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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
The Application of Ecological Interface Design Methodology for Digitalized MCR in Nuclear Power Plant
Ra, Doo Wan ; Cha, Woo Chang ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.1
Objective: This study proposes the application of Ecological Interface Design(EID) method that is effective for situation awareness in digitalized environment. Background: While cognitive interface design method such as Information Rich Display(IRD) is simply focused on existing information for user, EID method helps users' resource to be solved to higher ion task such as diagnostic and problem solving. Method: Using EID method based on Work Domain Analysis (WDA), it was analyzed and designed for Steam Generator(SG) Water Level control process in a digitalized Main Control Room of Nuclear Power Plant. Proposed EID example is evaluated through interviews by expert & operator. Results: The result of expert & operator showed that EID display might give an aid for operator's decision. Conclusion: The results can reduce critical accidental damage that occurred due to cognitive load and so critical human error. Application: This study may be impact on situation awareness study for digitalized interface design.
A Study on a Trend of Human Error Types Observed in a Simulated Computerized Nuclear Power Plant Control Room
Lee, Dhong Ha ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 9~16
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.9
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate a trend of human error types observed in a series of verification and validation experiments for an Advanced Control Room(ACR) equipped with Lager Display Panel(LDP), Work Station Flat Panel Display(WS FPD), list type Alarm System(AS), Soft Control(SC) and Computerized Procedure System(CPS). Background: Operator behaviors in a fully computerized control room are quite different from those in a traditional hard-wired control room. Operators in an ACR all together monitor plant status and variables through their own interface system such as LDP and WS FPD, are notified of abnormal plant status through their own list type AS, control the plant through their own SC, and follow the structured procedure through their own CPS whereas operators in a traditional control room only separately do their duty directed by their supervisor. Especially the secondary task such as manipulating the user interface of ACR can be an extra burden to all the operators including the supervisor. Method: The Reason's human error classification method was applied to operators' behavioral data collected from a series of verification and validation experiments where operators showed their plant operational behaviors under a couple of harsh scenarios using the ACR simulator. Results: As operators accustomed to the new ACR system, knowledge or rule based mistakes appearing frequently in the early series of experiments decreased drastically in the latest stage of the series. Slip and lapse types of errors were observed throughout the series of experiments. Conclusion: Education and training can be one of the most important factors for the operators accustomed to the traditional control room to be adapted to the new system and to run the ACR successfully. Application: The results of this study implied that knowledge or rule based mistakes can be reduced by training and education but that lapse type errors might be reduced only through innovative improvement in human-system interface design or teamwork culture design including a new leadership style suitable for ACR.
Ergonomic Analysis of Tele-operation Tasks and Remote Handling Devices for a Pyroprocessing Facility
Yu, Seung Nam ; Lee, Jong Kwang ; Kim, Sung Hyun ; Park, Byung Suk ; Kim, Ki Ho ; Cho, Il Je ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 17~26
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.17
Objective: The aim of this study is ergonomic analysis of tele-operation tasks using modified remote handling devices dedicated to the cell of PRIDE(PyRoprocess Integrated inactive DEmonstration facility) in KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Background: Tele-operation manipulators of the PRIDE are applied to perform the remote handling and management of pyroprocessing facilities. Generally, these kinds of systems are composed of master-slave system and its peripherals installed along a wall or ceiling of the cell, and the manipulators transmit the user's own motion to grippers directly. However, a user convenience and intuitiveness while operating the manipulators have not been fully considered in research fields. Method: This study tries to analyze the ergonomic performance of remote handling manipulators in the developed cell facility. It was included that the analysis of operator's capability for his/her own motion range of upper arm while manipulating the MSM, considerations of its manipulation margin and related tool modifications to improve the remote handling performance. Conclusion: The test results of several remote handling tasks performed in PRIDE are represented, and adequate operation strategies for the tele-operation system of hot-cell type facilities are proposed. Application: The knowledge represented in this study can be utilized to improve a tele-operation system operated in a large-scale hot-cell system.
