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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
The Importance of Agricultural Ergonomics
Lee, Kwan-Suk ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 437~441
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.437
Objective: The objective this paper is to introduce the agricultural ergonomics and to show the importance of it in improving the agricultural works. Background: Despite of rapid advancement of technologies and adoption of modern mechanical equipments at farms in Korea, most of agricultural works have still remained manual and thus have regarded as one of the hardest works. With aging and feminization in rural areas, the need to improve agricultural works has grown quite much. Agricultural ergonomics have been known as a good tool in improving agricultural works around the world. Recently Korean government initiated a national program of providing assistive equipments to help farmers and a few ergonomists started to apply agricultural ergonomics in our rural villages as a part of this program. Method: This study reviewed how Ergonomics was used for the agricultural work. Results: Methods of Ergonomics which are used for the agricultural ergonomics and the simple procedure of the agricultural ergonomics were presented. Conclusion: It was found that agricultural works can be improved quite much using the agricultural ergonomics principle and the musculoskeletal stress of farmers can be reduced significantly.
Ergonomic Guidelines and Intervention Procedures for Farm Workers
Jeong, Byung-Yong ; Kim, Yong-Hwan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 443~450
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.443
Objective: The aim of this paper is to introduce ergonomic guidelines and intervention procedures for farm workers. Background: It is necessary to ameliorate the conditions of risky and hazardous work for farm workers. Method: Various references and books have been reviewed to assess ergonomic guidelines and intervention procedures for farm workers. Results: Human centered intervention has become an important approach not only to prevent musculoskeletal disorders but also to enhance the efficiency of work for farm workers. Conclusion: Farm work should be improved by active cooperation with researchers in field of ergonomics. Application: These results can be used to provide baseline information for more effective improvements of farm work.
The Development of Design and Evaluation Guidelines of Convenient Equipments of Farm Work for the Elderly
Son, Byung-Chang ; Shin, Seung-Heon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 451~458
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.451
Objective: This study is to develop a design and evaluation guide to the ergonomic design of the farm working convenient equipments in order for the elderly to use them easily and safely. Background: The aging population has already increased in farm villages. But due to the usage of the farm working equipments that did not reflect the characteristics and functional changes of aging, accidents and patients with disease are increasing. Method: The study investigated the functional changes and physical, cognitive, and sensuous characteristics of the aged. By determining the criteria for classification of the convenient equipments by crop, and by finding out the items necessary for the ergonomic design, a guide to this study is proposed. Results: It is obvious that the physical, cognitive and sensuous functions change as the aging process continues. Therefore, for the design and evaluation of Control Panel, Control Lever, Frame Size, Shape, and Equipment Weight that are the necessary items for the ergonomic approach for the farm working equipments, such characteristics have to be reflected. Conclusion: Through this study, a guide to the design and evaluation of convenient equipments for the farm works that reflected the aging characteristics and functional changes has been proposed. Application: The result of this study is to expect not only designers but also related specialists to make the best use of it.
Controls Location and Controls Bound of Korea Agriculture Tractor
Park, Keun-Sang ; Kim, Kwan-Woo ; Kim, Hyuk-Joo ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 459~464
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.459
It is prescribed for the controls layout of agricultural tractors to offer a comfortable workspace in ISO 4253 as international standard. To export other country to the Korea agricultural tractor, it needs to come up to the nation standard. The objective of the study is to investigate for location of control operation of the Korea agricultural tractor after applying the ISO 4253, to know whether it suits or not the nation standards with the tractor of product and supply within the country. As the research result of Korea agricultural tractor, Controls position of them are few in zone of comfort which defined in ISO 4253 and escapes lots in the zone of reach.
A Survey on Ergonomic Evaluation Methods of Agricultural Work for Preventing WMSDs
Kim, Yu-Chang ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 465~472
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.465
Objective: The aim of this paper is to introduce ergonomic evaluation methods for agricultural work. Background: Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders(WMSDs) became a major problem in agriculture industry recently. A number of ergonomics evaluation methods have been developed in order to evaluate the work load for preventing WMSDs. The workload evaluation methods were developed for manufacturing industry. Therefore, these ergonomic evaluation methods were used carefully in agriculture industry because work type in agriculture different from work type in manufacturing. Method: Various references of ergonomic evaluation methods such as OWAS, REBA, RULA, NLE and Snook table have been reviewed for agricultural work. Results: This paper presents the characteristics, the selection and application procedure of ergonomic evaluation methods for agricultural work. Application: These results can be used to provide baseline information for ergonomic evaluation methods.
