affection. The result of this study suggests each of appearance-based affections and performance-based affections that should be considered in designing mobile phones.
A Research on Emotion Assessment by Touch Sensibility Flicking on Mobile Phone
Kim, Ji-Hye ; Whang, Min-Cheol ; Kim, Chi-Jung ; Park, Jea-Un ; Moon, Sung-Cheol ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 533~540
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.533
This study was to suggest the proper level of touch sensibility for twenties while flicking touch phones. A rapid prototype of
pixel size was developed for the experiment. Participants were 20 undergraduates, not visually and physically handicapped in using touch phones. 15 different modes, with each mode changing in velocity when flicking the prototype were randomly presented to each subject. The subjects were asked to score what they felt in each mode on a 1-to-6 Likert scale. The data was analyzed by the one-way ANOVA procedure. Each mode showed significant differences in 8 representative emotions except for exclusivity feeling and fresh feeling. Each velocity mode was scaled by the multidimensional scaling technique. Then, vector coordinates in each emotion were obtained by simple regression analysis. 15 velocity modes and each emotion were joint-plotted by the MDS, PROXSCAL. The findings in this study could be basic data for studying affective touch sensibilities in multiple ways.
Guidelines for Satisfactory Flick Performances in Touch Screen Mobile Phone
Kim, Huhn ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 541~546
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.541
The gesture 'Flick' is the most fundamental and important part for efficient interactions in the touch screen that are being extensively applied to mobile phones. This study investigated users' satisfaction of the flick operation in representative touch phones, and measured their performances with established three measures: gap between finger and initial cursor, the number of moved lists per 0.2 seconds, and the number of moved lists after ten continuous flicks. The measurement was performed with high speed camera and motion analysis software. The flick movement in mobile phone with high users' satisfaction showed that the gap between finger and cursor positions was less and the speed reached high within 0.6 seconds quickly and then was drastically slow down. Especially, maximal and common time intervals between continuous flicks were measured with an experiment. Based on the evaluation and measurement, several design guidelines for efficient flick performances were suggested.
Mobile Browser UX Based on Mobile User Behavior
Lee, Kate T.S. ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 547~551
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.547
In mobile browser two mental models coexist; one for mobile users and the other for PC users. In this research shows that users apply these two mental models simultaneously while they use mobile browsers. However cases where these two mental models conflict with each other, rapid deterioration of usability of the UX based on the mobile user's mental model was evident. Also usability of mobile user interfaces for use cases like "View Mode" or "Copy and Send Mode" were also poor, and the research shows that these "Modes" could be substituted by gesture interaction with which users were already familiar.
Building a Sustainable UX Ecosystem under N-Screen and Cloud Computing Paradigm
Kim, Sung-Woo ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 553~561
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.553
This paper discusses the next direction for user experience design to keep pace with an ongoing IT paradigm shift, particularly focused on UX standardization activity contributing to reinforcement of brand power and customer loyalty. The paper introduces a model that identifies four levels of UX standardization and a key concept called "sustainable UX ecosystem" as its top level. It argues that in the new IT paradigm the fourth level of UX standardization, the sustainable UX ecosystem, is the next direction user experience must head towards.
UX Design for Digital TV Platform
Yim, Jin-Ho ; Lee, Sang-Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 563~568
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.563
TV businesses that have brought a competitive structure in terms of price, definition, product design for a long time now are bringing User eXperience (UX) into relief as DTVs come to support broadcast information-related services such as various broadcast channels and Electronic Program Guide(EPG), etc., and playing of multimedia contents like music/videos, etc. This study worked on an evaluation by developing a UI to control easily the various and complex broadcast contents or multimedia contents provided by DTVs. The UI Design for new DTVs was developed based on Function, Flow and Form in the concept of Single ABC (Access, Browser and Control), and the usability test of the developed UI concept along with the UIs of the major DTV products, was done for Channel Managers and the multimedia browsers for 32 users of DTVs in the U.K./U.S., respectively. As a result of the usability test, the new concept of Channel Manager was evaluated high both in the U.K./U.S, while the multimedia browser was evaluated low in the U.S., relatively.
