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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Flow Experience by using Psychophysiological Visual Feedbacks
Kim, Jung Yong ; Min, Seung Nam ; Park, Yong Duck ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 6, 2013, Pages 481~487
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.6.481
Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the visual reactions of users when they are playing games of different flow levels, and to explore the visual variables that can sensitively reflect the different flow levels. Background: The flow is defined as a psychological state where interface users feel their actions in a virtual setting identical to those in real environment. To measure the flow states of users, the questionnaire-based FSS(Flow State Scale) has mostly been used. However, this method is a qualitative test that has limits in terms of the accuracy of users' flow experiences. Therefore, more accurate methods to measure users' flow experiences are required. Method: Ten subjects participated in the experiment, where the independent variables were three games with different flow levels(puzzle games, dot drawing and coloring) and the time frame(the first and last 10 seconds in game playing), whereas the dependent variables included the pupil size and the frequency and duration of eye blinking. This study was a within-subject design. Each participant performed three types of games with different flow levels 3 times for each for 10 minutes, and their visual reactions to each game were measured. Results: The higher the flow cause the bigger pupil size(p<0.01) and the lower eye blinking frequency(p<0.1), indicating that different types of games lead to different flow levels. The pupil size during the last 10 seconds when the flow level was higher was bigger by 2.1% compared with that during the first 10 seconds in game playing(p<0.1), and the eye blinking frequency decreased by 12%(p<0.01). Conclusion: It was found out that the pupil size and the frequency and duration of eye blinking were psychophysiological indices for evaluating users' flow experiences, which could quantify the flow states users go through. The psychophysiological variables capable of measuring diverse aspects of the flow need diversifying to be applicable to precise measurement of the flow. Application: These studies are warranted for both quantitative analysis of flow levels and qualitative improvement of cyber leisure in line with development of healthy games.
The Effect of the Streamlined Shoe on Dynamic Gait Change and Foot Plantar Pressure in Healthy Young Adults
Shim, Jae-Hun ; Koong, Hwa-Soo ; Chon, Seung-Chul ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 6, 2013, Pages 489~494
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.6.489
Objective: This study compared the effects of streamlined shoes on dynamic gait and foot plantar pressure in healthy young adults. Background: With the importance of ankle and lower extremity mechanism, streamlined shoes are contributing to a static gait factors. However, the study of dynamic gait factor is still insufficient. Method: Sixty subjects were randomly allocated to two groups: experimental group(n=30) and control(n=30), respectively. The experimental group performed streamlined shoes, whereas the control group applied usual shoes. Main outcome measurements were assessed contact time, step length and foot plantar pressure using gait analysis with the treadmill. Independent t-test was used to compare the both groups. Results: Compared with control group, contact time of forefoot, midfoot and hindfoot decreased significantly in experimental group(p<.05), Step length increased significantly in experimental group(p<.05). Foot plantar pressure of midfoot and hindfoot increased significantly in experimental group(p<.05), whereas that of forefoot did not show significantly in experimental group(p>.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that streamlined shoes was more effective than usual shoes in dynamic gait change including contact time and step length and foot plantar pressure in healthy young adults. Application: The results of streamlined shoes might help to control for the gait of industrial workers.
