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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
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Prediction of Human Performance Time to Find Objects on Multi-display Monitors using ACT-R Cognitive Architecture
Oh, Hyungseok ; Myung, Rohae ; Kim, Sang-Hyeob ; Jang, Eun-Hye ; Park, Byoung-Jun ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 159~165
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.2.159
Objective: The aim of this study was to predict human performance time in finding objects on multi-display monitors using ACT-R cognitive architecture. Background: Display monitors are one of the representative interfaces for interaction between people and the system. Nowadays, the use of multi-display monitors is increasing so that it is necessary to research about the interaction between users and the system on multi-display monitors. Method: A cognitive model using ACT-R cognitive architecture was developed for the model-based evaluation on multi-display monitors. To develop the cognitive model, first, an experiment was performed to extract the latency about the where system of ACT-R. Then, a menu selection experiment was performed to develop a human performance model to find objects on multi-display monitors. The validation of the cognitive model was also carried out between the developed ACT-R model and empirical data. Results: As a result, no significant difference on performance time was found between the model and empirical data. Conclusion: The ACT-R cognitive architecture could be extended to model human behavior in the search of objects on multi-display monitors.. Application: This model can help predicting performance time for the model-based usability evaluation in the area of multi-display work environments.
A Comparison of Subjective Mental Workload Measures in Driving Contexts
Kim, Ji Yeon ; Ji, Yong Gu ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 167~177
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.2.167
Objective: This study aims to compare the usefulness of subjective measures which are comprised of existing methods like NASA-TLX, Bedford-scale and ZEIS and newly developed method like DALI in measuring drivers' mental workload in terms of validity, sensitivity and diagnosticity. Background: Nowadays, with the development of intelligent vehicle and HMI, mental workload of driver has become more and more important. For this reason, the studies on drivers' mental workload about driving situation and the use of information technology equipment such as mobile phones and navigations were conducted intensively. However, the studies on measuring drivers' mental workload were rarely conducted. Moreover, most of studies on comparison of subjective measures were used with performance based measure. However, performance based measures can cause distraction effect with subjective measures. Method: Participants (N=19) were engaged in a driving simulation experiment in 2 driving contexts (downtown driving and highway driving context). The experiment has 2 sessions according to driving contexts. The level of difficulties by driving contexts were adjusted according to existence of intersections, traffic signs and signals, billboards and the number of doublings. Moreover, as criteria of concurrent validity and sensitivity, the EEG data were recorded before and during the sessions. Results: The results indicated that all subjective methods were correlates with EEG in high-way driving. On the contrary to this, in downtown driving, all subjective methods were not correlates with EEG. In terms of sensitivity, multi-dimensional scales (NASA-TLX, DALI) were the only ones to identify differences between high way and downtown driving. Finally, in terms of diagnosticity, DALI was the most suitable method for evaluating drivers' mental workload in driving context. Conclusion: The DALI as newly developed method dedicated to evaluate driver's mental workload was superior in terms of sensitivity and diagnosticity. However, researchers should consider the characteristics of each subjective method synthetically according to research objective by selecting the method in subjective measures. Application: The results of this study could be applied to the intelligent vehicle and next generation of HMI design to decrease mental workload of driver and for the development of new subjective method in vehicle domain.
Extracting Flick Operator for Predicting Performance by GOMS Model in Small Touch Screen
Choi, Mikyung ; Lee, Bong Geun ; Oh, Hyungseok ; Myung, Rohae ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 179~187
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.2.179
Objective: The purpose of this study is to extract GOMS manual operator, except for an experiment with participants. Background: The GOMS model has advantage of rapid modeling which is suitable for the environment of technology development which has a short life cycle products with a fast pace. The GOMS model was originally designed for desktop environment so that it is not adequate for implementing into the latest HCI environment such as small touch screen device. Therefore, this research proposed GOMS manual operator extraction methodology which is excluded experimental method. And flick Gesture was selected to explain application of proposed methodology to extract new operator. Method: Divide into start to final step of hand gesture needed to extract as an operator through gesture task analysis. Then apply the original GOMS operator to each similar step of gesture and modify the operator for implementation stage based on existing Fitts' law research. Steps that are required to move are modified based on the Fitts' law developed in touch screen device. Finally, new operator can be derived from using these stages and a validation experiment, performed to verify the validity of new operator and methodology by comparing human performance. Results: The average movement times of the participants' performance and the operator which is extracted in case study are not different significantly. Also the average of movement times of each type of view study is not different significantly. Conclusion: In conclusion, the result of the proposed methodology for extracting new operator is similar to the result of the experiment with their participants. Furthermore the GOMS model included the operator by the proposed methodology in this research could be applied successfully to predict the user's performance. Application: Using this methodology could be applied to develop new finger gesture in the touch screen. Also this proposed methodology could be applied to evaluate the usability of certain system rapidly including the new finger gesture performance.
