Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
Modeling the Visual Target Search in Natural Scenes
Park, Daecheol ; Myung, Rohae ; Kim, Sang-Hyeob ; Jang, Eun-Hye ; Park, Byoung-Jun ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 6, 2012, Pages 705~713
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.6.705
Objective: The aim of this study is to predict human visual target search using ACT-R cognitive architecture in real scene images. Background: Human uses both the method of bottom-up and top-down process at the same time using characteristics of image itself and knowledge about images. Modeling of human visual search also needs to include both processes. Method: In this study, visual target object search performance in real scene images was analyzed comparing experimental data and result of ACT-R model. 10 students participated in this experiment and the model was simulated ten times. This experiment was conducted in two conditions, indoor images and outdoor images. The ACT-R model considering the first saccade region through calculating the saliency map and spatial layout was established. Proposed model in this study used the guide of visual search and adopted visual search strategies according to the guide. Results: In the analysis results, no significant difference on performance time between model prediction and empirical data was found. Conclusion: The proposed ACT-R model is able to predict the human visual search process in real scene images using salience map and spatial layout. Application: This study is useful in conducting model-based evaluation in visual search, particularly in real images. Also, this study is able to adopt in diverse image processing program such as helper of the visually impaired.
A Review of Haptic Perception: Focused on Sensation and Application
Song, Joobong ; Lim, Ji Hyoun ; Yun, Myung Hwan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 6, 2012, Pages 715~723
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.6.715
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate haptic perception related researches into three perspectives: cutaneous & proprioceptive sensations, active & passive touch, and cognition & emotion, then to identify issues for implementing haptic interactions. Background: Although haptic technologies had improved and become practical, more research on the method of application is still needed to actualize the multimodal interaction technology. Systematical approached to explore haptic perception is required to understand emotional experience and social message, as well as tactile feedback. Method: Content analysis were conducted to analyze trend in haptic related research. Changes in issues and topics were investigated using sensational dimensions and the different contents delivered via tactile perception. Result: The found research opportunities were haptic perception in various body segments and emotion related proprioceptive sensation. Conclusion: Once the mechanism of how users perceives haptic stimuli would help to develop effective haptic interactrion and this study provide insights of what to focus for the future of haptic interaction. Application: This research is expected to provide presence, and emotional response applied by haptic perception to fields such as human-robot, human-device, and telecommunication interaction.
Visual Feedback and Human Performance in the Foot Mouse Control
Hong, Seung-Kweon ; Kim, Seon-Soo ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 6, 2012, Pages 725~731
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.6.725
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate visual feedback effects and human performance in the foot mouse control. Background: Generally, computer mouse tasks are controlled by visual feedback. In order to understand the characteristics of a foot mouse control, it is important to investigate the patterns of visual feedback involved in foot-mouse control tasks. Human performance of foot mouse control is also an important factor to understand the foot mouse control. Method: Three types of mouse control were determined to investigate visual feedback effects and human performance in the foot mouse control. Visual feedback effects in the foot mouse control were compared with those of a typical hand mouse. The cursor movement speed and mental workload were measured in the three types of tasks and two types of mouses. Results: Mouse control tasks with an element of homing-in to the target were more quickly performed by the hand mouse than the foot mouse. Mental workload was also higher in the foot mouse than the hand mouse. However, in the steering movement, human performance of the foot mouse control was not lower than that of the hand mouse control. Visual feedback in the foot mouse control was less required than in the hand mouse control. Conclusion: The foot mouse was not efficient in the most mouse control tasks, compared to the hand mouse. However, the foot mouse was efficient in the steering movement, moving a cursor within a path with lateral constraints. Application: The results of this study might help to develop the foot mouse.
