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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
The Roles and Human Resources of Service Design
Pan, Young-Hwan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~5
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.1
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the roles and human resources of service design. Background: The definition of service design is not clear yet, also did not define in this study. I studied the components of service design which are roles and human resources. That is helpful to understand the definition of service design and to clarify the works in service design. Method: I compare the service design with user experience design. I empirically define the roles and human resources of service design. Results: The roles of service design are service strategy, research, service concept design, service specification, service architecture design, integrated communication design, integrated system design, integrated operation design, service evaluation, launch, operation, and knowledge management. Conclusion: We defined who works and what works in service design. Application: The results of this study help the clarification of service design.
Holistic, Collaborative, Ecological, and Coevolutionary Characteristics of Service Design Process
Lee, Dong-Seok ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 7~13
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.7
Objective: This paper discussed the characteristics of service design process by comparing with product design process. Background: Service design has different design outcomes, project participants, and design constraints than product design. Method: The comparison took two perspectives: one was shorter-term, design process of a service, and the other was longer-term, process of service development. Results: It was discussed that service design process is similar in overall, but has four differences. First, the role of design is required earlier and longer in the process, which means service designers need to participate from the begging of the project to service operation. Thus service designers are required to have holistic viewpoint of the project. Second, service design requires many design expertise thus collaboration needs to be well defined and managed throughout the process. Third, since service provider has limited resources, regulations, and market competition, some service features cannot be provided. Service designers are required to know both customers` needs and functional constraints. Last, service design is highly coupled with service operation. Designing and providing service happens at the same time and evolves over time. Conclusion: Consequently it was asserted that the role of designers in service design is essential for success. In specific, the role of service design architect, who manages design process and design outcomes, is a new and important role in service design project.
User Research Method for Service Design: From Conceptual Knowledge To Design Knowledge
Joo, Jae-Woo ; Oh, Dong-Woo ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 15~21
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.15
Objective: We propose empathy as a user research method for service design. Background: We argue that empathy will enable user researchers to go beyond the conceptual knowledge to the design knowledge of user experience. Method: We tested our hypothesis by conducting an experiment in which subjects were required to propose solutions to improve the experience of a family member of a patient hospitalized in an emergency department. Results: We found that the subjects who empathized with the family member of a patient tended to suggest the solutions based on design knowledge rather than the solutions based on conceptual knowledge compared to the subjects who did not empathize. Conclusion: Data support our hypothesis that empathy enables people to focus on design knowledge rather than conceptual knowledge. Application: These findings provide practical implications for user researchers in service design.
For the Acquisition of Customers` Emotional Elements in the Service Design by SOMC: Simultaneous Observation Method based on Cooperation
Seo, Mi-Young ; Lee, Eun-Jong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 23~32
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.23
Objective: This research proposes a methodology, which validates a grasp of the customers` emotions in the service design area. Background: As the era of service design has taken its approach, the need for a deliberate design that would reflect the customer`s experience had emerged in the area of service. Therefore, a variety of methodologies has been adopted in the field of service design with the purpose of discovery of the customers` needs. Even though the importance of an emotion-sentient research of a service experience increases, its research progress remains to be inadequate in comparison to all the other areas. Method: Having had taken some resources from the emotional studies under other areas of expertise as a base, the concept of volatility of emotions has been introduced as the core element of this research, further followed by an elaboration of its special characteristics. The observation technique under Stakeholder`s system: SOMC(Simultaneous Observation Method based on Cooperation) has been proposed in this study as it presents an effective way to grasp the concept of volatile emotions in contrast to the previously existent types of methodologies. Results: The SOMC rather supplements the existing research methods than substitutes the previous ones. In other words, although the existing research system allowed emotion detection, it was difficult to capture the change of momentary and fickle emotions. On the opposite, the SOMC provides a condition allowing a sufficient grasp of the customer`s emotions and facilitates emotional capture. Conclusion: For that reason, it is hoped that this piece of research represents a valuable and effective approach in terms of grasping the true needs of the customers on the emotional level, which will in its turn contribute to the improvement of the service quality in the midst of a complicated service condition. Application: Moreover, the purpose of this research is that in its outcome it may serve as a sufficient contribution to the area of emotional studies within the field of service design.
