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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 33, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
System Thinking Perspective on the Dynamic Relationship between Organizational Characteristics of Nuclear Safety Culture
Kim, Byung Suk ; Oh, Youngmin ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 77~86
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.2.77
Objective: The purpose of this study is to grasp the fundamental structure of incident occurrence in nuclear organizations based on system thinking, and analyze how various causes are interrelated in terms of the causal loop diagram. Background: The recent domestic and overseas nuclear power plant-related incidents and accidents are directly or indirectly associated with safety culture, and thus effective plans for the improvement of safety culture are being called for. While the safety of a nuclear power plant is highly dependent upon technology and equipment, the utilization, maintenance and inspection of the technology and equipment are conducted by workers of the nuclear power plant. Method: Methodology of system thinking perspective using causal loop analysis. Results: As a result of the analysis, first, it turned out that the fundamental cause of incident occurrence in nuclear organizations is time constraint. Second, if a workload of workers increases, their adherence to regulations and procedures comes to be reduced due to time constraint. Third, it is needed, through organizational learning education, to increase actions made from thoughts considering safety as the utmost priority in advance. Fourth, it is necessary to improve professionalism by enhancing educational programs for new workers, and to develop various scenarios with which they can cope with certain situations. Application: This paper provides a base for system dynamics simulation model for future study.
A Classification of Sitting Strategies based on Driving Posture Analysis
Park, Jangwoon ; Choi, Younggeun ; Lee, Baekhee ; Jung, Kihyo ; Sah, Sungjin ; You, Heecheon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 87~96
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.2.87
Objective: The present study is intended to objectively classify upper- & lower-body sitting strategies and identify the effects of gender and OPL type on the sitting strategies. Background: A sitting strategy which statistically represents comfortable driving posture can be used as a reference posture of a humanoid in virtual design and evaluation of a driver's seat. Although previous research has classified sitting strategies for driving postures in various occupant package layout (OPL) types, the existing classification methods are not objective and the factors affecting sitting strategies have not been identified. Method: Forty drivers' preferred driving postures in three different OPL types (coupe, sedan, and SUV) were measured by a motion capture system. Next, the measured driving postures were classified by K-means cluster method. Results: Sitting strategies of upper-body were classified as erect (33%), slouched (41%), and reclined (26%) postures, and those of lower-body were classified as knee bent (42%), knee extended (32%), and upper-leg lifted (26%) postures. Significant differences at
= 0.05 in the upper-body sitting strategy by gender and lower-body sitting strategy by OPL type were found. Application: Both the classified sitting strategies and the identified factors would be of use in ergonomic seat design and evaluation.
Ergonomic Evaluation of Console Chairs for a Weapon Locating Radar
Lee, Baekhee ; Jung, Kihyo ; Jeong, Jineun ; Kim, Jinman ; Hong, Wongi ; Park, Seikwon ; You, Heecheon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 97~108
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.2.97
Objective:The present study is intended to evaluate the usability of a console chair for a weapon locating radar by comparing with different kinds of chair design. Background: Console chairs need to be ergonomically designed to reduce physical workload of operators and improve mission capability; few studies have been reported which systematically evaluate usability of military console chairs. Method: Ergonomic design of a console chair, a bus seat, and an office chair was evaluated in terms of headrest, seatback, seatpan, armrest, and controller on a 7-point scale. Ten males in their 20s and 30s were recruited considering the demographic characteristics of console operators. Results: The satisfaction scores of the console chair for headrest, seatback, and seatpan were significantly higher than those of the bus seat (mean difference [MD] = 0.9) and office chair (MD = 1.3). Meanwhile, the satisfaction scores of the console chair for armrest and controller were significantly lower than those of the office chair (MD = -1.4) and bus seat (MD = -2.2). Conclusion: The armrest and controller of the console chair needs ergonomic improvements for better comfort. Application: The evaluation results of the console chair would be of use for ergonomic console chair design.
Problem Analysis and Recommendations for Using Manual Wheelchair for One-hand Users
Park, Gemus ; Hwang, Jung Bo ; Jung, Hwa Shik ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 109~124
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.2.109
Objective: This study was conducted for one-hand users including hemiplegic clients currently using general folding manual wheelchairs, so as to analyze their specific problems and recommend solutions regarding usage. Background: Traditional manual wheelchairs require considerable use and control of both hands for operation, thus adaptations become necessary for individuals with asymmetrical use of hands. Method: Thirty hemiplegic clients who were admitted to rehabilitation and convalescent hospitals participated as subjects. The research tools were general folding manual wheelchairs commonly used by people with impaired gait, and the Wheelchair Skills Tests (WST) WST-M/WCU 4.1 version was adopted as the assessment tool. All participants were asked to fill out questionnaires on demographics and wheelchair usage characteristics. Assessment procedures were performed with currently used manual wheelchairs and with/without the use of foot to control the wheelchair. Results: When the participants drove folding manual wheelchairs without the use of foot, even the lowest failure rate among the WST items tested recorded 96.7%. On the contrary, with the use of foot in maneuvering the wheelchairs, failure rates dropped noticeably and success rate among the WST items tested was as high as 86.7%. Conclusion: These findings imply that the use of one-arm (hand) propellable (drivable) wheelchair can be an active and effective solution in resolving problems for hemiplegic clients using existing manual wheelchairs. As such, the government should provide institutional support to further develop and distribute this device or technology, and promote relative research in tandem. For now, the supply of commercially available device to hemiplegic clients is deemed urgent and also a mechanism to provide the devices and relevant services. Application: This study offers viable solutions for hemiplegic clients who rely on existing manual wheelchairs to increase their mobility and occupational performance.