A Characteristic Analysis of Ergonomic Console Layout Studies Using Optimization Techniques
Jung, Kihyo ; Kim, Jaejung ; You, Taekho ; Lee, Baekhee ; Lee, Wonsup ; Park, Seikwon ; Roh, Woongseok ; You, Heecheon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 6, 2012, Pages 733~740
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.6.733
Objective: The present study systematically analyzed the characteristics of ergonomic layout optimization methods by a comprehensive literature survey. Background: Although layout design methods for ergonomic placement of controls and displays on a console have been developed, understanding of their characteristics is lacking. Method: The present study analyzed layout optimization papers published past 20 years from the following four aspects: optimization model, optimization algorithm, design principle, and constraint/assumption. Results: The existing layout optimization methods based on various optimization techniques consider only a partial set of four layout principles(importance, frequency of use, sequence of use, and functional grouping) and two ergonomic criteria(visibility and reach). In addition, the existing methods oversimplify components in various sizes, shapes, and angles by assuming the equality of the components in size and shape. Conclusion: A more effective layout optimization method is needed which considers the layout principles and ergonomic criteria in a comprehensive manner and reflect the diversity of components in size and shape. Application: The identified characteristics on the existing layout optimization methods can be applicable to development of a better ergonomic console layout design method.
The Change of the Trunk Muscles Activation in the Adolescent Carrying a Backpack with Belts
Kong, Yong Soo ; Yoon, Jang Soon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 6, 2012, Pages 741~747
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.6.741
Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the EMG activities of the trunk muscles when carrying a backpack with belts and without belts. Background: This research aimed to explore the influence of carrying a backpack with belts on the trunk muscles activity and to suggest a desirable method of wearing backpacks. Method: Seventy five adolescents participated in this study. The EMG activities of upper trapezious, cervical erector spinae and rectus abdominis were collected. One way ANOVA was used to analyze the collected data. LSD was used for post-hoc test. Results: The EMG data from treadmill walking showed significant differences between carrying a backpack with belts and without belts for the cervical erector spinae and upper trapezious(p<.05) in all group(A Group: no belt, B Group: lumbar belt, C Group: lumbar-chest belt). In descending walking, significant difference were found for the cervical erector spinae and rectus abdominis in all group. In ascending walking, there were no significant differences in all group. LSD showed that the muscle activity of the trunk muscles decreased significantly when the lumbar belt and lumbar-chest belt were worn. Conclusion: The trunk muscles activities were decreased when the subjects were wearing a backpack with belts, comparing with wearing a backpack without belts. Application: These results can be used to provide useful information on how wearing a backpack in adolescent.
The Prevalence of Playing-related Musculoskeletal Disorders of Traditional Korean Musical Instrument Player
Kim, Jung Yong ; Min, Seung Nam ; Cho, Young Jin ; Choi, Jun Hyeok ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 6, 2012, Pages 749~756
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.6.749
Objective: This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders of traditional Korean instrument player using a variety of traditional classical instruments: Gayageum, Geomungo, Ajaeng, Haegeum, Daegeum, Piri and Samul instruments. Background: A large percentage of instrument players have suffered from the musculoskeletal pain of each body parts. However, there is no research on the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders of traditional Korean musical instrument players. Method: Through the focus group interview, a questionnaire to investigate musculoskeletal disorders was developed. The questionnaire consisted of four parts: demographic factors, performance factors, musculoskeletal disorders symptoms, musculoskeletal disorder experience. For the survey, 118 expert players participated. The data from the survey were analyzed by correlation analysis and chi-square analysis. Results: The symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders and the severe pain from musculoskeletal disorders were observed at neck, shoulder, back and knee. The musculoskeletal experience was statistically related to the factor of body height in Gayageum and Geomungo. In addition, the musculoskeletal experience in Geomungo was related to age and career. However, the musculoskeletal experience in Ajaeng and Haegeum was only related to the factor of hobby. The musculoskeletal experience in Daegeum and Piri was related to stretching. In addition, there was a statistical significance between the musculoskeletal experience and sex in Daegum. In Samul instruments, the statistical significance was observed at age, BMI, career and stretching. Conclusion: The symptoms of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders of traditional Korean musical players were prevalently observed at neck, shoulder, back and knee. In addition, these symptoms were related to the various demographic factors such as age, body height, BMI, career, sex, hobby and stretching. Application: The results of this study can be used as the preliminary data for preventing the musculoskeletal injuries of traditional Korean musical instrument players.
