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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
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Quantitative Comparison of the E-book and Paper-book by using Eye-tracker
Kim, Jung-Yong ; Lee, Min-Ho ; Min, Seung-Nam ; Cho, Young-Jin ; Choi, Jun-Hyeok ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 5, 2012, Pages 609~616
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.5.609
Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate the difference of legibility between e-book and paper-book by using eye-tracker. Background: Despite of many researches on the e-book and paper-book, there are few researches on the difference between e-book and paper-book. In addition, the researches on the e-book were only dependent on the e-book reader. This study focused on the comparison of e-book and paper-book controlled with the same environments. Method: This study was conducted with
within-subject design. Independent variables include the types of book (e-book, paper-book) and font sizes (8pt, 10pt, 12pt). Dependent variables are four measures of fixation duration, saccade length, blink rate and subjective discomfort. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with repeated measured design was used to investigate the main and interaction effects of independent variables on each of the dependent variables. The multiple comparisons were performed by post hoc analysis and Bonferroni correction was applied. Results: Fixation duration at e-book was longer than paper-book (p<0.01). Saccade length at e-book was shorter than paper-book (p<0.05). Blink rate at e-book was higher than paper-book (p<0.1). Subjective discomfort at e-book was higher than paper-book (p<0.1). Legibility at 8pt was better than 10pt, 12pt (p<0.01) in fixation duration, saccade length and subjective discomfort. Conclusion: It was found that the legibility at e-book are worse than paper-book from this study. These results indicated that the legibility of e-book was needed to be validated and improved to replace the paper-book. Application: This study suggests improving something related to fixation duration, saccade length, blink rate and subjective discomfort for betterment of e-book.
Classification and Intensity Assessment of Korean Emotion Expressing Idioms for Human Emotion Recognition
Park, Ji-Eun ; Sohn, Sun-Ju ; Sohn, Jin-Hun ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 5, 2012, Pages 617~627
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.5.617
Objective: The aim of the study was to develop a most widely used Korean dictionary of emotion expressing idioms. This is anticipated to assist the development of software technology that recognizes and responds to verbally expressed human emotions. Method: Through rigorous and strategic classification processes, idiomatic expressions included in this dictionary have been rated in terms of nine different emotions (i.e., happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust, interest, boredom, and pain) for meaning and intensity associated with each expression. Result: The Korean dictionary of emotion expression idioms included 427 expressions, with approximately two thirds classified as 'happiness'(n=96), 'sadness'(n=96), and 'anger'(n=90) emotions. Conclusion: The significance of this study primarily rests in the development of a practical language tool that contains Korean idiomatic expressions of emotions, provision of information on meaning and strength, and identification of idioms connoting two or more emotions. Application: Study findings can be utilized in emotion recognition research, particularly in identifying primary and secondary emotions as well as understanding intensity associated with various idioms used in emotion expressions. In clinical settings, information provided from this research may also enhance helping professionals' competence in verbally communicating patients' emotional needs.
A Comparison of the Characteristics between Single and Double Finger Gestures for Web Browsers
Park, Jae-Kyu ; Lim, Young-Jae ; Jung, Eui-S. ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 5, 2012, Pages 629~636
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.5.629
Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the characteristics of single and double finger gestures related on the web browser and to extract the appropriate finger gestures. Background: As electronic equipment emphasizes miniaturization for improving portability various interfaces are being developed as input devices. Electronic devices are made smaller, the gesture recognition technology using the touch-based interface is favored for easy editing. In addition, user focus primarily on the simplicity of intuitive interfaces which propels further research of gesture based interfaces. In particular, the fingers in these intuitive interfaces are simple and fast which are users friendly. Recently, the single and double finger gestures are becoming more popular so more applications for these gestures are being developed. However, systems and software that employ such finger gesture lack consistency in addition to having unclear standard and guideline development. Method: In order to learn the application of these gestures, we performed the sketch map method which happens to be a method for memory elicitation. In addition, we used the MIMA(Meaning in Mediated Action) method to evaluate gesture interface. Results: This study created appropriate gestures for intuitive judgment. We conducted a usability test which consisted of single and double finger gestures. The results showed that double finger gestures had less performance time faster than single finger gestures. Single finger gestures are a wide satisfaction difference between similar type and difference type. That is, single finger gestures can judge intuitively in a similar type but it is difficult to associate functions in difference type. Conclusion: This study was found that double finger gesture was effective to associate functions for web navigations. Especially, this double finger gesture could be effective on associating complex forms such as curve shaped gestures. Application: This study aimed to facilitate the design products which utilized finger and hand gestures.
