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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Proposal of Applying the Exercise Program for the Prevention of Work-related Chronic Low Back Pain
Yang, Yeong-Ae ; Kim, Seong-Su ; Hur, Jin-Gang ; An, Sun-Joung ; Kim, Hee-Soo ; Cha, Su-Min ; Heo, Jun ; Park, Yun-Hee ; Park, Bo-Ra ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 5, 2011, Pages 571~579
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.5.571
Objective: The purpose of this research is to provide exercise programs for the prevention of work related chronic back pain. Background: In order to prevent musculoskeletal disease, including proper medical care health promotion programs are needed. Method: This is a research of musculoskeletal disease looking at 618 workers working at a car engine manufacturing factory from April to July of 2008. Through questionnaire specific areas of musculoskeletal diseases experienced by the workers were identified and preventative exercise program for chronic low back pain was recommended. Result: Research showed that of the musculoskeletal disease experienced by the workers, 197 presented with low back pain, 171 presented with shoulder pain, 64 presented with neck pain and 44 presented with knee pain. The symptoms of low back pain included stiffness(143), twinge and burning sensation(24) and absence of sensation(19). Using this result 4 types of exercise programs were recommended for prevention of chronic low back pain. Conclusion: Preventative exercise programs recommended for the workers in this research is easily accessible for the workers. Use of the suggested exercise programs will inevitably decrease work related low back pain. Also 2 other recommendations were made: 1) Internal structural change may be necessary using ergonomics. 2) More exercise programs to be used to increase adaptation and tolerance of joints and muscles that are constantly used for repetitive work. Application: This study can be used to provide for the prevention of work-related Chronic Low Back pain.
Effects on the Lumbar & Quadriceps Muscle Activities when Getting in and Out of RV · and Passenger Cars
Kim, Seong-Su ; Lee, Hyoung-Soo ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 5, 2011, Pages 581~588
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.5.581
Objective: The objective of this study is to compare muscle activity levels of the lumbar and rectus femoris muscle when entering and exiting RV and passenger vehicles. Background: Three varieties of RVs and two varieties of passenger vehicles were selected for this study. Method: Twenty individual(10 male and 10 female) in their twenties and thirties with no chronic back pain or any other illness participated in this study. Participants performed entering and exiting the three models of RVs and two models of passenger cars. Appropriate rest time was given to participants between entering and exiting each vehicle in order to recover from muscle fatigue while performing their tasks. Results: Results from this study show that muscle activity levels were highest for entering RVs and exiting passenger vehicles. There were no significant differences in muscle activity levels for left and right side muscles in regards to entering and exiting vehicles. Application: These results can be used to provide baseline information for reduce muscle fatigue when getting in and out of vehicles.
A Comparison of Visual Occlusion Methods: Touch Screen Device vs. PLATO Goggles
Park, Jung-Chul ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 5, 2011, Pages 589~595
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.5.589
Objective: This study compares two visual occlusion methods for the evaluation of in-vehicle interfaces. Background: Visual occlusion is a visual demand measuring technique which uses periodic vision/occlusion cycle to simulate a driving(or mobile) environment. It has been widely used for the evaluation of in-vehicle interfaces. There are two major implementation methods for this technique: (1) occlusion using PLATO(portable liquid crystal apparatus for tachistoscopic occlusion) goggles; (2) occlusion using a software application on a touchscreen device. Method: An experiment was conducted to examine the visual demand of an in-vehicle interface prototype using the goggle-based and the touchscreen-based occlusion methods. Address input and radio tuning tasks were evaluated in the experiment. Results: The results showed that, for the radio tuning task, there were no significant differences in total shutter open time and resumability ratio between the two occlusionconditions. However, it took longer for the participants to input addresses with the touchscreen-based occlusion. Conclusion & Application: The results suggest that touchscreen-based method could be used as an alternative to traditional, gogglebased visual occlusion especially in less demanding visual tasks such as radio tuning.