Human Error Identification based on EEG Analysis for the Introduction of Digital Devices in Nuclear Power Plants
Oh, Yeon Ju ; Lee, Yong Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 27~36
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.27
Objective: This paper describes an analysis of electroencephalography(EEG) signals to identify human errors during using digital devices in nuclear power plants(NPPs). Background: The application of an advanced main control room(MCR) has accompanied with lots of changes in different forms and features by virtue of new digital technologies. The characteristics of these digital technologies and devices provide several opportunities for the use of interface management. It can integrate into a compact single workstation in an advanced MCR, allowing workers to operate the plant with minimum physical burden under any operating condition. However these devices may introduce new types of human errors, and thus we need a means to assess and prevent such errors especially those related to digital devices. Method/Conclusion: The EEG data are relatively objective, and thus we introduce several measures to EEG analysis for obtaining the feasibility of human error identification. Application: This study may support to ensure the safety when applying digital devices in NPPs.
A Study on the Operator Performance According to the Drastic Change of Illumination Level and Lighting Environment of Control Room in Nuclear Power Plants
Shin, Kwang Hyeon ; Lee, Yong Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 37~45
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.37
Objective: This study describes the change of operator performance in drastic change of illumination level, and proposes an alternative method to cope with it. Background: The control standard of illumination for nuclear power plants(NPPs) is based on the set of limit criteria for maintaining a specific illumination level. However, there is a possibility to cause human errors according to the psychological and physiological influences to operators in the situation of drastic change of illumination such as SBO(Station Black Out), so a basic study is necessary to review the current approach. Method: We assessed the visual fatigue, subjective work load and task performance according to the three illumination situations(Normal Illumination, Emergency Illumination, and Drastic Change of Illumination). Result: Research finding shows that there are not significant differences in task performance between normal illumination (1,000lx level) and emergency illumination (100lx level), only if beyond the dark adaptation limit. However, subjective work load on mental demand and visual fatigue show a potential challenge to visual performance in drastic change of illumination. Conclusion/Application: Several trials can complement this challenge in NPPs by applying 3-way communication, enhancing readability of procedures, and managing the visual factors affecting the operators' performance through a Visual Environment Management Program including visual health aspects, etc.
A Review on the Job Stress Measurements in Nuclear Power Plant Workers for Human Error Prevention
Kim, Seon Soo ; Luo, Meiling ; Oh, Yeon Ju ; Lee, Yong Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 47~58
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.47
Objective: The aim of this study is to review the job stress measurement for applying in nuclear power plants(NPPs). Background: The standard and guideline to evaluate and manage the job stress is insufficient in NPPs. Although job stress might have a negative effect on task performance particularly it can be related with human error in NPPs. Method/Results: This paper considered the objective and subjective stress measurements. One of the questionnaire(Korean Occupational Stress Scale) and the experiment method was investigated to apply in NPPs. KOSS was analyzed about the inter item consistency and correlation with the workload, and relative importance. In the objective evaluation considered the experiment method for the physical and mental job stress and analyzed from the phased point of view. Conclusion/Application: The measurement and criteria to evaluate job stress for operators must be complemented on the job characters and environments in NPPs. This study may support to confirm and manage the job stress in NPPs. The study of more specific methodology on job stress in NPPs is required on the basis of this paper.
Identification and Organization of Task Complexity Factors Based on a Model Combining Task Design Aspects and Complexity Dimensions
Ham, Dong-Han ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 59~68
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.59
Objective: The purpose of this paper is to introduce a task complexity model combining task design aspects and complexity dimensions and to explain an approach to identifying and organizing task complexity factors based on the model. Background: Task complexity is a critical concept in describing and predicting human performance in complex systems such as nuclear power plants(NPPs). In order to understand the nature of task complexity, task complexity factors need to be identified and organized in a systematic manner. Although several methods have been suggested for identifying and organizing task complexity factors, it is rare to find an analytical approach based on a theoretically sound model. Method: This study regarded a task as a system to be designed. Three levels of design ion, which are functional, behavioral, and structural level of a task, characterize the design aspects of a task. The behavioral aspect is further classified into five cognitive processing activity types(information collection, information analysis, decision and action selection, action implementation, and action feedback). The complexity dimensions describe a task complexity from different perspectives that are size, variety, and order/organization. Combining the design aspects and complexity dimensions of a task, we developed a model from which meaningful task complexity factors can be identified and organized in an analytic way. Results: A model consisting of two facets, each of which is respectively concerned with design aspects and complexity dimensions, were proposed. Additionally, twenty-one task complexity factors were identified and organized based on the model. Conclusion: The model and approach introduced in this paper can be effectively used for examining human performance and human-system interface design issues in NPPs. Application: The model and approach introduced in this paper could be used for several human factors problems, including task allocation and design of information aiding, in NPPs and extended to other types of complex systems such as air traffic control systems as well.