Analysis and Improvement Methods of Unsafe Posture Associated with Various Agricultural Works
Jung, Hwa-Shik ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 473~480
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.473
Objective: This paper presents the results of a literature review undertaken to analyze the types and risk factors of unsafe posture in accordance with the crops and the working position and to introduce various ergonomic intervention approaches. Background: There is clear and consistent evidence that agricultural work has been rated as one of the dangerous occupations in the world. A considerable number of adverse health conditions, including musculoskeletal disorders(MSDs) are related to agricultural work. Method: An agricultural work requires squatting, kneeling, and bending(stooping) postures for significant periods of the work day which due to a wide variety of activities such as planting, cultivating and harvesting various agricultural products. Thus, each of these postures is analyzed in detail to recommend the improvement methods. Results: Various unsafe postures in agricultural works are revealed and analyzed. It is proven that ergonomics intervention has the potential benefits to reduce MSDs among agricultural workers. Two types of ergonomic intervention methods were discussed to improve unsafe working postures, engineering controls and administrative controls. Conclusion & Application: As a concluding remark, this article can be used as a reference manual for the agricultural workers and also used to raise the research community's awareness to the risk of unsafe working postures for workers in agriculture.
Development of an Ergonomic Checklist for the Investigation of Work-related Upper Limb Disorders in Farming - AULA: Agricultural Upper-Limb Assessment
Kong, Yong-Ku ; Lee, Soo-Jin ; Lee, Kyung-Suk ; Han, Jun-Goo ; Kim, Dae-Min ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 481~489
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.481
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an ergonomic checklist (AULA: Agricultural Upper-Limb Assessment) which can assess the risks of the work-related upper limb disorders of farming tasks in Korea. Background: There are few assessment tools that reflect the current condition of agricultural works as of now. Method: AULA was developed as following three stages. First of all, a physiological experiment was conducted with selected 14 upper limb postures which are frequently occurred in farming tasks and then, an ergonomic checklist was developed with determining risk levels of each body posture based on the experimental findings. Lastly, the ergonomic checklist was validated by comparing with the existing assessment tools. Results: When comparing the AULA which was developed in this study with the existing assessment tools, it was found that the AULA may get over limits of the existing ones which are sensitive to particular postures, but aren't sensitive to the rest of them. Conclusion: It is predicted that the developed upper limb posture assessment tool which gets over the existing tools' limits and is proper for domestic farm work conditions, will help to reduce musculoskeletal disorders caused by farm works, by assessing farm works more easily and objectively. Application: By further developing the theoretical groundwork on the induction of muscular skeletal system symptoms relating to agricultural works, it is expected to improve the level of preventing and managing such muscular skeletal system symptoms in the field of agricultural and farming works, which is relatively less advanced in terms of labor difficulties.
Usability Evaluation Procedure for the Agricultural Equipments in Local Agricultural Task Environment
Cha, Woo-Chang ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 491~494
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.491
Objective: to improve agricultural working environment using tools and equipments. Background: most existing tools currently used, in fact, are discrepant from human factor guidelines so that they are still exposed to the musculoskeletal disease. Method: the provided tools and equipments are mostly designed considering human factor engineering or usability engineering in a way to avoid musculoskeletal disease. Results: propose the top-down procedure and usability engineering steps to evaluate them for the system design suitability. Conclusion: apply them conveniently into rural environment to help farmers working environment.
Evaluation of Comfortable Improvement of the Tractor Seatbelt
Kim, Kwan-Woo ; Kim, Hyuk-Joo ; Park, Keun-Sang ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 495~501
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.495
The objective of this study was to evaluate the convenience of the tractor seatbelt. We selected four healthy men as subjects. We measured their body pressure and examined the comfort of the seatbelt, while driving 50m on three different types of agricultural road with two types of seatbelts: automatic and manual. As results, when they used manual seatbelt, subjective uncomfortable rate was much higher than the automatic seatbelt on all types of road. Especially, body pressure was undistributed while using manual seatbelt on rough road.
Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Materials Handling Equipments Supplied in Agriculture
Park, Sung-Ha ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 503~507
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.503
Objective: This paper presents the factors influencing the effectiveness of materials handling equipments in agriculture. Background: Agriculture is one of the job categories where work-related musculoskeletal disorders(MSDs) are the most common. Statistics shows that majority of farm workers is exposed to repetitive and forceful body movements, lifting, lowering, pushing, pulling, or carrying heavy materials. In such a working environment, materials handling equipments are required and introduced to assist in the prevention of MSDs and other farm injuries. Method: Examples of materials handling equipments are rail carts, portable lifts, and bale handlers. Contributing factors influencing the effectiveness of materials handling equipments supplied in agriculture were identified based on the lessons learned from previous government-funded ergonomic projects. Results: Contributing factors identified include: (1) forward-looking attitude for the standardization of farming, its environments, and handling equipments, (2) participation of farm members in the process and evaluation of project, (3) leadership of project manager, (4) reinforcement of safety education and training, and (5) project selection and priority of handling equipment. Conclusion: Government-funded research planners, farmers, ergonomists, and farm machine experts are recommended to consider the factors identified when implementing materials handling equipments in agriculture. Application: Actual or potential application of this research includes recommendation for the effective implementation of material materials handling equipments in agricultural sectors.
Agricultural Safety Clothing: Implications for Making and Selecting Clothes
Chun, Jong-Suk ; Jee, Jung-Woo ; Hwang, Kyoung-Sook ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 509~515
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.509
Objective: The study was performed to suggest factors to consider when making or selecting protective clothing to enhance farmers' health. The purpose of this study was to review and summarize the agricultural safety technology on clothing including hat, gloves, and shoes. Background: The farmers' work clothing has to meet a multitude of requirement. Risk factors in farm-work were identified by previous researches. Agricultural safety clothing needs to be introduced. Method: We reviewed previous papers regarding the agricultural workers' health, safety clothing to protect body from excessive heat and humid environment, ultraviolet(UV) protection, and hazardous body working postures. Also the UV cut effect, pesticideproof clothing, and preventable farm work related musculoskeletal disorders were discussed. Results: The agricultural safety clothing needs to be developed to provide comfort and to be resistant against heat. The UV protection function on skin and eyes has not been fully researched in safety clothing studies yet. Conclusions and Application: The farmers' work-related body posture needs to be studied in order to make and design agricultural safety clothing. The safety issues on agricultural work shoes are also needed to be included in future studies.
Epidemiology and Control of Agriculture Related Injury
Koh, Sang-Baek ; Lee, Kyung-Suk ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 517~523
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.517
Objective: The purpose were understanding the epidemiological characteristics of work related injuries of the farmer and establishing injury prevention and control activity. Background: Agriculture is one of the most hazardous industry and job in Korea. Method: We reviewed previous reports regarding the agricultural injury, injury prevention and control. Results: In the agricultural total injury, there were 45,342 hospitalized injury to farmers, injury rate was 35.8/1,000 farmers/years. Of these injuries, 52.6 percent were classed as work related injury. The farm-related injury rate was 17.5/1,000 farmers/years by analysis of Safety Aid System of Farm Workers. There were 2.4 times as incidence rate for farmers compared to non-farmers. Conclusion: Several strategies are available for injury prevention and control. They are as follows; social concern, survey of farm related injury, injury prevention, injury surveillance system and injury compensation.
Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Agricultural Workers
Lee, Soo-Jin ; Park, Hwan-Jin ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 525~534
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.525
This paper describes the current status of musculoskeletal disorders(MSDs) and its ergonomic risk factors, including the preventive intervention in terms of the working conditions and health promotion among agricultural workers. Korean agricultural workers have been exposed to the poor working condition. They have suffered from a variety of work-related injury and diseases more than the general population or the other occupational group. MSDs are one of the most prevalent problems threatening the agricultural worker's health and quality of life. Low back pain, osteoarthritis of hip and knee joint and carpal tunnel syndrome are well known MSDs that was found easily and frequently among agricultural workers. MSDs are worsened by poor ergonomic working conditions such as heavy weight lifting, repetitive movement and awkward posture which involves squatting with long sitting work on the ground, long working hours and heavy workload which are inherent in the greater part of agricultural works. Even though Korean agricultural workers are very weak population in terms of occupational safety and health, no many studies were conducted in the past and no many social and institutional supports were provided sufficiently. We need more interests and efforts in agricultural fields to improve its working condition and to promote health status of agricultural workers.
Gender Differences in Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Agricultural Workers
Kim, Yu-Chang ; Shin, Yong-Seok ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 535~540
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.535
Objective: The aim of this paper is to survey the gender differences Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among agriculture workers. Background: The number of occupational injuries has been decreasing trend in Korea, but it has been increasing in agriculture. The ratio of women worker shows steady increasing trend among the agricultural worker in Korea. Method: This study investigated through the questionnaire to 358 agricultural workers who are working for agriculture located in Gyeongnam, Gyeongbuk and Jeju. Results: The task types occurring frequently and the weight of a heavy object handled according to the sex were showed statistically significant difference. The estimation of WMSDs patients by sex appeared statistically very significant difference. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of WMSDs in female was about 21 percent higher than the prevalence rate of WMSDs in male. Application: The result of this study will help improvement of work environment and prevention of WMSDs in agricultural work.