Study on Service Identity and Identity Framework
Kang, Hwa-Sun ; Pan, Young-Hwan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 33~40
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.33
Objective: Service industry has become the most important industry among various economic activities, as the percentage of service related industry in advanced nations is over 60% of their GDP and the percentage of service industry in South Korea, a traditional manufacturing nation, now takes up over 60% of the entire economy. Background: Such industry paradigm shift has changed consumers from those that simply purchased products into groups of people that evaluate the companies that manufacture products, thereby further intensifying competition among companies and increasing the importance of integrated communication between companies and consumers. However, the excessive existence of sub-identities that have been developed for integrated management of the existing corporate identities, as well as the undifferentiated general management strategies by companies are creating confusion not only for consumers but also for various corporate interest parties. In addition, service identity strategy has become the most important strategy than any other sub-identity strategies in forming corporate identity at the increased importance of corporate service in the era of service industry. However, the current domestic circumstance is that the concept of service identity has not been well established through specific related studies. Method: Accordingly, the existing academic and field studies on the corporate identity(CI), brand identity(BI) and product identity(PI) used for the communication with consumers were reviewed in this study to establish and summarize the concept of service identity(SI) that appeared at the service economization. Results: The purpose is to examine the kind of change that could be brought about by SI for the corporate integrated identity strategy developed through the existing corporate, brand & product image in order to present a new direct in corporate identity strategy according to the industry paradigm shift through a SI centered new corporate identity framework. Conclusion: For preparing the new era of service industry, the corporate integrated identity strategy must be integrate with concept of service identity and which is essential to differential from other companies. Application: The proposed concept and framework of service identity on this paper will help to understand and clearly define why service identity is important factor of the new idea of corporate identities.
Designing Coherent User Interfaces of N-Screen Services Reflecting Users` Task Knowledge
Park, Hwan-Su ; Lee, Dong-Seok ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 41~48
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.41
Objective: Companies want to expand their business by providing their services at other devices and new services based upon existing services. Therefore, they look for building brand identity by providing same experience throughout devices and services. Background: Many services are available to use at multiple devices including mobile phones, tablet, personal computers, and televisions, thanks to proliferation of n-screen and cloud technology. Method: It was discussed that consistency, which emphasizes the regularity and has been one of essential aspects of user interface design, seems not effective to be applied to n-screen services, owing to different screen size, input and output peripherals, usage environment and users` attitude. Results: A new definition of same experience among different devices and services, called coherence, was introduced and abstraction levels of user interfaces were proposed as the denominator of defining coherence. Then types of users` task knowledge at each abstraction level were discussed with examples. Conclusion: This paper concluded by discussing design requirements for designing coherent user interfaces among devices and services.
A Study of Holism based Service Experience Analysis System
Kim, Sung-Su ; Lee, Eun-Jong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 49~61
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.49
Objective: The aim of this study is to offer a holism based Service Experience Analysis System(HSEAS) for service design. Background: Customer experience has been focused in a lot of service area. But it is difficult to understand the customer`s needs and their experiences because it`s so complex and uncertain. Thus it needs holistic approach that means it`s difficult to explain general character merely through the understanding of small parts that composes an object and it must be analyzed within the overall context. Method: Accordingly, the thesis paper proposes the Service Experience Analysis System that satisfies the four following needs. (1) Need of solid Experience Framework in which the special quality of the service experience is considered, (2) need of support for the semantic cohesion between different kinds of data, (3) need of support for the management and search of vast data, and (4) need of building the knowledge base system for collaborative research. Results: HSEAS combines the short information in the customers` words and behaviors or situations and circumstances and provides a place of analysis where the context of the general experience can be read and allows concrete understanding of the actual state and factor of the problem as a Combined Data Analysis Tool. Conclusion: HSEAS becomes the center of information management, analysis and connection and it provides a free collaboration place where physical condition has no relations to as a knowledge base system based on network. Application: It is expected that length and width will be added to the analysis and assistance for effectively accumulating information will be provided in the area of diverse service.
A Usability Assessment Metric for Ubiquitous Services: Quantification of the Interactivity Attribute in Inter-personal Services
Lee, Joo-Hwan ; Song, Joo-Bong ; Yun, Myung-Hwan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 63~76
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.63
Objective: The main objective of this study is to propose a user-centered assessment metric for ubiquitous services. Background: As the ubiquitous era took off, the interactions between ubiquitous services and users have come to take an important position. It is essential to conceptualize a new assessment model that considers human-system interaction capability with a user-centered design perspective. Method: The evaluation model for the interactivity of ubiquitous service was approached from the concept of usability and inter-personality of services. As a validation study, suggested assessment metric was utilized to evaluate the u-Home service. Priority weighting of each assessment metric was derived using the quantification type-I analysis. Results: To evaluate interactivity, this study suggested a quantitative metric for user testing performed after classifying the interactivity characteristics to contextualization; ubiquity; user experience; and service capability. Conclusion: This study suggest the metric for the ubiquitous service that are experienced in real life, and introduced the concept of ubiquitous service interactivity. Application: The suggested evaluation metric can be used to evaluate interactivity level of ubiquitous service and identify the potential problem and usability requirements at the early stage of service development.