A Study on the Interaction Design Guideline for Web2.0 Service Based on Ajax
Lee, Ji-Hyun ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 569~574
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.569
The Design Procedure of Automobile Headlamp Considering User Experience
Kim, Jung-Yong ; Yoon, Sang-Young ; Min, Seung-Nam ; Lee, Ho-Sang ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 575~584
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.575
The aim of study is to suggest the design procedure of automobile headlamp by considering driver's experience in regard of the visibility and glare during nighttime driving. The characteristics of driver were investigated in terms of the drivers' cognitive ability and reaction time, headlamp specification and visibility, light source and glare. And, the degree of visual discomfort was categorized and recognized as a tool to represent the subjective user experience. The UX point of view was stated when the existing results were seemingly lacking of it. The visual comfort and safety of elderly drivers were also discussed by reviewing the studies of ageing regarding the visibility and driving responses. Finally, this study suggested how to reduce the negative effect of nighttime driving due to the height of headlamp, angle of lighting, color spectrum, discomfort glare, source of light by using the UX perspective and methodology.
The Interactive Virtual Space with Scent Display for Song-Do Tomorrow-City Experience Complex
Kim, Jeong-Do ; Park, Sung-Dae ; Lee, Jung-Hwan ; Kim, Jung-Ju ; Lee, Sang-Goog ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 585~593
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.585
Recently, we designed an interactive virtual space for the multi-purpose hall in Songdo Future City, located in Incheon, Korea. The goal of the design is to make a virtual space that is flexible and can be adjusted thanks to its unfixed seats in order to accommodate different and unspecified audience sizes. Virtual images are interactively adjusted according to the distance, position and size of audiences, information about which is detected by 9 photo sensors. To increase the sense of immersion, intensity and reality, we utilized the technology of scent display that can create appropriate scents to match the images on the screen. The intensity and persistence of scents were determined by the size, distance and position of audiences. The virtual image contains background images and reactive images. The background images repeatedly project images of spring, summer, autumn and winter. The reactive images consist of small portraits or pictures or icons that define or characterize the season types, and these are added to the background image according to the distance, position and size of the audiences.
A Study on Developmental Directivity of the Design with UX(User eXperience) Characteristics
Lee, Dong-Min ; Jeon, Hu-Hyun ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 595~604
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.595
Reaching up the present from the past, the design was reflected in our life, thereby having brought about great development in the aesthetic harmony or functional part. In the present era, it is advancing in order to seek for the better direction without being satisfied with formativeness. What comes to represent it is UX design, namely, user-experience design. If a user has confusion in using product or environmental facilities, or if a user needs to utilize by analyzing function, this cannot help being inconvenient. Only what a user's behavior is caused by which the cognitive and sensitive attributes interact without inconvenience can be said to be design for a user. Given explaining easily, UX implies to design and develop the designed product or space from the position of a client who uses. Also, it also implies to offer service of being satisfied. For one example, a work can be said that distributes logo to the upper part of web site. That is because of allowing client to be much confused if logo is distributed to the different position. The designed web site in consideration of user's position is developed much now. However, it is the real situation of being still much insufficient in the public facilities that have UX characteristics amid the living environment. There is great interest in UX of the public facilities. However, there are many cases of facing mostly for the first time. The understanding level is thought to be much different. This study examines about a concept of UX design, and about UX design, which considered from the user's position, and analyzes a case. Thus, the aim is to suggest good directivity in designing by efficiently approaching UX that can be difficult theoretically.