Comparison of Compressive Forces on Low Back(L5/S1) for One-hand Lifting and Two-hands Lifting Activity
Kim, Hong-Ki ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 5, 2011, Pages 597~603
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.5.597
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare one-hand and two-hands lifting activity in terms of biomechanical stress for the range of lifting heights from 10cm above floor level to knuckle height. Background: Even though two-hands lifting activity of manual materials handling tasks are prevalent at the industrial site, many manual materials handling tasks which require the worker to perform one-hand lifting are also very common at the industrial site and forestry and farming. Method: Eight male subjects were asked to perform lifting tasks using both a one-handed as well as a two-handed lifting technique. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity was recorded while the subjects performed the lifting tasks. This information was used as input to an EMG-assisted free-dynamic biomechanical model that predicted spinal loading in three dimensions. Results: It was shown that for the left-hand lifting tasks, the values of moment, lateral shear force, A-P shear force, and compressive force were increased by the average 43%, as the workload was increased twice from 7.5kg to 15.0kg. For the right-hand lifting task, these were increased by the average 34%. For the two-hands lifting tasks, these were increased by the average 25%. The lateral shear forces at L5/S1 of one-hand lifting tasks, notwithstanding the half of the workload of two-hands lifting tasks, were very high in the 300~317% of the one of two-hands lifting tasks. The moments at L5/S1 of one-hand lifting tasks were 126~166% of the one of two-hands lifting tasks. Conclusion: It is concluded that the effect of workload for one-hand lifting is greater than two-hands lifting. It can also be concluded that asymmetrical effect of one-hand lifting is much greater than workload effect. Application: The results of this study can be used to provide guidelines of recommended safe weights for tasks involved in one-hand lifting activity.
Movement Analysis of Elderly People during Ingress/Egress from Different Seat Heights
Kim, Yong-Chul ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 5, 2011, Pages 605~611
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.5.605
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of seat heights for optimizing the ingress/egress performance in the elderly people. Background: Recently elderly users have been increasing in number and the ease of ingress/egress of the vehicle becomes an important issue. Method: Seven elderly subjects participated in this study(age: 71.7
3.6yr, height: 167.7
5.4cm, weight: 68.1
11.5kg). Each subject performed the sitting and rising task from comfortable seated position on the chair under the following conditions: (1) with a lumbar support and (2) without a lumbar support. We measured EMG activities of seven muscles(tibialis anterior, soleus, gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and erector supinae) and ranges of motion in lower limb during sitting and standing from three different heights (400mm, 500mm and 600mm from ground) of slide-up seat. Results: Muscle activities and angular movements of hip and knee joints during standing-up and sitting-down with a high seat height(600mm) were reduced mean 30.4% in extensor muscles, 57.11% in flexor muscle, 18.74% in erector muscle and 31.0% in joints compared with a low seat height(400mm). Conclusion: Muscle activities and joint movements in hip and knee were reduced when rising/sitting from a high seat height(600mm) compared with a low seat height(400mm). Application: This study can be used to design vehicle that are easy to get in and out of by older peoples with or without impairments.
Difference of Lumbar ＆ Lower Extremity Muscle Activity when Patients are Transferred by Physical Therapists
Hur, Jin-Gang ; Park, Chong-Uk ; Lee, Ju-Sang ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 5, 2011, Pages 613~619
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.5.613
Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the muscle activities of lumbar and lower extremity muscles between left and right sides using EMG(Electromyogram) when patients are transferred by physical therapists. Background: Asymmetrical lift was recognized as a major cause of musculoskeletal disorder. Several studies show that physical therapists` transferring patients needs caution as it could cause a lumbar pain to patients but there is not sufficient data to support. Method: Forty healthy rehabilitation hospital physical therapists joined for this study. The subjects were transferred from wheelchair to treatment mat(from left to right) by connecting the EMG device to the patients` body both on erector spine and rectus fermoris. At the moment when subjects were being transferred, the EMG device collected data from both erector spine and rectus femoris and it was normalized as %MVC. Then the EMG data was statistically analyzed using paired t-tests. Results: The EMG data show that the left erector spinae and rectus femoris are more activated than right erector spinae and rectus femoris in all position(p<.05) in a significant degree. Conclusion: The result implies that physical therapists` asymmetrical lifting when patients are transferred by them has a potential cause of musculoskeletal disorder of patients. Further studies will be conducted to find out a same tendency in other muscles of a body and to see if there are other factors to affect to patients during asymmetrical lifting. Application: These results can be used to provide baseline information for more understanding to asymmetrical lift loading.