Human Factors Evaluations of Alarm Displays in Main Control Rooms
Choe, Pilsung ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 69~75
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.69
Objective: This study proposes an alarm display and compares it with the one(alarm tile display) widely used in main control rooms(MCRs) of nuclear power plants. Background: Catching up with the rapid development of computer technologies, advanced MCRs has been required. Using modern technologies of computers and visual displays, we have a lot of potential to improve user performance and satisfaction as well as safety in MCRs. Method: The alarm bar display has been proposed to reduce some potential problems of the alarm tile display in this study. Human factors evaluations were conducted to compare both types of displays. Two interfaces of bar alarm and tile alarm were simulated on the desktop computer for the user-involved experiment. Eight students participated in the experiment with the within-subject design. Results: The alarm bar was slightly better in terms of situation awareness, and preferred to understand alarm dynamics. The alarm tile was slightly or significantly better in other measures. Conclusion: Both alarm displays have their own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, combining benefits of both displays can be used to optimize the design of alarm displays. Application: The proposed display is expected to compensate the existing displays for certain purposes.
An Evaluation of Transfer of Training Effects on Nuclear Power Plant MCR Operators
Kim, Jung Ho ; Byun, Seong Nam ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 77~85
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.77
Objective: The aim of this study sets factors from previous research known to impact transfer effects as the independent variables, and examines their relationship with the dependent variables, near transfer effects and far transfer effects. Background: Transfer of Training refers to the application of what learners acquire knowledge and skills in training programs to their job. The ultimate goal of training is to apply what employees learn in training sessions to their workplace. In this sense, transfer of training has been a vital concern for training effectiveness. For training to be effective, trainees(learners) should be able to use what they learn in training program back on the job. Method: For this research purpose, this study conducted a survey on 170 nuclear operators in nuclear education and training center. Of these, survey result from the 167 recruits were sampled. Theoretical model of this study is based on Holton & Baldwin's(2003) distance model of transfer effects. This study sets transfer effects(near transfer, far transfer) as the main dependent variables. Meanwhile, the independent variables are trainee characteristics, training characteristics, organizational transfer climate. Each independent variable has subordinate variables. Subordinate variables of trainee characteristics are self-efficacy, motivation to learn, motivation to transfer and ability to transfer. Subordinate variables of training characteristics are training contents, ability of trainers, training design, training climate. The last Subordinate variables of organizational transfer climate are support of supervisors, support of peer, support of organization. Conclusion: As a analysis result, trainee characteristics appeared to be in effect only significant influence near far transfer of training, the effect of the far transfer of training, there is no significant. In addition, the training characteristics appeared to be having a significant influence on near and far transfer effects. Organizational transfer climate appeared to be having a significant influence on near and far transfer effects. Finally, near transfer effect appeared to be having a significant influence on far transfer effects. Application: Results of this analysis in the study to training organization and training characteristics of the transition environment effects on nuclear power institutions and operators training organization having a significant impact that says. The transfer of knowledge and technology, as well as that can be applied to a new situation in terms of education and training are important characteristics.
Human Reliability Analysis of Soft Control Operations in Nuclear Power Plants: Issues and Perspectives
Lee, Seung Jun ; Jung, Wondea ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 87~96
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.87
Objective: The aim of this study is to describe several issues which should be considered in the human reliability analysis of soft control operations in nuclear power plants. Background: The operational environment of advanced main control rooms is totally different from that of conventional control rooms. The soft control is one of the major distinguishable features of the advanced main control rooms. The soft control operations should be analyzed to estimate the effects on human reliability. Method: The literatures, about task analysis, simulation data analysis, and a human reliability analysis method for the soft control, were reviewed. From the review, important issues for the human reliability analysis of the soft control were raised. Results: The results of task and simulation data analysis showed that the soft control characteristics could have large effect on human reliability and they should be considered in the human reliability analysis of the soft control operations. Conclusion: The soft control may affect human error and performance of operators. The issues described in this paper should be considered in the human reliability method for the advanced main control rooms. Application: The results of the soft control operation analysis might help to design more efficient interface and education/training program for preventing human errors. The described issues might help to develop a human reliability analysis method for soft control operations.