Input Performance of the Old Adults in Touch Interface
Hong, Seung-Kweon ; Park, Jung-Chul ; Kim, Sun-Su ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 605~610
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.605
In order to design a touch interface for the elderly, human performance of input tasks on the touch screen was investigated by the laboratory experiment. Input times and input errors were measured in the experimental conditions that were changed according to age, key size, interkey space and input tool(finger or stylus pen). In the most of all experimental conditions, the task performance of the elderly was lower than that of the young. However, there were significantly different performance patterns between both groups. As the difficulty of task was getting higher, the task performance of the elderly was sharply decreased; pressing small key button by finger sharply increased input time and error rate, compared to that of the young. Therefore, the square key size suitable to the elderly may be over
. While the interkey space did not influence to the input task performance of the young, the task performance of the elderly was influenced. The elderly showed big difference of task performance according to input tool. However, the young were less influenced by input tool.
The Characteristics of Elderly Drivers' Driving Behavior on Intersection Using Graphic Driving Simulator
Kim, Bo-Seong ; Yi, Young-Chang ; Kim, Hyun-Woo ; Lim, Dong-Hoon ; Bak, Mi-Seon ; Ji, Doo-Hwan ; Hong, Seung-Hee ; Kang, Jin-Kyu ; Min, Byung-Chan ; Min, Yoon-Ki ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 611~617
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.611
To find out why elderly drivers have more frequent traffic accidents on intersection than any other one, this study was conducted to examine the characteristics of elderly drivers' driving behavior on intersection using a multifaceted driving behavior indicator. To do that, the driving behavior of both young adult drivers and elderly drivers were compared and analyzed, using a graphic driving simulator. As a result, compared with young adult drivers, elderly drivers showed a poor driving performance, and a high ratio of visual scanning time on the specific direction regardless of driving situation. Also, compared with young adult drivers, elderly drivers had a high overall level of arousal, and the phasic arousal activity on the specific stimulus was low. These results imply that through the intervention which induces the change in multifaceted indicators mentioned earlier, they could be helped to drive more safely on intersection.
The Effect of Changing Driving Brightness on Older Drivers
Jeon, Yong-Wook ; Shin, Sung-Heon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 619~624
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.619
The traffic accidents of the aged are increasing because old people generally experience a decline of physical functions and judgment but their dependence on automobiles increases. In order to investigate the older drivers' response to traffic signs and surrounding environment according to changing driving brightness, this study measured the visual cognitive behavior, driving behavior, and subjective evaluation while the driving brightness was changed using a driving simulator. Furthermore, the drivers who recognized traffic signs and those who did not were compared. As a result, it was found that some older drivers had declined ability of cognition, some failed to adapt to rapid brightness change even if sufficient attention was given to traffic sign, and some could not safely control the vehicle when approaching intersections. Therefore, the development of support systems for aged drivers in traffic environment is necessary in the future.
Evaluation of Haptic Seat for Vehicle Navigation System
Chang, Won-suk ; Kim, Seok-Hwan ; Pyun, Jong-Kweon ; Ji, Yong-Gu ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 625~629
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.625
This study has confirmed that subjective positive and negative aspects a driver feels by applying haptic seat on a vehicle to substantiate vehicle navigation system. Our experiment with total twenty subjects provides that the reaction time (RT) is superior in haptic interface than visual or auditory interface but subjective satisfaction, which subjects feel, and workload is less low in a simulator environment. Although, the difference of individuals and unfamiliarity is relatively high inasmuch as the experiment of absolutely new technology, but overall satisfaction of haptic seat is high. The result of study provides some consideration and direction to need in implementation of a haptic seat and it also confirms their possibility meaningfully. We expect the interaction between a driver and a vehicle and safety improvement potentially through applied haptic seat on actual vehicles.