Ergonomic Analysis of Cellular Phone Keypad Considering the Dominant Hand
Lee, Yong-Bok ; Jung, Won-Il ; Kim, Dong-Kyu ; Kang, Sung-Jin ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 5, 2011, Pages 621~628
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.5.621
Objective: The aim of this study is to give interest about usability of cellular phone keypad for left-handed person. Background: Although there are being a lot of attempts to design suitable product on user`s request in process that design cellular phone keypad, ergonomic access about left-handed person who compose decimal class is unprepared. Especially, in early user`s occasion, left-handed persons need more efforts than right-handed person to master Hangul character input process skill level. But, since realization about this left-handed person`s discomfort has not spread, the importance has not been well thought in the society. Method: (1) After extracting emblem to use in comparison in questionnaire, applied emblem uniformly to different 3 kind of cellular phone. (2) Measured Hangul input time and mistyping number by dominant hand`s position and skill level to reagent. (3) Taking the result through ANOVA. Conclusion: In the result of the experiment about Hangul input time and mistyping number according to dominant hand`s position and skill level, left-handed person`s group on the low skill level has shown the dullest use capability among 4 experiment groups. Application: In the future, analysis result may be used to the data of realization conversion in process design of various products including cellular phone keypad to consider left-handed person.
Case Study on Developing an Elderly Automatic Shower System
Kim, Jong-Hyun ; Hong, Jae-Soo ; Chun, Keyoung-Jin ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 5, 2011, Pages 629~636
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.5.629
Objective: The aim of this study is developing an elderly automatic showering system by optimizing nozzle position and angle of water injection on ergonomics approach. Background: The elderly living in nursing home or hospital were increased by an aging population. Helping the elderly on showering is so hard. In addition, the existing showering/bathing systems are not effective because shower pattern of the elderly and washed range of nozzle were not considered. Method: Firstly, basic specification were determined by anthropometric approach. Secondly, position of nozzle and angle of water injection were determined through observation of elderly behavior on showering. And, finally, they were optimized by washing test and showering simulation. Results: On showering importance of body parts were able to analysis through observation of elderly behavior. The position of nozzle and angle of water injection was able to optimize by showering simulation. The automatic showering system was developed by considering their results. Conclusion: The most important technology of developing a showering system is the determining position of nozzle and angle of water injection, number of nozzle. It was developed by applying its results through user centered-research. Application: The user centered-research of developing products was able to apply directly to develop automatic bath, showering products etc. Further more it was available to apply senior friendly products.