Subjective Health Assessment of Elderly Agricultural Worker
Seo, Min Tae ; Kim, Kyung Ran ; Kim, Hyo Cher ; Chae, Hye Seon ; Min, Kyung Doo ; Shin, Yong Seok ; Lee, Kyung Suk ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 6, 2013, Pages 495~501
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.6.495
Objective: The purpose of this study was to survey of the subjective health status of the elderly farmer. Background: With increase of aged population, the health of the elderly farmer has become main concerns of the elderly in the rural community. For the effects of the factors related to quality of life, subjective health condition showed the largest influence. Method: The survey was conducted by 326 elderly farmers aged 50 and older in rural areas through structured questionnaires. Survey questionnaire consisted items of general characteristics, health-related life habits, levels of stress(SF-PWI), symptom of musculoskeletal diseases and general level of health(SF-36). For the data analysis, SPSS 19.0K was used, and analysis was conducted by using frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. For the symptom prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and comparison of average level of health, chi-square test and t-test were used. Results: The results of the study are as follows. It was shown that the symptom prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders had a significant difference in gender (p<0.01). Frequency analysis on presence of musculoskeletal symptoms in each part of body showed that leg/knee region was 28.1%, back region was 26.6%, shoulder region was 18.0%, arm/elbow region was 11.9%, hand/wrist region was 8.2% and neck region was 7.2%. According to comparison of average level of health, a social functioning were the highest as score 87.3, followed by mental health(65.6) and role limitation-emotional(65.5). Conclusion: Health promotion program for the elderly and female in the rural are needed. Application: The survey of the subjective health status of the elderly should be used for planning factors to make a health improvement plan in elderly farmer.
A Study on the Difference of Total Grip Strength and Individual Finger Force between Dominant and Non-dominant Hands in Various Grip Spans of Pliers
Kong, Yong-Ku ; Park, Hyunjoon ; Kim, Dujeong ; Lee, Taemoon ; Roh, Eunyoung ; Lee, Seulki ; Zhao, Wenbin ; Kim, Dae-Min ; Kang, Hyun-Sung ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 6, 2013, Pages 503~509
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.6.503
Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze the individual finger force between dominant hand and non-dominant hand and to investigate an effect of the individual finger on the total grip strength depending on dominant hand and non-dominant hand. Background: Many studies on the ratio of the grip force between dominant hand and non-dominant hand has been researched. While a 10% rule which is a ratio of the grip force between dominant hand and non-dominant hand has been applied in most studies, studies on the rate of the individual finger force between dominant hand and non-dominant hand have been insufficiently researched. Method: The experiment was preceded with 17 subjects (male, mean 25.8 ages). The individual finger force and total grip strength were measured using pliers being able to change the grip span from 45 to 80mm. Results: The difference of total grip strength between dominant hand and non-dominant hand is following 10% rule. However, the difference of individual finger force between dominant hand and non-dominant hand are not same as the difference of total grip strength. Especially in the case of grip span with 50mm, the differences between total grip strength, index finger, middle finger, ring finger, and little finger were
, respectively, with p=0.018 of statistical significance. Additionally, the results of regression analysis in 50 and 60mm of grip span showed that the difference in ring finger affected the most to the total grip strength; and the effects followed in order of index finger, middle finger, and little finger. Conclusion: Our study suggests that an effect of individual finger and grip span of pliers have to be considered when explaining the difference of the total grip strength between dominant hand and non-dominant hand. Application: This result is expected to be used for designing ergonomic hand tool.
Optimal Grip Span of A-type Pliers in a Maximum Gripping Task
Kong, Yong-Ku ; Jung, Jin Woo ; Kim, Sangmin ; Jung, Heewoong ; Yoo, Hakje ; Kim, Dae-Min ; Kang, Hyun-Sung ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 6, 2013, Pages 511~516
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.6.511
Objective: The objective of this study is designing an optimal hand tool through maximum grip force study accordance to the hand grip span. Background: In order to prevent musculoskeletal diseases, studies on hand tool design are proceeding based on grip strength, finger force, and contribution of individual finger force on total grip strength. However, experimental apparatus using a tool that is actually used in work place was almost non-existent. Method: 19 males were participated in an experiment. Using the load cell inserted real plier, finger force, grip strength, and subjective discomfort rate of both hands (dominant and non-dominant) were measured in 5 different hand grip span(45mm, 50mm, 60mm, 70mm, and 80mm). Results: There was significant difference(p<0.001) of total grip strength, individual finger force and subjective discomfort rating according to various hand grip span(45, 50, 60, 70, and 80mm). Also, statistically significant different(p<0.001) was shown between the dominant hand and non-dominant hand. In addition, individual finger force in maximum grip was in order of middle finger, ring finger, index finger, and little finger. Conclusion: Optimal grip span of pliers that exerting maximum grip strength is 50~60mm. Application: This finding is expected to be used for designing proper pliers.