Knowledge Extraction from Affective Data using Rough Sets Model and Comparison between Rough Sets Theory and Statistical Method
Hong, Seung-Woo ; Park, Jae-Kyu ; Park, Sung-Joon ; Jung, Eui-S. ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 631~637
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.631
The aim of affective engineering is to develop a new product by translating customer affections into design factors. Affective data have so far been analyzed using a multivariate statistical analysis, but the affective data do not always have linear features assumed under normal distribution. Rough sets model is an effective method for knowledge discovery under uncertainty, imprecision and fuzziness. Rough sets model is to deal with any type of data regardless of their linearity characteristics. Therefore, this study utilizes rough sets model to extract affective knowledge from affective data. Four types of scent alternatives and four types of sounds were designed and the experiment was performed to look into affective differences in subject's preference on air conditioner. Finally, the purpose of this study also is to extract knowledge from affective data using rough sets model and to figure out the relationships between rough sets based affective engineering method and statistical one. The result of a case study shows that the proposed approach can effectively extract affective knowledge from affective data and is able to discover the relationships between customer affections and design factors. This study also shows similar results between rough sets model and statistical method, but it can be made more valuable by comparing fuzzy theory, neural network and multivariate statistical methods.
Alternating Pressure Profile Characteristics of Powered Pressure Ulcer Preventing Devices
Won, Byeong-Hee ; Song, Chang-Seop ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 639~646
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.639
The APAM's quantitative effectiveness and comparative study in preventing and treating pressure ulcer has not been sufficiently evaluated mainly because of uncertainty of pressure load input and lack of interpretation of dynamic perfusion recovery characteristics of soft tissue. The purpose of this paper was to quantify and analyze the alternating pressure characteristics of APAM as a preventive measure for pressure ulcers. To quantify the alternating load to human body, we introduced alternating pressure profile concept and developed parametric model of the profile. Regarding pressure level and cycle time, 3 global and 7 local periodic parameters were used to define the profile such as light, standard, typical and heavy duty profile shape. Pressure impulse ratio of light duty is the lowest but pressure fluctuation is significantly high. For the same duty shape, contact conditions are changed with alternating cycle time and more dramatically in shorter alternating cycle time conditions. We can conclude that if we use shorter alternating cycle time on APAM's operation we can get more positive effects regarding to inflated contact time condition. We proposed the quantitative methods on tissue viability study of external loading by simultaneous measurement of interface pressure and tissue perfusion with proper alternating pressure profile conditions.
Development of Evaluation Metrics for Pedestrian Flow Optimization in a Complex Service Environment Based on Behavior Observation Method
Bahn, Sang-Woo ; Lee, Chai-Woo ; Kwon, Sang-Hyun ; Yun, Myung-Hwan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 647~654
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.647
In a service environment, the spatial layout is an important factor that has a great impact on customers' behavioral characteristics including wayfinding and purchasing. Previous studies have shown a gap between marketing, focusing solely on profitability and satisfaction, and architecture, looking only into efficiency of pedestrian flow. To balance such disparity, this study suggests an integrated approach for assessing behavioral patterns in complex service environments. With the objective that complex service environments should aim to increase its profitability and efficiency while guaranteeing customer satisfaction, quantitative metrics was developed for evaluation. The metrics was defined to use data from behavior observation including path tracking, population counting, and gaze analysis, while previous studies have relied on abstract survey methods that were prone to sampling errors and loss of data. For validation of the metrics in a real world setting, a case study was conducted at 4 train stations in Korea. In the case study, experiments were conducted to gather the required data in all 4 train stations, while their physical layouts were also analyzed. With the results from the case study, comparative evaluation of the 4 train stations in terms of behavioral efficiency was possible, together with a discussion on the effect of their physical settings.
Performance Comparison of Manual and Touch Interface using Video-based Behavior Analysis
Lee, Chai-Woo ; Bahn, Sang-Woo ; Kim, Ga-Won ; Yun, Myung-Hwan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 655~659
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.655
The objective of this study is to quantitatively incorporate user observation into usability evaluation of mobile interfaces using monitoring techniques in first- and third-person points of view. In this study, an experiment was conducted to monitor and record users' behavior using Ergoneers Dikablis, a gaze tracking device. The experiment was done with 2 mobile phones each with a button keypad interface and a touchscreen interface for comparative analysis. The subjects included 20 people who have similar experiences and proficiency in using mobile devices. Data from video recordings were coded with Noldus Observer XT to find usage patterns and to gather quantitative data for analysis in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. Results showed that the button keypad interface was generally better than the touchcreen interface. The movements of the fingers and gaze were much simpler when performing given tasks on the button keypad interface. While previous studies have mostly evaluated usability with performance measures by only looking at task results, this study can be expected to contribute by suggesting a method in which the behavioral patterns of interaction is evaluated.
