Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
A Pilot Study on the Muscle Activities in Step Input Test as an Indicator of the Vehicle Characteristics
Kong, Yong-Ku ; Jung, Myung-Chul ; Lee, In-Seok ; Hyun, Young-Jin ; Kim, Chang-Su ; Seo, Min-Tae ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 217~227
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.3.217
Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze 'response time', 'peak response time' and 'overshoot value' for each muscle by applying the EMG signal to the vehicle response in ISO 7401 and to quantify the response of the driver according to vehicle characteristics by comparing vehicle characteristics and muscle responses of the driver. Background: The Open-loop test defined in international standards ISO 7401 is the only method for evaluating the performance of the vehicle. However, this test was focused only on mechanical responses, not driver's ones. Method: One skilled male driver(22 yrs. experience) was participated in this experiment to measure muscle activities of the driver in transient state. Then the seven muscle signals were applied to calculate 'response time', 'peak response time', and 'overshoot value'. Results: In the analyses of the EMG data, the effects of vehicle type and muscle were statistically significant on the 'response time' and 'peak response time'. Also, the effects of vehicle type, muscle, and lateral acceleration level were statistically significant on the 'overshoot value' in this study. According to the analyses of the vehicle motion data, vehicle motion variable(LatAcc, Roll, YawVel) was statistically significant on the 'response time' and vehicle type, vehicle motion variable, and lateral acceleration level were statistically significant on the 'peak response time', respectively. Conclusion: In the analyses of the 'response time' and 'overshoot value', the data of muscle activities(EMGs) was better index that could evaluate the vehicle characteristic and performance than the data of vehicle motion. In case of peak response time, both EMG and vehicle motion data were good index. Application: The EMGs data from a driver might be applicable as index for evaluation of various vehicle performances based on this study.
The Effects of Wearing Spandex Underwear on Muscle Activity and Heart Rate
Min, Seung Nam ; Kim, Mi Sook ; Kim, Jung Yong ; Cho, Young Jin ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 229~236
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.3.229
Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of wearing spandex underwear on the muscle activity and heart rate during flexion and extension of trunk and knee joint. Background: Back pain continues to be the leading overall cause of physical illness and lowering productivity in workplace. Recently, the utility of assistive garment or back belt have been discussed to lessen the back pain as well as to preserve the right posture. Method: Ten males and ten females participated in the experiment. Gender, wearing spandex underwear and postures were used for independent variables, and muscle activity, the level of asymmetry of muscle activity and variation of heart rate were used as dependent variables. Muscle activity and heart rate were measured during flexion and extension of trunk and knee joint. Results: When wearing spandex underwear, the muscle activity was relatively low compared to the condition not wearing the spandex underwear. The symmetry of muscle activity and the variation of heart rate were statistically significant at the 0.05 significance level. In particular, it was found that the symmetry of muscle activity increased while wearing spandex underwear. Conclusion: Spandex underwear has an effect that can reduce asymmetry of right and left muscles which are relevant to leg because spandex underwear equally supports right and left low-back muscles. Application: The spandex underwear used in this study can apply to the rehabilitation as an useful assistive device.
An Estimation Method of Representative Humanoids for Digital Human Simulation
Jung, Kihyo ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 237~243
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.3.237
Objective: The present study developed an estimation method of boundary zone representative humanoids(hereafter, EBZ method) using descriptive statistics on the design target population. Background: The boundary zone method(hereafter, BZ method) generates representative humanoids at a boundary zone that statistically accommodates a designated percent of the design target population; however, the BZ method has a practical limitation because it requires a large scale anthropometric database on the design target population. Method: The EBZ method developed in the present study consisted of 3 steps. In the first step, the boundary zone of accommodating a designated percent(e.g., 90%) is formed under the assumption of normal distributions for anthropometric sizes. In the second step, cases that fall within the boundary zone are estimated using descriptive statistics(mean, standard deviation, and covariance) on the design target population. In the last step, K-mean cluster analysis is conducted for the cases, and representative humanoids are selected from each of clusters. Results: Evaluation results showed that mean accommodation percent of the EBZ method was 90.9%(range: 90.8~91.1%) which is similar to the target percent(90%). In addition, standard deviation of accommodation percent for 100 repetitions was 0.1%. Lastly, the number of representative humanoids generated by the EBZ method(n = 20) was similar to the BZ method(n = 16). Conclusion: The EBZ method can generate representative humanoids which accommodate a designated percent of the design target population using descriptive statistics. Application: The EBZ method can be utilized in the generation of humanoids for ergonomic design and evaluation of products when the large scale anthropometric database on the design target population is not existed.