Multi-Modal Controller Usability for Smart TV Control
Yu, Jeongil ; Kim, Seongmin ; Choe, Jaeho ; Jung, Eui S. ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 6, 2013, Pages 517~528
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.6.517
Objective: The objective of this study was to suggest a multi-modal controller type for Smart TV Control. Background: Recently, many issues regarding the Smart TV are arising due to the rising complexity of features in a Smart TV. One of the specific issues involves what type of controller must be utilized in order to perform regulated tasks. This study examines the ongoing trend of the controller. Method: The selected participants had experiences with the Smart TV and were 20 to 30 years of age. A pre-survey determined the first independent variable of five tasks(Live TV, Record, Share, Web, App Store). The second independent variable was the type of controllers(Conventional, Mouse, Voice-Based Remote Controllers). The dependent variables were preference, task completion time, and error rate. The experiment consist a series of three experiments. The first experiment utilized a uni-modal Controller for tasks; the second experiment utilized a dual-modal Controller, while the third experiment utilized a triple-modal Controller. Results: The first experiment revealed that the uni-modal Controller (Conventional, Voice Controller) showed the best results for the Live TV task. The second experiment revealed that the dual-modal Controller(Conventional-Voice, Conventional-Mouse combinations) showed the best results for the Share, Web, App Store tasks. The third experiment revealed that the triple-modal Controller among all the level had not effective compared with dual-modal Controller. Conclusion: In order to control simple tasks in a smart TV, our results showed that a uni-modal Controller was more effective than a dual-modal controller. However, the control of complex tasks was better suited to the dual-modal Controller. User preference for a controller differs according the Smart TV functions. For instance, there was a high user preference for the uni-Controller for simple functions while high user preference appeared for Dual-Controllers when the task was complex. Additionally, in accordance with task characteristics, there was a high user preference for the Voice Controller for channel and volume adjustment. Furthermore, there was a high user preference for the Conventional Controller for menu selection. In situations where the user had to input text, the Voice Controller had the highest preference among users while the Mouse Type, Voice Controller had the highest user preference for performing a search or selecting items on the menu. Application: The results of this study may be utilized in the design of a controller which can effectively carry out the various tasks of the Smart TV.
Comparison between Overview Menu and Text Menu in Smartphone
Kim, Kyungdoh ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 6, 2013, Pages 529~534
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.6.529
Objective: This study determines which of two types of 2D menu is better on iPhone. Background: Menu systems have been important components in modern graphical user interfaces. Review of menu design studies for human-computer interaction suggests that menu design guidelines for smartphones need to be reappraised. Method: A nested factorial design was used. Twenty-four participants were divided into two groups. The subjects were nested within the menu type. Two types of menus are an overview menu and a text menu. Two different breadth levels are 16 and 64. The participants performed five tasks in each breadth level. A task is defined as locating a product or product class on the deepest level of the hierarchy. An Apple iPhone 2G was used. Results: The results for ANOVA indicated a lack of a significant difference for time to respond between the two types of 2D menus. The overview menu showed the better satisfaction score between the two menu types. Conclusion: Even though the differences were not significant, an overview menu tended to show better performance and preference scores than a text menu that required scrolling. Application: This study can provide menu design guidelines when 2D menus are considered for small displays in a high breadth level.