Judgment Gap Analysis between Service Provider and Consumer for Service Design
Hong, Seung-Kweon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 77~83
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.77
Objective: The aim of this paper is to introduce a method that can measure and analyze the judgment gaps between service providers and customers. Background: It is important to understand the good service that service providers and customers are thinking. If there is judgment gap between service providers and customers, it would cause an unsatisfactory service. The judgment gap should be thoroughly investigated for a good service design. Method: Lens model is a human decision making model that was proposed by Brunswick(1952). This study indicates whether the Lens model can be applied to analyze judgment gaps between service providers and customers. As a case study, a library lending service was selected. 5 librarians and 15 customers participated in the experiment that investigates their judgments on a good service. The obtained data were analyzed by a modified lens model. Results: Cue weighting policies of consumers and service providers were similar, except that consumers gave higher weight on tangibility than service providers. Service providers and consumers had a good knowledge on the service quality, but they could not well apply the knowledge to judge it. Conclusion: The lens model may be used to analyze judgment gaps between service providers and consumers in the other service areas. The decision cues that were used in this study can be changed, depending on the characteristics of the target service. Application: The method that is proposed in this study may help to investigate and analyze both consumers` and service providers` judgments on a variety of services.
Improving Public Services Through Methods of Service Design: A Case Study of the Service Design Workshop, Design Dive
Yoon, Seong-Won ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 85~92
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.85
Objective: This paper aims to discuss the case study of Design Dive: Service Design Workshop that was held to improve public services by applying service design methods(February 2011~May 2011). In so doing, it suggests the ways in which public services can be innovated from a design-oriented perspective. Background: As citizens` social and cultural awareness of services is enhanced, there have been emerging needs for innovation of public services. Accordingly, the methods of service design which is to design holistically users` experiences have been considered as an important means to innovate public services. Method: In this regard, the present paper introduces and explores the example of the Design Dive Workshop as a platform whereby service design is achieved. In particular, it analyzes the results of the workshop. Results: The paper presents the results of the workshop and the 10 possible scenarios of public services that were explored in the workshop and suggests models for empowering the workshop participants. Conclusion: Service design is a very effective methodology for providing a new perspective on user-oriented design of public services. The workshop had educational effects on enhancing the participants` awareness of the role of public service design. Application: The Design Dive workshop contributed to improving public services and achieved positive educational results. The methods developed in the workshop can effectively be applied to various occasions on which public services should be improved.
The Study on Service Design Development for Pharmacy Users: Using Smart Phone Application
Lee, Dong-Min ; Park, Hye-Jung ; Lee, Dong-In ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 93~100
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.93
Objective: This study is to review the current state of services offered to pharmacy users, and develop a service design converging a prescription service and a smart phone application service in order to enhance patients` experience at pharmacies and home. Background: Under the new medical system; separation of prescribing and dispensing drugs, a doctor writes a prescription to their patients and patients have their prescription filled at the pharmacy. As the number of flue, allergy and atopy patients has increased, waiting lines have been longer at pharmacies. Besides, the current medical service system lacks of providing proper information on prescribed pills to patients. There are already services offered during waiting times such as offering free drinks, magazines or suggesting general drugs which you can buy without prescription, however they neither cover the current medical service`s shorts nor shorten the waiting time. Method: I researched objective and perceived waiting times reduction methods, the current service status at pharmacies, and the government`s policy direction in a medical service. Also, I observed a patient`s journey from the hospital to pharmacy and then home. I examined the circumstance at pharmacies, patients` behaviors and their thoughts during their journey, and extracted three main goals to design a service in order to help patients have positive perception during the waiting time; (1) to reduce the perceived time by the way of visualizing time and offering readings about what patients consider necessary, (2) to educate patients what they are into and how to get through, (3) to establish trust among patients, doctors and pharmacists. Based on three goals, I designed a structure and a wireframe for a new service application of smart phones. Results: With a new service design for pharmacy users, users can track their medical record and visit the information about their current medical treatments anytime. Also the service helps patients build reliable relationships with doctors and pharmacists. Conclusion: Experience is not just an activity but series of multiple activities. The serving range of a medical service should not be determined by stakeholders but user`s holistic experience. By approaching a service design with a holistic vision, it can enrich not only a temporary experience but also a whole life well being. Application: Since there are already many service applications advising patients about their illness and finding right doctors, this service design is focused on the experience from getting a prescription till feeling better. The next move is to combine those two parts medical services and design an integrated service application. As a prescription is going to be coded in numbers, we might consider to design an un-attended pharmacy which can shorten huge amount of time for filling prescriptions.
A Study on the Service Design for Online Service Company to Enhance User Experience
Lee, Ji-Hyun ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 101~107
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.101
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate service design cases by online service companies and suggests framework to understand service design of them. Background: Recently, exploratory service design cases by online service companies such as Google, Apple, and NHN has been developed. Service design and online service experience design has been booming among user experience professionals but these two areas are not clearly defined. It is interesting to study the definition and key factors of service design and online service experience design. Moreover, investigating service design cases by online service companies is needed. Method: Due to diversification of service design cases by online service companies, this study has reviewed online resources and literatures about top 5 online service companies in USA and Korea. Furthermore, this study used expert interview who worked for service design at NHN. To understand the attributes of service design cases, this study developed 3 types of service design classifications scheme such as service design as extension of online service, space design and event service design. Finally, this study suggested a new framework for service design cases. Results: This study investigated service design cases by online service companies and suggests key issues and frameworks to uncover service design for online service. Conclusion: Service design cases for online service was analyzed by
, service) to explain characteristics and attributes. NHN`s Knowledge-iN bookshelf at NHN library1 is a unique form of service design as a tool of enrichment of online experience. Application: The results of this study might help to understand service design cases and plan new service design for online service companies with structured framework.