Analysis of Cases of Ergonomic Improvements of Agricultural Work Support Equipments
Kee, Do-Hyung ; Song, Young-W. ; Lee, In-Seok ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 541~550
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.541
Objective: The objective of this study is to present varying cases of ergonomic improvements in equipments for agricultural work. Background: In Korean agricultural sector, many older people and females, who may be more vulnerable to musculoskeletal diseases than young males, are doing high stressful tasks such as manual materials tasks, harvesting, etc. For reducing the work stress of the farmers, the Korean government has been performing support projects to provide the farmers with agricultural implements specified for their crops. In the projects, ergonomics experts have participated and helped modify the equipments. Method: Fifty cases of equipment improvements, which were carried out in 33 farming organizations cultivating 13 different crops, were reviewed and presented by equipments and their parts. Results: In total, 283 cases of improvements for 12 equipments including 4-wheel, 1-wheel, and 3-wheel powered carts, grass cutter, conveyer, pest control machine, and so on, were presented. The improvements were also classified according to the ergonomic principles like compatibility, ease of use, safety and fitting to the anthropometry, etc. Frequencies of improvements by equipment and its part were the highest in carts and controls, respectively. Principles of safety and ease of use were adopted more frequently in improving equipments than others. Conclusion: The tables of examples of improvements of agricultural implements are main results of this study and the systematical summaries are expected to be widely used in the development of more improved agricultural implements. Application: The results could be used as practical guidelines in ergonomically developing and modifying agricultural implements by both the experts and non-experts in ergonomics. The improvements would contribute to reduction of stress in farm work, which result in increasing the level of safety and health of Korean agricultural society.
A Study on User Interface Design According to 3D Menu Type and Control Type for 3D Displays
Kim, Jae-Ho ; Jung, Sung-Wook ; Choe, Jae-Ho ; Jung, Eui-S. ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 551~562
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.551
Objective: We proposed an effective 3D menu manipulation alternative with a usability test. This was performed in a 3D environment with 3D menu and control manipulation methods. Background: As 3D stereoscopic displays became generalized, various 3D applications were being used not just movies, games, but also mobile contents and advertisements. However, when a user interface was designed in a 3D environment, it was lacked that a clear standard and result of an efficiency and usability as like a 2D environment. Method: We implemented 9 kinds of 3D menu types based on 3D menu hierarchies, menu layouts and dimensions. And we extracted 3 representative control types in a 3D environment. We performed usability evaluation with full factorial design for 27 menu alternatives with 2 types of menu manipulation tasks. In this condition, we measured the performance time, subjective discomfort and eye-fatigue. Results: A control type had the significant effect, and the effect of menu types had the different result depending on given tasks. Conclusion: This experiment showed the interaction of menu and control types depended on 3D menu manipulation tasks were significant in a 3D user interface design. Therefore, as a purpose of a 3D menu manipulation task, 3D menu types and control types were should be considered. Application: We supposed this result was should be applied in a 3D menu contents design.
A Study on the Effect of Pre-cue in Simple Reactions on Control-on-Display Interfaces
Lim, Ji-Hyoun ; Choi, Jun-Young ; Kim, Young-Su ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 4, 2011, Pages 563~569
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.4.563
Objective: This study focuses on the effects of pre-cues informing the location of upcoming visual stimulus on finger movement response in the context of control-on-display interfaces. Background: Previous research on pre-cues focus on attention allocation and motion studies were limited to indirect control conditions. The design of this study aimed to collect data on the exact landing point for finger-tap responses to a given visual stimulus. Method: Controlled visual stimuli and tasks were presented on a UI evaluation system built using mobile web standards; response accuracy and response time were measured and collected as appropriate. Among the 16 recruited participants, 11 completed the experiment. Results: Providing pre-cue on the location of stimulus affected response time and response accuracy. The response bias, which is a distance from the center of stimulus to the finger-tap location, was larger when the pre-cue was given during a one-handed operation. Conclusion: Given a pre-cue, response time decreases, but with accuracy penalized. Application: In designing touch-screen UI's - more strictly, visual components also acting as controllers - designers would do well to balance human perceptual and cognitive characteristics strategically.