Development of Smart Driving System Using iPod and Its Performance Evaluation for People with Severe Physical Disabilities in the Driving Simulator
Jung, Woo-Chul ; Kim, Yong-Chul ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 5, 2012, Pages 637~646
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.5.637
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop the adaptive device for severe physical disabilities using smart device in the driving simulator and its performance evaluation. Development of appropriate driving adaptive device for the people with serious physical limitation could contribute to maintain their community mobility. Background: There is lack of adaptive driving devices for the people with disabilities in Korea. However, if smart device systems like iPod and iPhone are used for driving a car, the people with serious physical limitations can improve their community mobility. Method: Both gyroscope and accelerometer from iPod were used to measure the tilted angle of the smart device for driving. Customized Labview program was also used to control three axis motors for steering wheel, accelerator and brake pedals. Thirteen subjects were involved in the experiment for performance evaluation of smart device in simulator. Five subjects had driver licenses. Another four subjects did not have driver licenses. Others were people with disabilities. Results: Average driving score of the normal group with driver license in the simulator increased 46.6% compared with the normal group without driver license and increased 30.4% compared with the disabled group(p<0.01). There was no significant difference in the average driving score between normal group without driver license and disabled group(p>0.05). Conclusion: The normal group with driver license showed significantly higher driving score than other groups. The normal group without driver license and disabled group could improve their driving skills with training in simulator. Application: If follow-up studies would be continued and applied in adapted vehicle for on road environment, many people with more severe disabilities could drive and improve the quality of life.
Fitts' Law for Angular Foot Movement in the Foot Tapping Task
Park, Jae-Eun ; Myung, Ro-Hae ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 5, 2012, Pages 647~655
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.5.647
Objective: The purpose of this study was to confirm difference between angular foot movement time and existing foot Fitts' law predicting times, and to develop the angular foot Fitts' law in the foot tapping task. Background: Existing studies of foot Fitts' law focused on horizontal movement to predict the movement time. However, when driving a car, humans move their foot from the accelerator to the brake with a fixed heel. Therefore, we examined the experiment to measure angular foot movement time in reciprocal foot tapping task and compared to conventional foot Fitts' law predicting time. And, we developed the angular foot Fitts' law. Method: In this study, we compared the angular foot movement time in foot tapping task and the predicted time of four conventional linear foot Fitts' law models - Drury's foot Fitts' law, Drury's ballistic, Hoffmann's ballistic, Hoffmann's visually-controlled. 11 subjects participated in this experiment to get a movement time and three target degrees of 20, 40, and 60 were used. And, conventional models were calculated for the prediction time. To analyze the movement time, linear and arc distance between targets were used for variables of model. Finally, the angular foot Fitts' law was developed from experimental data. Results: The average movement times for each experiment were 412.2ms, 474.9ms, and 526.6ms for the 89mm, 172mm, and 253mm linear distance conditions. The results also showed significant differences in performance time between different angle level. However, all of conventional linear foot Fitts' laws ranged 135.6ms to 401.2ms. On the other hand, the angular foot Fitts' law predicted the angular movement time well. Conclusion: Conventional linear foot Fitts' laws were underestimated and have a limitation to predict the foot movement time in the real task related angular foot movement. Application: This study is useful when considering the human behavior of angular foot movement such as driving or foot input device.
Research on Information Providing Method for Intelligent Navigation System
Park, Hye-Sun ; Kim, Kyong-Ho ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 5, 2012, Pages 657~670
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.5.657
Background: Today, numerous telematics technologies, i.e., technologies developed by integrating telecommunications with information processing, are applied in vehicles. One such developmental application of this technology to vehicles is to increase the safety or convenience of drivers by providing them with necessary information such as warnings and information on emergencies and traffic situations. However, under certain conditions, there is a high probability of traffic accidents if the driving workload is high. Nowadays, the navigation system is frequently used in the vehicles, this system provides various information including route to the driver. But, the existing navigation systems are not only considered a driver's reaction but also provide unilaterally to the information regardless of them. Such one-side information service type may miss important information to the driver. In addition, it sometimes interferes safety driving. Objective: To solve this problem, the intelligent navigation system needs to the providing way that it checks the driver's reactions after providing information. Namely, if the driver passes the information received from the navigation, then the intelligent system provides more loudly and more frequently. Method: Therefore, in this study we introduce the intelligent navigation system that it automatically controls modality type and its strength when the driver misses or overlooks the information for their safety and entertainment and we analyze the driver's cognitive responses about the modality type and its strength. Results: To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed system, we analyzed the reaction time and driving workload for each type of the information, modality and its strength. Also we evaluated the users' subjective satisfaction and understanding based on a questionnaire.