Development of Ecological Interface Design Prototype on Integrated Safety Management System Display in Subway Station Office
Lee, Bong-Geun ; Back, Ji-Seung ; Jo, Sung-Sik ; Myung, Ro-Hae ; Lee, Duck-Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 661~665
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.661
Current subway station's office employee must perform safety management tasks by monitoring the various safety management systems. But these monitoring systems are limited in effective situational awareness and response to a state of emergency immediately. It is necessary to develop an integrated safety management system display. In this study, we developed subway station safety management system's (CCTV, fire detection & alarm system, screen door control equipment) integrated prototype display with ecological interface design framework and evaluated prototype display interface's usability with GOMS model. The result was that the ecological interface's performance was better than existing safety management system's interface.
Effects of Segmentation Size on the Stationarity of Electromyographic Signal in Runs Test
Cho, Young-Jin ; Kim, Jung-Yong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 667~671
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.667
Runs test is a mathematical tool to test the stationarity of electromyographic (EMG) signals. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of segmentation size on the stationarity of EMG signals in runs test. Six subjects participated in this experiment and performed isometric trunk exertions for twenty seconds at the load level of 25% and 50% MVC. The signals extracted from the erector spinae muscles were divided into the intervals of 1000ms and the stationarity of the signal in each interval was tested by the runs test. In this test, seven segmentation sizes such as 1.0, 2.0, 3.9, 7.8, 15.6, 31.3 and 62.5ms were applied. Additionally, two stationarity tests of reverse arrangements test and modified reverse arrangements test were used to verify the results of the runs test. In results, the segmentation size of 62.5ms showed the similar results with the other stationarity tests. However, the stationarity values among there tests were different each other when segmentation sizes other than 62.5ms were used. These results indicated the effect of segmentation size in runs test that needs to be considered to have consistent and sensitive result in stationarity test.
Effects of Auditory Warning Types on Response Time and Accuracy in Ship Bridges
Ha, Wook-Hyun ; Park, Sung-Ha ; Kim, Hong-Tae ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 673~680
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.673
The effects of different auditory warnings on response time and accuracy were studied in a laboratory ship-bridge work environment. Subjective preference on the type of auditory warnings was also of a primary concern. Twenty five subjects were asked to select an appropriate button for the warning sound presented with three types of auditory warning (abstract sound, auditory icon, and voice alarm) and five levels of warning situation (fire, steering failure, collision, engine failure, and low power). Results showed that the response time and accuracy was significantly affected by the types of auditory warning. The voice alarm resulted in a higher accuracy and subjective preference, as compared to the auditory icon and abstract sound. Regarding the response time, auditory icons and voice alarms were equivalent and superior to abstract sounds. Actual or potential applications of this research include guidelines for the design of integrated ship bridge systems.
Effects of Ramp Slope and Height on Usability and Physiology during Wheelchair Driving
Kim, Chung-Sik ; Lee, Dong-Hun ; Lee, Jee-Hea ; Kwon, Sung-Hyuk ; Chung, Min-K. ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 681~686
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.681
Although the height of a ramp is an important design element, it has not been considered in prior studies. Therefore, in this study, the ramp slope and height are considered as independent variables. To analyze the effects of the slope and height, five levels of slope (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12 and 1:14) and three levels of height (15cm, 30cm and 45cm) are considered. For the dependent variables, the total time, velocity and perceived discomfort were considered as usability measures, pulse rate changes and EMG signals of four related muscles (extensor carpi radialis, triceps brachii, anterior deltoid and posterior deltoid) were considered as physiology measures. As a result, differences among usability and physiological characteristic for the five slopes increased as the height increased. Additionally, slope effects were minor when the height was low (15cm). Almost domestic/international regulations and guidelines related to ramp recommended 1:12 slope for the ramp design, however, there was no significant difference between 1:10 and 1:12 according to result of this study. In addition, slope effects were minor at a low height; thus, a slope of 1:8 can be recommended if the installation space for a gentler ramp is not sufficient.