The Relationship among Stride Parameters, Joint Angles, and Trajectories of the Body Parts during High-Heeled Walking of Woman
Park, Sumin ; Lee, Minho ; Park, Jaeheung ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 245~252
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.3.245
Objective: This paper analyzes the changes on stride parameters, joint angles, and trajectories of the body parts due to high heels during walking and explains the causal relationship between the changes and high heels. Background: This study aims to indicate the comprehensive gait changes by high heels on the whole body for women wearing high heels and researchers interested in high-heeled walking. Method: The experiment was designed in which two different shoe heel heights were used for walking (1cm, 9.8cm), and twelve women participated in the test. In the experiment, 35 points on the body were tracked to extract the stride parameters, joint angles, and trajectories of the body parts. Results: Double support time increased, but stride length decreased in high-heeled walking. The knee inflexed more at stance phase and the spine rotation became more severe. The trajectories of the pelvis, the trunk and the head presented outstanding fluctuations in the vertical direction. Conclusion: The double support time and the spine rotation were changed to compensate instability by high heels. Reduced range of motion of the ankle joint influenced on the stride length, the knee flexion, and fluctuations of the body parts. Application: This study can provide an insight of the gait changes by high heels through the entire body.
Experimental Comparisons of Leading Display and RSVP Display of Chinese Dynamic Text in Searching Tasks
Tong, Songzhen ; Choe, Pilsung ; Shi, Pei ; Yang, Lin ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 253~258
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.3.253
Objective: This study investigates user performance and user perceptions of dynamic Chinese text displays (Leading display and RSVP display) when users search for target information. Background: Today, information searching with dynamic displays is widely used in TV programs, on Internet advertisements, for traffic information systems, and more. Method: A human factors experiment was conducted to compare both displays. Eighteen subjects participated in evaluating two simulated interfaces for the leading display and the RSVP display. Results: The results show that the leading display was better in terms of search time and certain subjective measurements (Easiness, frustration, anxiety). The latter results are consistent with the conclusions of other research efforts showing that dynamic displays are more effective and efficient when reading information. Conclusion: The leading display is more useful for Chinese users in terms of both information searching and information reading. Application: This study helps design dynamic displays written in Chinese texts.
Lead Exposure Indices, Workloads, and Environmental Factors in Battery Manufacturing Workplace
Cho, Kwang Sung ; Jeong, Byung Yong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 259~266
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.3.259
Objective: This study aims to evaluate the workloads of industrial and automobile storage battery industries and their association to biological exposure indices. Background: Occupational lead exposure at battery manufacturing workplace is the most serious problem in safety and health management. Method: We surveyed 145 workers in 3 storage battery industries. Environmental factors(lead in air, temperature, humidity and vibration)), biological exposure indices(lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin in blood) and individual workload factors(process type, work time, task type, weight handling and restrictive clothing) were measured in each unit workplace. Results/Conclusion: Air lead concentration is statistically significant in associations with workload factors(process type, work time, task type, and restrictive clothing) and environmental factors (humidity and vibration), whereas zinc protoporphyrin in blood are significantly associated with work time and weight handling. And lead in blood is significantly associated with work time, weight handling and temperature. Application: The results of this study are expected to be a fundamental data to job design.