A Study of Service Design for the General Hospital through analyzing the User Journey Map and the User Context
Kim, Jong-Hyun ; Yi, Won-Je ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 109~116
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.109
Objective: The aim of this study is to present a solution to problems in the services provided by the general hospitals by creating a user-centric environment through analyzing the User Journey Map and the User Context. Background: The rapid growth in aging population and the monopolization of superior medical staffs by the general hospitals increased demand for the general hospitals in Korea. But, often services provided by the general hospitals are provider-centric and low quality. Method: This study examines problems in the services provided by the general hospitals by analyzing the User Journey Map through stakeholder interviews(contextual interviews) and on-site observation. Based on the contextual analysis of the user(i.e. the patient), this study proposes new and improved user-centric services to be provided by the general hospitals. Results: Ten new user-centric services proposed by this study are: (1) "Booklet on Success Story", (2) "FAQs by Doctor", (3) "Designated Nurse", (4) "Patient Interview Record Card", (5) "Close relationship between doctor & patient", (6) "Thank You Notice Board", (7) "Step by Step", (8) "Green Cap", (9) "Patient Kit", (10) "RFID Direction Display System". Conclusion: The service design for the general hospitals proposed by this study is an important case-study on improving the environment of the general hospitals from provider(medical staffs)-centric to user(patents and its family)-centric. Application: This study is expected to be used in various areas to improve existing system(products and/or services) to be more user-centric.
The Study on Creative Tutoring Service Design to Improve Self-presentation and Learning Abilities for Kids Focusing on Visual Association and Storytelling
Lee, Dong-Min ; Park, Hye-Jung ; Cho, Sung-Bae ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 117~124
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.117
Objective: The goal of this study is to design a creative tutoring service, which helps children gain confidence and creativity through learning activities. Background: Nowadays most kids are growing up in a very competitive environment under their parents` zeal for education. A stressful environment can deter a child from the confident undertaking of challenges, leading to depression, anxiety, and feelings of inadequacy. Art therapy helps children work through these issues, however the process led by instructors or parents, and kids still feel anxious studying adults` face to read their thought. Method: To help children address challenges, a creative tutoring service application can provide images with certain tasks instead of asking them to fill in blank areas. The tasks asked by the service system are 1) to visualize children`s own experience utilizing visually associated images from given images and 2) to create an illustrated story modifying and re-composing given images. Another task is to learn basic math and words with numbers and alphabets in customized colors. By completing each task children collect awards, which allow them graduate to higher levels of challenges. The outcomes from the tasks are sent to the main server system and reviewed by analysts. Those results are sent to children`s parents as a text message on smart phone. Results: Visual implication using images inspires children to make creative stories based on their own experience. Also, children can find their own patterns of reaching answers by using synaesthetic imagery through repetitive practices of creative thinking tasks. Conclusion: Understanding how they feel about doing tasks in certain environments and assessing them in varied situations should be carefully considered when designers approach service design for kids. By focusing on how to tutor children in creative ways, as opposed to focusing on the expected outcome, creative service applications can be designed to reduce children`s stress and encourage self expression. Children are predicted to gain confidence through using the service without the concern of comparison by others. Application: The creative tutoring service needs to be developed and tested by varying types of children.
Designing Services with Models from Interaction Design and Cognitive Systems Engineering
Lee, Dong-Seok ; Pan, Young-Hwan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 125~130
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.125
Objective: This paper discusses how service design is related to two well-known disciplines, interaction design and cognitive systems engineering, which are applied to the design of software, websites and mobile phones, and the design of control room of nuclear power plants and cockpit control, respectively. Background: Service design has been spotlighted recently due to its promisingness to service industry. Successful cases of service design are widely shared among designers. Service design, however, is treated as practice rather than a discipline. Method: It was discussed that it is important to consider the interaction between customers and services as in interaction design, and some domains are complex enough and have functional limitation as in cognitive systems engineering. Results: Models and design tools of the disciplines are introduced and applied to service design practices. Conclusion: It was concluded that service design has the characteristics of both interaction design and cognitive systems engineering.
Ergonomic Research Trends in the Shipbuilding Industry: Present and the Future
Kim, Yu-Chang ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 131~135
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.131
Objective: The aim of this study is to gain an overview of the ergonomic research trends in the shipbuilding industry. Background: The number of ergonomic studies on the shipbuilding industry has increased significantly in recent years. Method: Various ergonomic papers on the shipbuilding industry have been reviewed to find ergonomic research trends. Results: The tendency observed in these studies shows that the work-related musculoskeletal disorders(WMSDs) is the most important research subject in the shipbuilding industry. Conclusion: The previous studies, focused on the physical aspects of the work, are now replaced by studies such as organizational and psychophysical studies. Application: These results can be used to provide baseline information for ergonomic research in the shipbuilding industry.