An Improvement of Evaluation Items for a Subjective Workload Assessment in Nuclear Power Plants
Park, Jae-kyu ; Lee, Yong-Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 687~691
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.687
Workload assessment is one of the important elements of the human factors evaluation for the nuclear power plants in operation. This paper describes a further study upon the additional elements of the workload which elements should be considered in the subjective workload assessment. We have tried to predict the burden of the work and to improve the work through a comparison of the objective workload and the subjective workload in the previous studies in nuclear power plants. However, there is a restriction to perform a precise assessment because of the limitations of the method itself. The objective workload assessment is performed by relative comparison using the quadrant analysis with objective workload and subjective workload because there were no clear criteria of objective workload assessment. And the subjective workload assessment is performed by NASA-TLX (NASA Task Load Index) which includes six evaluation dimensions of subjective workload. NASA-TLX is difficult to grasp the other aspects that could influence on the subjective workload because the analysis relies on predetermined assessment items. We conduct a factor analysis between the factors that affect the workload and the assessment adopted from ISO 10075 and NASA-TLX. At the same time, this study suggests other evaluation elements which can be added for subjective workload assessment except for evaluation elements of NASA-TLX.
Digital Design Process of Marine Leisure Boat Using Human Sensibility Evaluation
Choi, Chool-Heon ; Jang, Phil-Sik ; Seo, Moon-Seog ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 693~699
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.693
Korea has been took the top ranking in the global shipbuilding industry in terms of new orders, order backlogs and the volume of vessels for several years. However, the domestic small- and medium-scale shipbuilders currently face imminent threat from China and new challenge to focus on development of high value-added ships. So far, the marine leisure industry of Korea has been showed weak global competitiveness and there were few attempts to design and develop leisure boats and yachts. We describe the digital design process of leisure boat exterior that could reflect user's sensibilities and feelings of entire forms of the products. This design process contains stepwise sensibility evaluation via web and provides designers with various and fast feedbacks about their design outputs in each design stage.
A Study on Trend of the Research Papers Published in the Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
Lee, Dhong-Ha ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 701~707
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.701
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the attributing factors influencing major research areas of the papers published in the journal of Ergonomics Society of Korea (JESK). Background: Ergonomics has a wide range of research areas. Diversity of research topic is one of the major strong points of this discipline especially in the era of fusion. Dominant areas among the diversity changed from time to time. It is interesting to know the attributing factors of the dominant areas. Method: During the past three decades JESK has published 649 articles. As an editor of the JESK, I reviewed these papers and sorted them into the detailed research fields of ergonomics; (1) technical group (TG) s of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES), (2) editing groups of the journal of Ergonomics Abstracts and (3) TGs of the Ergonomics Society of Korea (ESK). I also listed major events which might affect the publication trend. Results: Anthropometry was the most dominant area all the time. Health and safety area has been steadily increasing publication amount. Conclusion: Government research funding was the main attributing factor determining the publication trend of the JESK. Application: The results of the publishing trend analysis might help to determine the editing policy of the JESK.
Case on a Union-driven Participatory Ergonomics Program to Control Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korea
Lee, Yun-Keun ; Park, Hee-Sok ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 29, issue 4, 2010, Pages 709~713
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2010.29.4.709
The objective of this paper is to report how workers' actively participate in a participatory ergonomics (PE) program, and how this program resulted in improved working conditions and decreased occurrence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). A major tire manufacturing company in Korea was studied. Most of the activities in the PE program were designed and actually practiced by the workers and their union. The results revealed some positive effects of applying a PE program to the employees. It was shown that incidence of the WMSDs as well as the lost work days and the economic cost incurred by the WMSDs decreased with the PE program.