Sliding Factor Development on Mechanical Emotion in Mobile Phone of Slide Type
Lee, Jaein ; Byun, Jungwoong ; Jeong, Jaehwa ; Lim, C.J. ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 6, 2012, Pages 757~764
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.6.757
Objective: The aim of this study is to find the optimal values of sliding factors which influence the mechanical emotion of users when they use sliding type mobile phones. Background: There are various researches that study the emotion of using mobile phones. They focus the correlation between emotion words and design factors and use the commercial products by the subjects in the experiment. However, it has a limit in finding the optimal point of emotional factors because we can search the restricted values in the mass production of the products. Therefore, we will find the optimal points by realizing the full range of the user's mechanical emotion. Method: First, we need to get the detailed factors which can describe the mechanical emotion in sliding up and down the mobile phone. Next, we find the control factors by considering the correlation between the factors of the sliding emotion and the possibility of quantitative design. To find the optimal points on the control factors, we make a sliding evaluation system which can help users feel the sliding mechanical emotion by realizing control factors. Finally, we find the optimal points by doing the experiment the system being used. Results: The critical values of the factors which are the main variables of this study are Open Max Force and Dead point Ratio. The optimal point of the Open Max Force is 200~250g/f, and the Dead point Ratio is 40~50%. Conclusion: In this study we develop the sliding evaluation system to realize the control factors of the sliding type phone and find the optimal values of the critical factors. Application: The results can be used as the criteria for designing sliding type phone.
Eco Resort Wear Sizing System Targeting Jeju's Medical Tourists
Kwon, Sookhee ; Hong, Jiun ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 6, 2012, Pages 765~772
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.6.765
Objective: The purpose of this research was to aid creating an effective sizing system for the vacation wear intended for Jeju's medical tourists, specifically females from the major countries including the USA, Japan, and Korea. Background: Medical tourism makes the gains of every year 40,000,000,000 dollar, every year 30% it is increasing. Thus the Jeju-do is propelling medical tourism. The body size each country is different. Consequently must set the body size standard for the women. Method: (1) It observed the body size of the Korean women of 2004 years and 2010 years. (2) It analyzed the body size of the women of the USA, China, Japan and Korea. (3) It set the sizing system of the women of the USA(ASTM), China (GB), Japan(JIS) and Korea(KS). Results: Korean adult females' height in 2010 has increased from 2004. The Waist Back Length, Waist Front Length, Arm Length etc has also increased along with the Height. The upper body has become slimmer at the same time; the Chest Circumference, Bust Circumference, and Underbust Circumference have decreased. The lower body on the other hand has become bigger: the Waist Circumference and Hip Circumference have increased. The BMI has decreased by 0.4 from 2004 - the Height has increased while Weight has decreased. The Chest Circumference and Under Bust Circumference of Korean women across all age groups have increased at a proportional rate to other parts of body; however, the rate of increase in Chest Circumference was far greater. American females(Caucasians) had the greatest ratio of waist to bust (Waist Circumference/Chest Circumference), smallest ratio of Neck Base Circumference to Bust Circumference (neck/bust). Korean females had smallest ratio of Waist Circumference to Underbust Circumference(waist/bust). As for the drop of Chest Circumference and Waist Circumference, American females had the highest and Koreans had the lowest. As for the drop of Hip Circumference and Chest Circumference, Japanese had the highest and Americans had the lowest, but Japanese women at the same time showed the A line body shapes. As for difference of Chest Circumference and Underbust Circumference, American females had the biggest(13.73) followed by Korean(11.1), Japanese(10.9) and Chinese(10.5). Conclusion: The women of the USA, China, Japan and Korea body size is different. Especially the value of the Bust Circumference - the Underbust Circumference is different. Thus, it set the sizing system(Table 8).