The Characteristics of Industrial Accidents in Shipbuilding Industry
Lee, Kyung-Tae ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 137~142
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.137
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of industrial accidents in shipbuilding industry. Background: As the accident frequency in shipbuilding industry is higher than those of other industries, it is important to grasp the accident characteristics of shipbuilding industry to reduce the accidents. Method: This paper aggregated some important accident report of the shipbuilding industry including industrial accident analysis of Korean government and drew some important accident characteristics of shipbuilding industry. Results: Accidents in Shipbuilding industry was reviewed in respect of accidents rate, accidents distribution by age, accidents by employed period, accidents severity, accidents type, accidents type by process, accidents caused by object, and hazards in process. Conclusion: Accident related indexes in shipbuilding were much higher than those of whole industry. Application: These results can be used to provide base information for more effective accident preventions in shipbuilding industry.
Risk Assessment in the Shipbuilding Industry: Present and the Future
Jeong, Byung-Yong ; Kim, Woo-Jin ; Jeong, Ye-Seul ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 143~149
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.143
Objective: The aim of this study is to gain an overview of the risk assessment and management system in the shipbuilding industry. Background: The use of risk assessment techniques has grown significantly in recent years. Method: Various references have been reviewed to evaluate risk assessment and management policy. Results: Adapting the risk assessment system has become an important approach not only to prevent industrial accidents but also to enhance the efficiency of works for shipbuilding workers. Conclusion: Risk assessment is an approved technology for operators to address larger hazards, and to ensure risks have been reduced to appropriate levels cost effectively. Application: These results can be used to provide baseline information for risk assessment and management policy.
A Survey on the Implementation of Musculoskeletal Disorders Prevention Program in Shipbuilding Industry
Kim, Day-Sung ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 151~156
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.151
Objective: In 2010, the rate of injuries and illnesses in the shipbuilding industry was 1.20, about 1.74 times higher than the average of overall industries(0.69). Musculoskeletal disorders(MSDs) became a major problem since 2000 in shipbuilding industry. The purpose of this study was to provide efficient implementation management through evaluating the economic effectiveness of the Musculoskeletal Disorders Prevention Program(MDPP). Successfully implementing the MDPP in the workplace may decrease the risk of MSDs and therefore reduce MSDs related costs. Methods: Occupational accident index (frequency rate, severity rate, and frequency severity indicator), estimated direct costs, and total occupational accident occurrence rate were provided by analysis of MSDs, statistical analysis of MDPP decreed companies, and data analysis of implementation. Results: The study shows the number of MSDs for MDPP decreed companies decreased 76.2% from 2,319 in 2004 to 551 in 2008. Above all, the number of MSDs decreased 78.7% in Shipbuilding industries. Forty companies (85.1%) showed a decreasing tendency and 27.7% of those had an
> 0.7. Similar results were found in severity rate and frequency severity indicator. From these results, it appears there are a number of advantages in implementing the MDPP. Conclusion: MDPP effectiveness was demonstrated by analysing implementation and occupational accident index. A more effective and efficient implementation would take into account business sector, size, policy, and organization of the company.
Medical Managements of Musculoskeletal Diseases in Shipbuilding Industry
Kim, Jong-Eun ; Kim, Young-Ki ; Kang, Dong-Mug ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 157~163
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.157
Objective: This study is to understand medical management method in shipbuilding industry. Background: In shipbuilding industry, medical management for prevention of work-related musculoskeletal diseases due to limitations of engineering measures may be important measure. Results: Medical management of musculoskeletal diseases can be divided into primary, secondary, tertiary preventions. Primary preventions consist of symptom survey, appropriate work placement with work capacity evaluation, health promotion. Second preventions are early detection of symptomatic patient and appropriate treatment. Tertiary preventions are rehabilitation treatment and early return-to-work by return-to-work evaluation. In addition, patients with psychological counseling for emotional problems are needed. Conclusion: Medical management measures such as improving the work environment to be made are expected to exert greater effects.
Development of a New Method for Whole-Body Working Postures: K-OWAS
Kim, Yu-Chang ; Kim, Dae-Su ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 165~170
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.165
Objective: The aim of this study is to develop new K-OWAS on the basis of the anthropometry of Koreans considering works in shipbuilding and heavy industry for evaluation whole-body working postures. Background: Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders(WMSDs) were a leading cause of sick leaves and injuries in the industries of our country. Especially, awkward working postures and handling of heavy weight are known as a main cause of WMSDs. OWAS, RULA and REBA are much used as the method for evaluating the awkward working postures. OWAS is the working postures evaluation method that can be used for the evaluation of whole-body working postures. OWAS was the method made based on the anthropometry of the foreigner, working postures and weight does not fit our work state. Method: This method was evaluated considering the anthropometry of the Koreans, working postures and weight in shipbuilding and heavy industry work state in Korea. Results: Correlation of action level of OWAS and subjective discomfort for each body parts were not statistically significant(
). But correlation of action level of K-OWAS and subjective discomfort for torso and waist were statistically significant(
). Conclusion: K-OWAS was suitable in the evaluation of upper body including torso and waist. Application: New method for whole-body working postures from this study prevent WMSDs and help improvement of working environment and design of working method.