A Study on the Menu Type of Instrument Cluster IVIS
Kim, Hye Sun ; Jung, Kwang Tae ; Lee, Dhong Ha ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 189~198
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.2.189
Objective: This research was carried out to study the menu type design of instrument cluster IVIS(In Vehicle Information System) for efficient navigation under deconcentrated situations. Background: A driver controls the IVIS menu using the rest of cognitive resources while driving a car. Although a driver controls the IVIS using extra cognition resources, his or her distraction can still cause some safety problems while driving. Menu type design of instrument cluster is absolutely important for safe and efficient navigation. Method: Four menu types including paging, flow, icon, and list type were identified through reviewing the existing IVIS of vehicle and the menu structure of cellular phone. Four menu types were evaluated through experiment. The experiment consisted of primary and secondary task, which the primary task was to simulate a driving and the secondary task was to control an IVIS menu prototype. Task performances, menu type preferences, and eye-movement patterns were measured in this experiment. Results: The result shows that icon type was the best design in aspect of task performance and preference. A clue for next menu item provided a positive effect for efficient menu navigation. It was identified that most of subjects gazed the middle-top area of IVIS screen from eye-movement pattern. Conclusion: A basic design of Instrument Cluster IVIS was proposed considering the result of this study in the final. Application: The results of this study can be effectively used in the design of Instrument Cluster IVIS.
The Survey of Job Rotation Implementation at Medium- and Small-Industries
Yoon, Sang-Young ; Jung, Myung-Chul ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 199~205
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.2.199
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the job rotation implementation at medium- or small-industries and to identify the viewpoint on job rotation as preventive activity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders(WMSDs). Background: Job rotation has been implemented in many industrial areas in order to prevent the WMSDs as one part of ergonomic program. Generally, the cases of implementation of ergonomic program or successful cases of job rotation were reported on the side of major or large company. Therefore, this study tried to inspect the current state of job rotation implementation at medium- or small-industries. Method: Survey was carried out for randomly contacted forty seven mangers responsible for safety. Survey contained the questionnaires on the general state of company, shift-work and job rotation. Results: The ratio of work-shift in medium- and small-industry was 34.0% and the ratio of job rotation was 19.1%. For manufacturing industry, the ratio was 37.9% and 17.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The implementation ratio of job rotation was relatively low considering the results of previous studies. Many managers appealed the quality decreasing of goods and the injuries of workers due to job rotation, though agreed to train the multi-functional worker and to prevent the WMSDs. Application: The results can be used for the fundamental data how the job rotation will be properly implemented in medium- and small-industry as an administrative control for MSDs.
Evaluation of Human Factors for the Next-Generation Displays: A Review of Subjective and Objective Measurement Methods
Mun, Sungchul ; Park, Min-Chul ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 2, 2013, Pages 207~215
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.2.207
Objective: This study aimed to investigate important human factors that should be considered when developing ultra-high definition TVs by reviewing measurement methods and main characteristics of ultra-high definition displays. Background: Although much attention has been paid to high-definition displays, there have been few studies for systematically evaluating human factors. Method: In order to determine human factors to be considered in developing human-friendly displays, we reviewed subjective and objective measurement methods to figure out the current limitations and establish a guideline for developing human-centered ultra-high definition TVs. In doing so, pros and cons of both subjective and objective measurement methods for assessing humans factors were discussed and specific aspects of ultra-high definition displays were also investigated in the literature. Results: Hazardous effects such as visually-induced motion sickness, visual fatigue, and mental fatigue in the brain caused by undesirable TV viewing are induced by not only temporal decay of visual function but also cognitive load in processing sophisticated external information. There has been a growing evidence that individual differences in visual and cognitive ability to process external information can make contrary responses after exposing to the same viewing situation. A wide vision, ultra-high definition TVs provide, can has positive and negative influences on viewers depending on their individual characteristics. Conclusion: Integrated measurement methods capable of considering individual differences in human visual system are required to clearly determine potential effects of super-high vision displays with a wide view on humans. All of brainwaves, autonomic responses, eye functions, and psychological responses should be simultaneously examined and correlated. Application: The results obtained in this review are expected to be a guideline for determining optimized viewing factors of ultra-high definition displays and accelerating successful penetration of the next-generation displays into our daily life.