Test-Retest Reliability of Paper-Pencil Test for Investigating Burner-Control Linkages of Four-Stove Gas Range
Kee, Dohyung ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 267~271
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.3.267
Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the test-retest reliability of paper-pencil test for investigating population stereotype of burner-control linkages of four-stove gas ranges. Background: Much of the research on gas-range stereotype strength has been performed using the paper-pencil test. While the use of the paper-pencil tests has the advantage of collecting data in a large group of subjects against reasonable costs, concerns regarding the reliability of the paper-pencil test has also been stated. Method: Three paper-pencil tests classified by intervals of test-retest were performed, in which eight types of burner-control arrangements were investigated. Sixty eight subjects were test-retested within two weeks, 85 subjects were test-retested within four weeks and 58 subjects were test-retested three times in series with interval of two and four weeks. Results: Chi-square test showed that three intervals of test-retest including two, four and two & four weeks have not statistically significant effect on subjects' responses irrespective of eight types of burner-control linkages dealt with in this study(p>0.10). Concordance rates of subjects' responses ranged between 73.5% and 100.0% for two-week test-retest, between 67.1% and 97.6% for four-week test-retest, and between 65.5% and 100.0% for two- and four-week serial test-retest. The concordance rates were linearly correlated with proportion of subjects' responses for stereotypes of burnercontrol linkages. Conclusion: It is concluded that the paper-pencil tests for investigating gas range relevant stereotypes could reproduce reliable results compared to baseline test within interval of four weeks. Application: The results of this study would be useful as an ergonomic guideline when designing the paper-pencil tests for stereotype relevant studies.
The Study of Muscle Fatigue and Risks of Musculoskeletal System Disorders from Text Inputting on a Smartphone
Ko, Kyung ; Kim, Hee-Soo ; Woo, Ji-Hea ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 273~278
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.3.273
Objective: This study aims to analyze and evaluate fatigue in upper trapezius muscles of adults when inputting text on a smart phone, thereby examining the risk of cumulative trauma disorders in the musculoskeletal system of the upper extremity. Method: Forty-five healthy adults were divided equally into three groups: a smartphone group, a notebook group, and a desktop group. A surface electromyogram was placed on the upper trapezius muscle of each participant, after which they inputted text for ten minutes within an ergonomic setting; their side posture was recorded on video and analyzed. Results: The spectral edge frequency values for the smartphone group, as recorded from the upper right trapezius muscles on the surface electromyogram, showed a significant decrease(p<.05). Regarding the RULA, all three groups had results indicating "action level 2". Conclusion: All three groups had results indicating "action level 2" according to the RULA, which means that additional research on the posture of the participants while performing tasks is necessary, and their posture needs to be corrected. In particular, the smartphone group has the highest levels of fatigue in the upper trapezius muscles, suggesting that the task of inputting text on a smartphone is a high risk for causing cumulative trauma disorders.
Case Studies of Comparing EN 954-1 and EN ISO 13849-1 Standard for Design of Industrial Machinery Safety Control System
Kim, Tae-Ho ; Kim, Hong-Ki ; Yoon, Hoon Yong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 3, 2013, Pages 279~291
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.3.279
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare old standard EN 954-1 and new standard EN ISO 13849-1 through case study and provide necessity of adaptation of EN ISO 13849-1 in Korea. Background: International and EU harmonized standard EN ISO 13849 "safety of machinery - Safety-related parts of control system" is classified into Part 1: General principles for design and Part 2: Validation. EN ISO 13849-1 standard was introduced in Official Journal of the European Union on September 8, 2009 as harmonized standard, and old standard EN 954-1 was withdrawn on December 31, 2011. So, EU decided to use of EN ISO 13849-1 standard forcibly from January 1, 2012 for safety of machinery. New machines need to be CE marked if they are to be placed on the market in the European Economic Area(EEA), Switzerland or Turkey, and Korean machine builder should apply EN ISO 3849-1 standard for safety of machinery accordingly. However, current Korean Safety Certification system(KCs mark) for dangerous machinery is not referred to EN ISO 13849-1 standard as safety standard. There is a need of research for adaptation of EN ISO 13849-1 standard in Korea as safety standards for new design of safety-related control system which use mostly electronic components. Method: Five case studies of representative designs for safety-related control system in accordance with EN 954-1were selected according to safety category from B to 4. And these five representative designs were tried to change new design in accordance with EN ISO 13849-1 standard. The results of comparison were analyzed in aspect of economy and technical complexity. Results: The results showed that EN ISO 13849-1 provided quantitative method of application and it enabled designers to create safety-related control systems that require fewer components and less wiring, with many of the components being to a lower specification and, therefore, less costly. Conclusion: EN ISO 13849-1 standard is good for electronic safety-related control systems compare to EN 954-1. By considering the importance of application of EN ISO 13849-1 and benefits, the application of EN ISO 13849-1 as safety standard for safety of machinery is urgent in Korea. Application: The results of comparing EN 954-1 and EN ISO 13849-1 standard might help to determine the adaptation of EN ISO 13849-1 standard for safety of industrial machinery in Korea.