A Preliminary Study on the Communication Effect on Team Performance in Main Control Room of SMART
Heo, Eun Mee ; Byun, Seong Nam ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 97~106
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.97
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the attributing factors influencing team performance. Background: Technically, it is necessary that operators adapt themselves to computerized and advanced techniques to operate the main control rooms safely in nuclear power plant in Korea. The more main control rooms are digitalized, the more important for operators to have high team performance it is. Method: This paper analyzes team process through literatures review and elicits team performance shaping factor. Especially, the objective of this research is to elicit communication using common team performance shaping factors. Results: This study has found communication through team performance shaping factors in Main Control Room of the SMART. Conclusion: This paper can offer a starting point for team communication, which can use team performance shaping factor framework that are emerging in these new nuclear power plant. Application: As a result, I expect that the evaluation communication for MCR operator's team performance will lead the operating techniques in nuclear power industry internationally.
Training Requirements for Control Room Operators of an Advanced Nuclear Power Plant
Park, Hong Joon ; Park, Geun Ok ; Kim, Sa Kil ; Byun, Seong Nam ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 107~115
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.107
Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the training requirements of new nuclear power plant by a comprehensive literature review. Background: The design of instrumental and control systems for New NPP is applied fully digitalized systems. For example, soft-control, large display panels(LDP), and an advanced alarm system were applied to the APR-1400 or SMART. Method: The NUREG-0711 and international guideline of training program was analyzed from the following four phases of SAT(Systemic Approach to Training): Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. Results: To identify the requirement of training program, 'Feedback' phase was considered and each phase of SAT was classified. Conclusion: A more systematic requirement of training program is needed which considers the computerized system was applied to the new NPP. Application: The results of the publishing can be useful for standardization of the systematic training program for the operators of NPP.
A Revisit to the Recent Human Error Events in Nuclear Power Plants Focused to the Organizational and Safety Culture
Lee, Yong-Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 117~124
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.117
Objective: This paper presents additional considerations related to organization and safety culture extracted from recent human error incidents in Korea, such as station blackout(i.e., SBO) in Kori#1. Background: Safety culture has been already highlighted as a major cause of human errors after 1986 Chernobyl accident. After Fukushima accident in Japan, the public acceptance for nuclear energy has taken its toll. Organizational characteristics and culture became elucidated as a major contributor again. Therefore many nuclear countries are re-evaluating their safety culture, and discussing any preparedness and its improvement. On top of that, there was an SBO in 2012 in the Kori#1. Korean public feels frustrated due to the similar human errors causing to a catastrophe like Fukushima accident. Method: This paper reassesses Japan's incidents, and revisits Korea's recent incidents. It focuses on the analysis of the hazards rather than the causes of human errors, the derivation of countermeasures, and their implementation. The preceding incidents and conclusions from Japanese experience are also re-analyzed. The Fukushima accident was an SBO due to the natural disaster such as earthquakes and a successive tsunami. Unlike the Fukushima accident, the Kori#1 incident itself was simple and restored without any loss and radioactive release. However, the fact that the incident was deliberately concealed led to massive distrust. Moreover, the continued violation of rules and organized concealment of the accident are serious signs of a new distorted type of human errors, blatantly revealing the cultural and fundamental weakness of the current organization. Result: We should learn from Japanese experiences who had taken pride in its safety technology and fairly high confidence in safety culture. Japan's first criticality accident in JCO facility splashed cold water on that confidence. It has turned out to be a typical case revealing the problems in the organization and safety culture. Since Japan has failed to gain lessons and countermeasure, the issue persists to the Fukushima incident. Conclusion: Safety culture is not a specific independent element, which makes it difficult to either evaluate it properly or establish countermeasures from the lessons. It may continue to expose similar human errors such as concealment of incident and manipulation of bad data. Application: Not only will this work establish the course of research for organization and safety culture, but this work will also contribute to the revitalization of Korea's nuclear industry from the disappointment after the export contract to UAE.