Assessment of Work Ability of Korean Workers in the Shipbuilding Industry using FIOH Questionnaire
Lee, Yu-Jeong ; Chang, Seong-Rok ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 171~176
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.171
Objective: The goal of this study was to assess work ability of Korean workers in the shipbuilding industry. Background: Old age is associated with inevitable time-dependent losses in physical capabilities. However the maintenance of physical capabilities is essential for continuing independence in old age. The work ability index(WAI) was constructed to reveal how well a worker is able to perform his or her work. Method: The WAI is a kind of survey methods developed to estimate the work capacity of aged workers by the Finish Institute of Occupational Health(FIOH) in 1998. The difference of the WAI between groups in each category was tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the relationship between the WAI and the workers` ages was tested by the Correlation test. Results: This study surveyed 2,709 persons working in the shipbuilding industry in Korea. The average WAI score for all workers was 40.0 denoting a Good Level. Also, workers in the shipbuilding industry had lower work ability, as compared to the results of other industries. The WAI was analyzed for different age groups(
; 30~34; 35~39; 40~44; 45~49; 50~54;
). The results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that significant difference was identified on the effect of aging(p<0.05). Conclusion: Advanced countries like the Finland showed decreasing tendency in good and excellent levels as aged, but there was no decreasing tendency in Korean population. The results may be attributable to the general characteristics of Korean society, such as poor social security and burden caused by role of the patriarch. It may bring forth higher work ability in aged population even their physical condition is getting worse. Application: This finding could be used for developing more accurate assessment tool of work ability for working environment.
Job Stress at the Shipbuilding Industry
Lee, Kwan-Suk ; Chung, Da-Yeh ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 177~183
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.177
Objectives: The objectives of this study are to discuss the importance of job stress and to introduce a model of job stress at the shipbuilding industry considering the characteristics of the shipbuilding works. Background: Shipbuilding works consist of grinding, painting, interior works, welding, and assembling and using heavy equipment in narrow space or work at outside or at high and dangerous places. The working environments aggravate the stress to the workers. Methods: Studies of job stress in industries including shipbuilding industries were reviewed and the characteristics of jobs of shipbuilding were analyzed to find causes of job stress. Results: A model was constructed based upon these findings and reviews. Conclusions: Job stress of shipbuilding workers are very high and thus job and working conditions need to be improved to attenuate the level of job stress of shipbuilding workers. Applications: This model can be used to identify the highly stressed workers and sources of stress.
Ergonomics Risk-Assessment Methods in Shipbuilding: Application of OWAS Considering Work load and Frequency for Risk Factor Analysis of WMSDs
Lee, Jun-Youb ; Seo, Hyun-Soo ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 185~189
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.185
Objective: The aim of this paper is to introduces Hyundai Heavy Industry`s ergonomic risk assessment tool, H-OWAS, which is considering work load and frequency compared to the OWAS. Background: As prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders(WMSDs) in ship building industries has been much higher than that in other industries, most of the large scaled corporations have implemented their own prevention program since legislation on the prevention of WMSDs had introduced in 2003. Method: This paper introduces WMSDs prevention program, HEMP(HHI Ergonomics Management Program) which consists of risk assessment, improvement efforts of working environments, medical treatment and training/evaluation and describes how to operate the program. We also describe application of OWAS method considering work load and frequency for risk factor analysis(H-OWAS) and shows methodology for assessing the ergonomic risk factor. And comparison of the assessment results between OWAS and H-OWAS is carried out by statistical analysis. Result: There was statistically significant difference in the assessment results between OWAS and H-OWAS, and regression shows H-OWAS explains the borg`s scale of perceived exertion more clearly than OWAS. Conclusion: H-OWAS has been proved more effective tool than OWAS to evaluate ergonomic risk factor under real working condition. Application: H-OWAS can be widely applied to the many other companies when implementing the ergonomics risk assessment.
A Case Study on the Effect of Ergonomics Program in Shipbuilding Industry during the Last Ten Years
Jeong, Hyun-Wook ; Kim, Yu-Chang ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 191~196
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.191
Objective: The Work-related musculoskeletal disorders(WMSDs) have been a problem on industrial occupational safety and health in Korean shipyard industry. It has been a big social problem. Background: As a result, Korean government enacted a law to prevent musculoskeletal disorders at work and some major companies have already implemented an ergonomics program. Method: This paper presents a study on the effect of an ergonomics program in a Korean shipbuilding company during the last ten years. Conclusion: The Incidence of WMSDs, the worker`s compensation cost and the lost time were decreased after implementation of the ergonomics program. Application: The results of the publishing will help efficient operation of MSDs prevention activity in other companies.