Characteristics and Influencing Factors on Recuperators with Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders
Kim, Kyoo-Sang ; Jeon, Hee-Gyeong ; Kim, Day-Sung ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 5, 2012, Pages 671~685
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.5.671
Objective: This study aims to investigate subjects in recuperation to identify the following factors with regard to work-related musculoskeletal diseases: diagnosis in the context of occupational and environmental medicine; assessment systems for judging work-relatedness; recuperation management; workplace management; prevention programs; and care after returning to work. This study intends to analyze differences between subjects and determine what characteristics of subjects account for the differences. Method: A survey was administered to 1,664 workers who were approved by the Korea Worker's Compensation & Welfare Service between 2003 and 2005 for recuperation due to work-related musculoskeletal diseases. The data of 229 subjects who responded the survey questionnaire related to recuperation were analysed. Results: According to the results, demographic, occupational, and musculoskeletal disease-related factors were significant. The demographic factors included gender, age, marital status, and region, while occupational factors included working period, work type, size of workplace, and industry type. The factors related to musculoskeletal diseases were the part of the body in pain, the tissues in pain, and the existence of dysfunction. The above factors were associated with statistically significant differences in the following areas: revealed symptom period, symptoms-diagnosis period, and application for recuperation approval periods; diagnosis and care institutes for recuperarion; the state of patients (body parts in pain, tissues in pain, and existence of dysfunction); return to work; and care after returning to work. Conclusion: The results of this study can serve as basic data in setting priorities for prevention programs for work-related musculoskeletal diseases and selecting target groups.
Relationships of Musculoskeletal Disorder Symptoms and Perceived Workload among Hospital Workers
Ryu, Tae-Beum ; Song, Joo-Bong ; Yun, Myung-Hwan ; Lim, Ji-Hyoun ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 5, 2012, Pages 687~694
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.5.687
Objective: This study aims to survey the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders(MSD) among Korean hospital workers and to analyze the relationship of MSD symptoms and workload perceived by workers. Background: Despite of high exposure to the MSD risk factors and high MSD symptom prevalence among health care workers, there were not enough studies of MSD prevalence among the hospital workers. Method: This study designed a survey based on Nordic questionnaire to obtain MSD symptoms and the degree of four perceived workloads: work repetition, urgency, physical exertion and satisfaction. In this survey, 1,846 workers in a hospital participated. The prevalence of MSD was analyzed for each body part, and MSD cases, which were predetermined in this study, were identified. The relationship between the MSD cases and each perceived workload was analyzed using chi-square test. Results: The pain in the shoulder was the most prevalent among the workers as 52%, and the low back(37%) and leg discomfort(36%) followed. The MSD cases, in which degree of pain was more than severe, were also the most prevalent in the shoulder(13%). Female workers had higher rate of MSD cases than the males. Among the four workload variables, the physical exertion was the statistically related to MSD cases for all the body parts. In addition, the others also had significant relation to MSD cases except one or two body parts. Conclusion: This study found that Korean hospital workers had MSD symptoms mainly in the shoulder, low back and legs in order, and the perceived workload surveyed in this study was highly correlated with MSD symptoms. Application: This study provides another evidence that subjective physical exertion perceived by workers is an important factor to explain MSD cases as same as the objective one.
Smartphone Adoption using Smartphone Use and Demographic Characteristics of Elderly
Shin, Won-Kyoung ; Lee, Dong-Beum ; Park, Min-Yong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 5, 2012, Pages 695~704
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.5.695
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate major factors influencing adoption of smartphone to promote its use by older adults. Background: Despite increasing proportion of elderly people and elderly market, the proportion of elderly smartphone user is still relatively small compared to whole smartphone users. Thus, we need to find out major factors influencing adoption of smartphone to increase proportion of elderly smartphone users. Method: Seven major factors were extracted from 36 survey questions using factor analysis. Regression analysis was also applied to determine specific factors affecting intention of use based on user versus non-user of smartphone, age, gender, and educational background. Results: As results of factor analysis and regression analysis, major factors influencing adoption of smartphone for elderly users were significantly different according to gender, age, educational background based on smartphone users or non-users. Conclusion: The result of this study identified major factors influencing adoption of smartphone for the elderly and provided basic information related to adoption of smartphone according to elderly people's characteristics. Consequently, we can expect to reduce the information gap and to improve quality of life for the elderly. Application: The development and marketing strategy could be applied differently based on the factors influencing adoption of smartphone. It is also possible to develop a prediction model for smartphone adoption according to elderly users' characteristics.