Research Trends of International Guides for Human Error Prevention in Nuclear Power Plants
Lim, Hyeon-Kyo ; Kim, Hyunjung ; Jang, Tong-Il ; Lee, Yong Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 125~137
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.125
Objective: The aim of this study was to comprehend major concepts and flows that penetrate international guides or standards for developing a quantitative possibility measure of human errors that can be committed or omitted in nuclear power plants. Background: For a few past decades, lots of researchers have studied the effect of stress and/or fatigue which can result in human errors. Thus, this study was carried out on the assumption that much of them were summarized as an international guidelines or manuals, if any, for human error prevention. Method: A literal survey was conducted with materials and documentation published by international organizations related with safety and standardization, such as ISO, OSHA, NIOSH, NASA, and so on with special reference to human error prevention through management of work stress and fatigue as major Performance Shaping Factors. Results: International guides or management manuals on stress or fatigue management for human error prevention hardly were found, and most researches seemed to concentrate on one of them individually. Conclusion: There was few vestige of research that studied both concurrently. However, it was verified that not a few researches have been tried to develop quantitative measures to estimate probability or job characteristics for human error prevention and/or performance downgrading. Application: The results of this study would help to develop a causal model of human errors due to work stress and fatigue that can result in unexpected accidents in nuclear power plant.
Formant Frequency as a Measure of Physical Fatigue
Ha, Wook Hyun ; Kim, Hong Tae ; Park, Sung Ha ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 139~144
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.139
Objective: The current study investigated a non-obtrusive measure for detecting physical fatigue based on the analysis of formant frequencies of human voice. Background: Fatigue has been considered as a main cause in industrial and traffic accidents. Therefore, it is critical to detect worker's fatigue for accident prevention. Method: After running exercises on a treadmill, participants were instructed to read a sentence and their voices were recorded under four different physical fatigue levels. Korean vowels of "아", "어", "오", "우", and "이" from the voice recorded were then used to collect formant 1 frequencies. Results: Results of separate ANOVAs showed a significant main effect of physical fatigue on formant 1 frequency of "아", "어", and "이". Furthermore, post-hoc comparisons revealed that formant 1 frequency of "아" was most sensitive to physical fatigue level employed in this experiment. Conclusion: Formant 1 frequencies of some vowels significantly decrease as the physical fatigue level increases. Application: Potential application of this study includes the development of a measure of physical fatigue state that is free from sensor attachment and requires little preparation.
Development of Ergonomic Balance Seat(e-BASE) Chair
Park, Jae Hee ; Kim, Seung Hee ; Kim, Min Uk ; Jung, Hanbum ; Shim, Young Soo ; Ryu, Taehee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 145~152
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.145
Objective: The aim of this study is to develop an ergonomic office chair that has an alarm function for the unbalanced sitting postures. Background: Contrary to expectation, it is reported that office workers sit on their chairs much more in unbalanced postures during daily work. Even though an office worker uses an ergonomically good-designed chair and begins their work in a good sitting posture, his/her posture is likely to shift to the unbalanced bad posture. Therefore, a posture alarm system would be very helpful in keeping office workers' good postures. Method: We developed a prototype chair with four load cells under a seat pan and one load cell beneath a backrest. Through some experiments, we set the criteria for unbalanced bad postures then implemented the criteria into the alarm system of the prototype chair. The chair called e-BASE chair could detect unbalance postures and show alarms for chair users. We also enhanced back support by developing a step-wised folding backrest. Results: The e-BASE chair showed better performance in interface pressure distributions and balanced posture ratio in VDT work. Conclusion: The ergonomic chair with posture alarm function(e-BASE chair) was developed. It showed better performance in seat pressure distribution and in keeping good posture during office work. Application: The posture alarm system and folding backrest can be applied to the new models of office chair.
Case Studies of Risk Assessment in Analyzing Risks Associated with MSDS
Kim, Woo Jin ; Jeong, Byung Yong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 1, 2013, Pages 153~158
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.1.153
Objective: This study aims to suggest different approaches in analyzing risks associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDS) for risk assessment. Background: Upon concluding that the changes in the industrial environments have made it hard to regulate diverse risk factors, the government has implemented a policy for risk assessment. Method: This study has proposed a method, creating programs using Excel that perform qualitative or quantitative analysis, for evaluating risk factors in risk assessments and has applied this in manufacture and service industries. Results: To verify the validity of the developed program, risk assessment has been performed on restaurant chefs as an example. For quantitative evaluation, the study has suggested approaches using the results for REBA evaluation and the analysis report on the work scenes of a fitting-shop in a shipbuilding industry. Application: Constructing and adapting a system using Excel in evaluating risk factors for risk assessments as this study suggests, is expected to contribute to revitalizing risk assessments.