A Case Study on Job Stress Prevention in Shipbuilding Industry
Bae, Chang-Ho ; Kim, Yu-Chang ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 197~202
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.197
Objective: The aim of this study is to introduce activities for job stress management in shipbuilding industry. Background: Recently, workers are exposed many job stress like workload, interpersonal conflict while management condition of company changes day by day. Particularly, shipbuilding industry has poor environment which aggravating the stress to the workers. So managing job stress may be more important. Method: The method of this study is to investigate preventive actions of job stress in "S" shipbuilding company. Results: This study through case of "S" shipbuilding company introduce activities of prevention of job stress including identification of level of job stress, managing of psychological clinic, training of worker and manager. Conclusion: In order to manage the job stress in the workplace, 1) The total management system based on the concern of the management in the workplace has to be constructed. 2) Computerized system for operation of total management system has to be constructed. 3) New employees need training for Job Stress. Application: Through this case study, I hope to help prevention activities of job stress in the workplace.
Roles of Health and Safety Department and Its Future Directions in the Shipbuilding Industry
Choi, Yong ; Oh, Sun-Young ; Jeong, Byung-Yong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 203~209
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.203
Objective: The aim of this paper is to introduce the roles of H&S(Health and Safety) department and its future directions in the shipbuilding industry. Background: It is necessary to improve the level and quality of Safety & Health department. Method: Various documents and performances involving a shipbuilding company have been reviewed to describe the job of the Safety & Health department. Results: The role of the Safety & Health department has increased and developed in recent domestic industry. Conclusion: The status of the Safety & Health department should be improved by introducing of new systems and skills. Application: These results can be used to provide information for establishing a more effective safety and health organization.
A Study on Application of the Korea Human Scale to Anthropometric Design
Lee, Dhong-Ha ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 211~217
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.211
Objective: The aim of this study is to show a correct application procedure using the compact Korean anthropometric data application program called Korean Human Scale(KHS) for anthropometric design. Background: The nation-wide anthropometric survey project called `Size Korea` developed KHS and distributed it to the public on the web site. But some insufficiency of the current web service of KHS misleads the users; they just put their own statue and pick up a meaningless data for a body dimension. Method: This study provides five steps to follow to read appropriate data from KHS for an anthropometric design. Results: As a case study, the depth dimension of the supervisory and control console used in the Korea nuclear power plant was determined following the procedure and compared with the console design guideline recommendation. Conclusion: The supplementary anthropometry table should be added on the web service of KHS for users to read a meaningful data for design. Application: If properly used, the KHS has a lot more potential application area than users can expect such as in control center design area.
A Comparative Study on the Change Characteristics of the 4
to the 6
Size Korea`s Anthropometric Data: Focused on the Boys Aged 13 to 18
Ryu, Eun-Joo ; Choi, Hei-Sun ; Yi, Kyong-Hwa ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 219~235
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.219
Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the change characteristics of boys among the ages of 13 and 18 years. This study is based on the
national anthropometric survey(Size Korea) data. Background: Many changes can affect the body characteristics compared withthe past. The significant changes were shown in Pepsi generation according to the report of national anthropometric survey of Korea 1997. Method: The subjects of the survey were 1,899 boys of the
Size Korea, 1,587 boys of the
Size Korea and 2,317 boys of the
Size Korea, who were from 13 to 18 years old. The change characteristics were analyzed withanthropometric measurements, height index value and proportion. Results: Stature was increased in 17~18 years old age group of the
Size Korea and height items of the lower body showed the tendency to increase as the
Size Korea over the time. In the case of circumference items, the tendency to increase in the
Size Korea was observed. If the
Size Korea were compared, there were no changes of other circumference items but chest circumference of the
Size Korea was decreased in comparison with the
Size Korea. Waist breadth(natural indentation) was increased in the
Size Korea in spite of chest breadth was decreased in the
Size Korea. And shoulder length, biacromion length and bishoulder length were decreased. The proportion of chest circumference, abdominal extension circumference and hip circumference to waist circumference and the proportion of chest breadth to waist breadth(natural indentation) showed the tendency to decrease as the
Size Korea over the time. Conclusion: There was no change of stature excluding 17~18 years old. Circumference items showed tendency to increase as the
Size Korea over the time. Shoulder and chest breadth became narrow. The somatotype changed to board chest with narrow waist in comparison with the previous. Application: In this way, the body size of 13~18 years` old boys changes. If these change characteristics reflects to the school uniform design, research for the pattern development, and etc., these will be able to improve fit and satisfaction of clothes.