A Study on the Performance of Causal Links between Error Causes: Application to Railroad Accident Cases
Kim, Dong San ; Yoon, Wan Chul ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 6, 2013, Pages 535~540
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.6.535
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of causal links between various error causes in human error analysis. Background: As finding root causes of human error in safety-critical systems is often a cognitively demanding and time-consuming task, it is particularly necessary to develop a method for improving both the quality and efficiency of the task. Although a few methods such as CREAM have suggested causal linking between error causes as a means to enhance the quality and efficiency of human error analysis, no published research to date has evaluated the performance of the causal links. Method: The performance of the CREAM links between error causes were evaluated with 80 railway accident investigation reports from the UK. From each report, errorneous actions of operators were derived, and for each error, candidate causes were found by following the predefined links. Two measures, coverage and selectivity, were used to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the links, respectively. Results: On average, 96% of error causes actually included in the accident reports were found by following the causal links, and among the total of 121 possible error causes, the number of error causes to be examined further was reduced to one-tenth on average. As an additional result of this work, frequent error causes and frequently used links are provided. Conclusion: This result implies that the predefined causal links between error causes can significantly reduce the time and effort required to find the multiple levels of error causes and their causal relations without losing the quality of the results. Application: The CREAM links can be applied to human error analysis in any industry with minor modifications.
Effect of Neck Position on Muscle Fatigue during Shaker Exercise
Park, Eun-Jung ; Koo, Jung-Wan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 6, 2013, Pages 541~547
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.6.541
Objective: The aim of this study is to find the influence on muscle fatigue by changing an angle of neck while Shaker exercise. Background: Shaker exercise is commonly applied to dysphagia patients for strengthen suprahyoid muscle(SHM) and relaxing upper esophageal sphincter. Method: Experiments were conducted by measuring muscle fatigue with surface electromyography(SEMG) in case of neck
flexion, in addition to original method. For the study 30 undergraduate students were participated as subjects. Muscle fatigue was measured with variations of median frequency(MF) and median frequency slope(MFS) by attaching SEMG to 3 muscles. At the same time, perceived exertion was measured by using Borg's rating of perceived exertion(RPE). Results: A MF was increased when low angle in SHM, both male and female. It means that muscle fatigue was significantly decreased(p<.05). RPE was significantly increased when low angle(p<.01). Perceived exertion explained 15.2% of the variation of MF in SHM. And regression equation was, MF in SHM = 59.918 + (4,910 * RPE). Conclusion: The outcome shows that it is possible to use the efficient method which makes muscle fatigue decrease by reducing the angle of neck flexion. Application: The results might contribute to develop the effective Shaker exercise method.
Effect of Working Posture on the Productivity and Perceived Discomfort while Drilling on the Ceiling
Yoon, Tae-Lim ; Yoon, Jangwhon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 6, 2013, Pages 549~555
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.6.549
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of drilling on the ceiling in three different postures (standing, standing on the ladder and supine on the height adjusted board) and the subjective responses of perceived discomfort after the drilling. Background: Overhead work has been identified as a major occupational risk factor and has been a main research subject. Method: Ten young participants drilled 20 holes at the pre-marked places on the ceiling in three different postures. The drilling duration, resting and drilling heart rate were measured. The levels of perceived discomfort at neck, shoulder, elbow, hand and overall body were asked at the end of each task. Results: The working posture affected the heart rate after the drilling. Perceived discomfort in the neck decreased significantly in supine compared to drilling on the ladder. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that drilling in supine can be an alternative way to reduce the drilling heart rate and the level of perceived discomfort in the neck without sacrificing the productivity. Application: The results of this study would be considered when drilling on the ceiling is required in construction workers.
User Experience Measurement for Senior Friendly Product
Jung, Kwang Tae ; Chun, Keyoung Jin ; Won, Byeong Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 32, issue 6, 2013, Pages 557~563
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2013.32.6.557
Objective: This study introduces user experience measurement and its application for senior friendly products. Background: Measuring user experience for senior friendly product is very important for its design, but the measurement is not easy. Method: This study was focused on case studies for user experience measurement and its application for senior friendly product. Mobile patient lift and four wheeled walker that assist the old's mobility were studied. User experience was measured through interview and observation method. Result: From measuring the user experience, some usability issues were identified for the products. A method to apply QFD(quality function deployment) in design process was proposed. A design prototype was also developed considering user experience. Conclusion: User experience measurement for senior friendly products is key process for user centered design. Application: The method and result of this study can be applied to user experience measurement and design of senior friendly product.