Foot Type Classification of Korean Male Farmers for Ergonomic Work Shoes Design
Kim, Dohee ; Hwang, Kyoung Suk ; Lee, Kyung Suk ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 6, 2012, Pages 773~783
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.6.773
Objective: The aim of this study is to identify foot shapes of Korean male farmers by classifying their foot types using 3D scan data and analyzing the characteristics of each type. Background: The increasing demands for anthropometric information for the design of machinery and personal protective equipment to prevent occupational injuries has necessitated an understanding of the anthropometric differences to be found among occupations. Static stooped posture and squatting posture are so common in Korean farmers that anthropometric deformation in foot especially seems to occur easily. Method: 366 Korean male farmers volunteered for this study from 16 different farming villages nationwide from 2009 to 2011. Subjects were categorized into 4 age groups from 40s to 70s. Their right feet were measured by using 3D foot scanner, the anthropometric dimensions were composed of 40 items. Results: The 8 major factors affecting the foot shapes were extracted. From these factors the foot shape of Korean male farmers was classified into 3 Foot types. Foot type 1 showed severe deformation in toe 1, type 2 had a narrow shape and type 3 had a wider width for its length. Conclusion: There were some differences in foot shape and types between farmers and the public. The most characteristic foot type in Korean male farmers was type 3. Application: The results of identifying foot shapes of Korean male farmers might provide the useful information for designing ergonomic farm work shoes.
Canonical Correlation of 3D Visual Fatigue between Subjective and Physiological Measures
Won, Myeung Ju ; Park, Sang In ; Whang, Mincheol ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 6, 2012, Pages 785~791
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.6.785
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between 3D visual fatigue and physiological measures by canonical correlation analysis enabling to categorical correlation. Background: Few studies have been conducted to investigate the physiological mechanism underlying the visual fatigue caused by processing 3D information which may make the cognitive mechanism overloaded. However, even the previous studies lack validation in terms of the correlation between physiological variables and the visual fatigue. Method: 9 Female and 6 male subjects with a mean age of
voluntarily participated in this experiment. All participants were asked to report how they felt about their health sate at after viewing 3D. In addition, Low & Hybrid measurement test(Event Related Potential, Steady-state Visual Evoked Potential) and for evaluating cognitive fatigue before and after viewing 3D were performed. The physiological signal were measured with subjective fatigue evaluation before and after in watching the 3D content. For this study suggesting categorical correlation, all measures were categorized into three sets such as included Visual Fatigue set(response time, subjective evaluation), Autonomic Nervous System set(PPG frequency, PPG amplitude, HF/LF ratio), Central Nervous System set(ERP amplitude P4, O1, O2, ERP latency P4, O1, O2, SSVEP S/N ratio P4, O1, O2). Then the correlation of three variables sets, canonical correlation analysis was conducted. Results: The results showed a significant correlation between visual fatigue and physiological measures. However, different variables of visual fatigue were highly correlated to respective HF/LF ratio and to ERP latency(O2). Conclusion: Response time was highly correlated to ERP latency(O2) while the subjective evaluation was to HF/LF ratio. Application: This study may provide the most significant variables for the quantitative evaluation of visual fatigue using HF/LF ratio and ERP latency based human performance and subjective fatigue.
What are the Problems to Improve the Affective Quality using Six Sigma Process?
Choe, Jaeho ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 31, issue 6, 2012, Pages 793~800
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2012.31.6.793
Objective: This study investigated the problems that could be faced with when engineers try to improve the affective quality using the DMAIC model. Background: Affective quality is considered one of the most influential factors for the competitive power of consumer products and many engineers make effort to improve the affective quality. Since the Six Sigma process is effective and wide-used method for quality improvement, it can also be used to improve the affective quality. However six sigma tools cannot be directly used for affective quality because of the subjective and qualitative characteristics of the human affection. Method: Investigate the goals, processes and key factors of DMAIC model and find the difficulties to use six sigma tools for the affective quality. Results: Most of the problems arise from measuring and quantifying the human affective response level and understanding the relationship between the human affective factors. Conclusion: Both the protocol for measuring human affection and the monitoring system to find the affective response change for the product or service are required. Application: The results of this study could be helpful for the engineers not specialized in ergonomics to improve the affective quality in systematic approach.