A Study for the Appropriateness of the Different Reference Points in the Analysis of Working Posture
Kim, Day-Sung ; Kim, Chol-Hong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 5, 2011, Pages 637~644
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.5.637
Objective & Background: When applying various evaluation tools that analyze work posture risk through observation, accurate measurement of body flexion angle is very important. Method: This study investigated differences and appropriateness of 5 different existing reference points commonly used in the analysis of the work posture. Twenty five ergonomist and trained professionals were participated in this study. A Same flexion angle was utilized for the evaluation of risk assessment of musculoskeletal disorders using five different reference points to investigate the degree of difference between them. To investigate how different the observers` preferred flexion angle measuring methods were compared to the ISO 11226 Reference Posture, a virtual body model was constructed using the Poser 6.0 program. Six types of body flexion postures were constructed, and since neck flexion differs according to body angle, five types of neck flexion postures were constructed with the trunk bending
forward, making up a total of 30 virtual flexion postures. Results: Results showed that the observers used personally preferred reference points instead of reference points recommend in the evaluation tools. Also the results revealed the their seems to be 6 types of flexion angle for the trunk and 11 types of measurement methods for the neck flexion angle in the form of personally preferred reference points. The results showed that a mean difference of
) occurred in the trunk, and a mean difference of
) occurred in the neck. To increase accuracy when using the 5 evaluation tools in combination, the ISO 11226 standards, observers` preferred flexion posture standards, and common flexion posture standards of the evaluation tools were compared with the reference points of the 5 evaluation tools. Results showed considerable variance in angle difference for each evaluation tool. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, considering the angle difference between the flexion angle reference points of the evaluation tool and the reference points selected by the observers, it is concluded that instead of personally preferred reference points, the standardized reference points to enhance the accuracy and the objectivity. Application: The result of this study can be used as reference guide to develop the standardized reference point in the future.
A Sampling Inspection Plan with Human Error: Considering the Relationship between Visual Inspection Time and Human Error Rate
Lee, Yong-Hwa ; Hong, Seung-Kweon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 5, 2011, Pages 645~650
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.5.645
Objective: The aim of this study is to design a sampling inspection plan with human error which is changing according to inspection time. Background: Typical sampling inspection plans have been established typically based on an assumption of the perfect inspection without human error. However, most of all inspection tasks include human errors in the process of inspection. Therefore, a sampling inspection plan should be designed with consideration of imperfect inspection. Method: A model for single sampling inspection plans were proposed for the cases that visual inspection error rate is changing according to inspection time. Additionally, a sampling inspection plan for an optimal inspection time was proposed. In order to show an applied example of the proposed model, an experiment for visual inspection task was performed and the inspection error rates were measured according to the inspection time. Results: Inspection error rates changed according to inspection time. The inspection error rate could be reflected on the single sampling inspection plans for attribute. In particular, inspection error rate in an optimal inspection time may be used for a reasonable single sampling plan in a practical view. Conclusion: Human error rate in inspection tasks should be reflected on typical single sampling inspection plans. A sampling inspection plan with consideration of human error requires more sampling number than a typical sampling plan with perfect inspection. Application: The result of this research may help to determine more practical sampling inspection plan rather than typical one.
The Human Vehicle Interface System for Integrating and Managing the In-Vehicle Interactions with IT Devices
Choi, Jong-Woo ; Park, Hye-Sun ; Kim, Kyong-Ho ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 5, 2011, Pages 651~657
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.5.651
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the system to integrate and manage the in-vehicle interactions between the drivers and the in-vehicle mobile IT devices. Background: As the mobile IT technology is being used anywhere, the drivers are interacting with the mobile IT device on driving situations. The distraction of the driver`s attention causes the car accidents. It is necessary to develop the HVI(Human Vehicle Interface System) to integrate and manage the in-vehicle interactions with IT devices. Method: The HVI System is designed not as the interfacing subject but as the supervising system to monitor the driver`s status and support the driver to concentrate on the primary tasks. The HVI system collects the status information of the car and driver and estimate the driving workload. Results: The HVI system controls how to provide the output information based on the driving workload. We implemented the HVI system prototype and applied in the real vehicle with the HVI cell phone and the HVI car navigation system. Conclusion: Depending on the driving situations, the HVI system prevented the information output in dangerous situation and diversified the modality and the intensity of the output information. Application: We will extend the HVI system to be connected the other various IT devices and verity the effectiveness of the system through various experiments.