A Study on the Somatotype Characteristics of Korean Adult Women: A Comparison between the Data of the 5
Anthropometry of Size Korea and 6
Anthropometry of Size Korea
Yi, Kyong-Hwa ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 237~245
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.237
Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze female adult`s body shape characteristics and to provide the basic information for clothing manufacturing. Background: The comparative study among the age groups is very fundamental to understand the body characteristics of each subjects group. Therefore, comparison of body measurements in age groups was applied in this study. Method: The study was fulfilled by the comparison between the data of the
Anthropometry of Size Korea (2004) and the
Anthropometry of Size Korea(2010). The subjects were 2,213 female adults aged 20~59 of the 5th Size Korea anthropometric survey and 2,025 female adults aged 20~59 of the 6th Size Korea anthropometric survey. Results: The differences indicated the decreased values in widths, depths, girths regarding the torso region and BMI. "Head height to Stature ratio" decreased significantly in the 6th data, on the other hand, "Crotch height to Stature ratio" increased in the 6th data. Through the distribution characteristic of the age groups by Stature groups, it was convinced that 160cm stature group is the most frequent among all age groups of the 6th Size Korea. Conclusion: As a summary, the meaningful differences were showed between the 5th anthropometric data and the 6th data. According to the 6th Size Korea, the distribution tendency of obesity is very similar to the 5th Size Korea data. But the percentage of obese women declined significantly. Application: These findings from the study can be utilized women`s wear design and construction that reflect body characteristics.
A Study on the Somatotype Characteristics of Korean Adult Men: A Comparison between the Data of the 5
Anthropometry of Size Korea and 6
Anthropometry of Size Korea
Chang, Sun-Ok ; Yi, Kyong-Hwa ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 247~254
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.247
Objective: The objective of the study is to analyze adult men`s somatotype characteristics, age range from 20s to 50s comparing the direct anthropometric measurement values and to provide the basis information for developing clothing patterns. Background: The comparative study among the age groups is very fundamental to understand the body characteristics of each subjects group. Therefore, comparison of body measurements in age groups was applied in this study. Method: The anthropometric data from the
Anthropometry of Size Korea(2004) and
Anthropometry of Size Korea(2010) were applied for the data analysis. Results: As a result, the chest depth/chest width index(the value of chest depth divided by chest width) was increased and the waist depth/waist width index was decreased in all age groups. In addition, the hip depth/hip width index was decreased in age of 20`s and 50`s. This means that the chest width and hip width were decreased and the waist width were increased. From the data of the 5th Size Korea, the obese men(BMI: 25~30) in the 50s showed the highest percentage of 47.1%, and 44.8% of obese men(BMI: 25~30) in the 40s recorded the highest rate base on the data of the 6th Size Korea. Conclusion: It is concluded that the some differences were showed between the 5th anthropometric data and the 6th data. In particular, obesity tendencies of men in their 20`s and 30`s were observed significantly compared to other age groups. Application: These findings from the study can be utilized men`s wear design and construction that reflect body characteristics.
Relationship between Representative Anthropometric Dimensions and Income Levels for Korean
Kee, Do-Hyung ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 255~259
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.255
Objective: This study aims to investigate relationship between representative anthropometric dimensions and income levels for Korean from 1958 to 1989. The anthropometric dimensions include stature and body weight, and GNP per head was used as an index of income level. Background: Although anthropometric dimensions were affected by varying factors such as genetic, environmental and socioeconomic factors, most studies on anthropometry have focused on measurement methods, providing data and their characteristics. Method: Anthropometric data were retrieved from homepages of Korean Agency for Technology and Standards, and Ministry of Culture, Sports & Tourism, and GNPs per head by year from Korean Statistical Information Service. Results: During analysis period, statures and body weights for males and females increased by 6.4cm and 6.1cm, 10.7kg and 4.0kg, respectively. Infants` stature and body weight nearly linearly increased with GNPs per head. Anthropometric dimensions of stature and body weight were very positively correlated with GNPs per head. Conclusion: This study revealed that income levels significantly affect stature and body weight. Application: The results would be used as a valuable basic data when establishing government policies related to anthropometry.
Development of a Human Error Hazard Identification Method for Introducing Smart Mobiles to Nuclear Power Plants
Lee, Yong-Hee ; Yun, Jong-Hun ; Lee, Yong-Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 1, 2012, Pages 261~269
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.1.261
Objective: The aim of this study is to develop an analysis method to extract plausible types of errors when using a smart mobile in nuclear power plants. Background: Smart mobiles such as a smart-phone and a tablet computer(smart-pad) are to be introduced to the various industries. Nuclear power plant like APR1400 already adopted many up-to-date digital devices within its main control room. With this trend, various types of smart mobiles will be inevitably introduced to the nuclear field in the near future. However nuclear power plants(NPPs) should be managed considering a big risk as a result of the trend not only economically but also socially compared to the other industrial systems. It is formally required to make sure to reasonably prevent the all hazards due to the introduction of new technologies and devices before the application to the specific tasks in nuclear power plants. Method: We define interaction segments(IS) as a main architect of interaction description, and enumerate all plausible error segments(ES) for a part of design evaluation of digital devices. Results: We identify various types of interaction errors which are coped with reasonably by interaction design using smart mobiles. Conclusion: According to the application result of the proposed method, we conclude that the proposed method can be utilized to specify the requirements to the human error hazards in digital devices, and to conduct a human factors review during the design of digital devices. Application: The proposed method can be applied to predict the human errors of the tasks related to the digital devices; therefore we can ensure the safety to apply the digital devices to be introduced to NPPs.