Evaluation on Low-floor Bus Package Layout from the Perspective of Universal Design
Kim, Sun-Woong ; Kim, Ji-Yeon ; HwangBo, Hwan ; Hwang, Bong-Ha ; Moon, Yong-Joo ; Ji, Young-Gu ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 5, 2011, Pages 659~669
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.5.659
Objective: The aim of this study is to suggest a package layout guideline for low-floor bus by interview with passengers and observations of their behavior. Background: Increasing attention has been introduced the low-floor bus to be more suitable for use by transportation handicapped. Complex issues are involved in providing comfortable services to all people. We are going to suggest package layout guidelines for more comfortable and suitable travel to all people. Method: The two times of survey and video observation sessions were conducted on low-floor buses in Seoul; (1) a finding of potential issues in the first session, (2) a confirming of issues from the last session. Results: The three of major issues were founded in this study; (1) difficulties in supporting body when standing, (2) difficulties in sitting on front wheel pan seat, (3) difficulties in passing through the aisle. Conclusion: There were clear differences between public and transportation handicapped in using some tools which are used for support body such as roof hand rails, side hand rails, and hand rail rings. Some of design problems were founded to improve from the perspective of ergonomics and universal design. Such differences and design guidelines have to be considered in bus design as well as commercial vehicle. Application: The proposed design guidelines can be used to development of low-floor bus and other public transportations.
Ergonomic Evaluation of Workload in Imbalanced Lower Limbs Postures
Kim, Eun-Sik ; Yoon, Hoon-Yong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 5, 2011, Pages 671~681
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.5.671
Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the workload level at each lower limbs posture and suggest the ergonomic workstation guideline for working period by evaluating the imbalanced lower limbs postures from the physiological and psychophysical points of view. Background: Many workers like welders are working in various imbalanced lower limbs postures either due to the narrow working conditions or other environmental conditions. Method: Ten male subjects participated in this experiment. Subjects were asked to maintain 3 different lower limbs postures(standing, squatting and bending) with 3 different working conditions(balanced floor with no scaffold, imbalanced floor with 10cm height of scaffold, and imbalanced floor with 20cm height of scaffold). EMG data for the 4 muscle groups(Retus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Tibialis Anterior, Gastrocnemius) from each lower limbs posture were collected for 20 seconds every 2 minutes during the 8 minutes sustaining task. Subjects were also asked to report their discomfort ratings of body parts such as waist, upper legs, lower legs, and ankle. Results: The ANOVA results showed that the EMG root mean square(RMS) values and the discomfort ratings(CR-10 Rating Scale) were significantly affected by lower limbs postures and working time(p<0.05). The correlation was analyzed between the EMG data and the discomfort ratings. Also, prediction models for the discomfort rating for each posture were developed using physical condition, working time, and scaffold height. Conclusion: We strongly recommend that one should not work more than 6 minutes in a standing or squatting postures and should not work more than 4 minutes in a bending posture. Application: The results of this study could be used to design and assess working environments and methods. Furthermore, these results could be used to suggest ergonomic guidelines for the lower limbs postures such as squatting and bending in the working fields in order to prevent fatigue and pain in the lower limbs body.
Development of a Distributed Representative Human Model Generation and Analysis System for Multiple-Size Product Design
Lee, Baek-Hee ; Jung, Ki-Hyo ; You, Hee-Cheon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 30, issue 5, 2011, Pages 683~688
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2011.30.5.683
Objective: The aim of this study is to develop a distributed representative human model(DRHM) generation and analysis system. Background: DRHMs are used for a product with multiple-size categories such as clothing and shoes. It is not easy for a product designer to explore an optimal sizing system by applying various distributed methods because of their complexity and time demand. Method: Studies related to DRHM generation were reviewed and the RHM generation interfaces of three digital human model simulation systems(Jack
, and CATIA Human
) were reviewed. Results: DRHM generation steps are implemented by providing sophisticated interfaces which offer various statistical techniques and visualization methods with ease. Conclusion: The DRHM system can analyze the multivariate accommodation percentage of a sizing system, provide body sizes of generated DRHMs, and visualize generated grids and DRHMs. Application: The DRHM generation and analysis system can be of great use to determine an optimal sizing system for a multiple-size product by comparing various sizing system candidates.