Evaluation of Integral Seat Desk used in Universities based on KS/ISO Standard and Questionnaire Survey
Kee, Dohyung ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 125~134
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.2.125
Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate integral seat desk used in universities through comparison of real dimension values of the desk with KS/ISO standard and questionnaire survey. Background: School furniture that helps students sit comfortably for longer periods of time and allows for better concentration on learning is important. However, seat and desk have been generally designed based on the industry practice rather than user's anthropometry, and seats and desks used in universities of Korea have not been ergonomically evaluated. Method: Real 13 dimensions of the desk used in K University were measured using tape measure and inclinometer, and the dimension values were compared to the KS standard of desk and chair for lecture room (KS G 4210) and ergonomic design principles found in relevant references. Subjective appropriacies and preference for the desk were investigated based on questionnaire survey, in which 121 (male: 91, female: 30) college students participated. Results: Several dimensions for the desk and chair investigated except desk depth and width, leg room width, seat width have not met the KS standard, but all dimensions satisfied ergonomic design principles available in references. The questionnaire survey revealed that appropriacies for desk surface size, seat pan depth, seat pan cushion and backrest curvature were under middle point of 3.0, and that those for the other dimensions showed higher scores exceeding 3.0. Conclusion: The integral seat desk widely used in universities showed some design problems in terms of standards of KS G 2010 and KS G 4210, and ergonomic design principles. Compared to the general desk with separated desk and seat, subjective preference on the integral seat desk was low. Application: This would be used as a valuable guideline when designing or choosing new integral seat desk with high satisfaction of students.
Reduction of Stress of Seated Reading Postures for Desk with Built-in Bookholder and Desktop-mounted Sliding Drawer
Kee, Dohyung ; Jeong, Bo Gyung ; Lee, Jae Chun ; Hwang, Kyung Min ; Lee, Han Byel ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 135~142
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.2.135
Objective: This study aims to develop a new desk with a built-in bookholder and desktop-mounted sliding drawer for reducing stress of seated reading postures and to analyze its effect. Background: It is general for readers to bend their back and neck when reading books on desks, which may result in high back and neck postural stress. In addition, postures using vertically layered drawers positioned at the side of users may be awkward. Method: For reducing the postural stress, a new desk with a built-in bookholder and sliding drawer was developed based on a standard of KS G 4208 for student desk. The muscle activities of reading postures on both existing and new desks were measured using EMG, in which seven male and three female college students participated. The postural stress, and musculoskeletal discomfort and ease of usage for existing and new drawers were analyzed by RULA and questionnaire survey, respectively. Results: Compared to existing desk, the muscle activity for the new desk with a bookholder was reduced by 47% when reading books. In addition, musculoskeletal discomforts in the shoulder, neck and low back were significantly lower when using the new desk with a bookholder. Although the stresses for postures using the desktop-mounted sliding drawer and general drawer were not significantly different, the questionnaire survey revealed that the new desktop-mounted sliding drawer is easier to use. Conclusion: A new desk developed in this study significantly reduced postural stress and enhanced subjective preference when reading. Application: This would be useful when developing new desks with low postural stress.
Ergonomic Evaluation of Trunk-Forearm Support Type Chair
Lim, Seung Yeop ; Won, Byeong Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 143~153
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.2.143
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of trunk-forearm supported sitting on trunk flexion angle, trunk extensor fatigue and seat contact pressure. Background: The relationship between sitting posture and musculoskeletal disorders of the trunk extensor fatigue and seat contact pressure has been documented. The trunk-forearm support type ergonomic chair was devised from the fact that trunk-forearm support has been reported to reduce trunk extensor activity and discomfort. Method: Using three different sitting postures, upright (
), trunk-forearm supported (
) and normal sitting (
), six healthy subjects participated in the study. Motion capture system was used to collect head and trunk flexion angle, and surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to collect myoelectric signal of upper trapezius, lower trapezius, erector spinae, multifidus, and pressure mat system was used to measure seat contact pressure. Results: When trunk and forearm were supported by the ergonomic chair, higher head flexion angle showed upright > trunk-forearm supported > normal in order, and muscle fatigue showed less than upright and normal sitting. Mean seat contact pressure decreased 19% than upright sitting. But muscle fatigue was not affected by each condition. Conclusion: Trunk-forearm supported sitting of the ergonomic chair showed positive effect in respect of trunk and head flexion angle, trunk extensor fatigue, seat contact pressure. To acquire comprehensive understanding of the effectiveness of the ergonomic chair, further studies such as anatomical effects from measurement of external applied loading effect to the body from interface pressure analysis are required. Application: The results of the publishing trend analysis might help physiological effects of trunk-forearm support type chair.
Development of Tilting Chair for Maintaining Working Position at Reclined Posture
Hyeong, Joon-Ho ; Roh, Jong-Ryun ; Park, Seong-Bin ; Kim, Sayup ; Chung, Kyung-Ryul ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 155~165
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.2.155
Objective: The aim of this study is to develop an office chair enabling to keep working at reclined sitting posture. Background: Sedentary workers are supposed to change the posture frequently during long hours of sitting. A reclined sitting position has been recommended to reduce disc pressure. But slumped sitting posture caused by the buttock sliding forward without any adjustment of back reclining is commonly observed. The worker seems to have tendency to change the sitting posture maintaining working condition. We assumed the reason to be their hands movement away from the working space when tilting backward. Method: Slide mechanism allowing seat to move forward was designed to maintain the hand position in working space during reclining. A prototype was manufactured and tilting motion was analyzed using motion capture system. Four experiment chairs were tested including the manufactured prototype chair and three other commercial chairs. Results: A backward movements of the hand position were 13.0mm, 101.7mm, 156.1mm and 139.3mm at the prototype chair, compared to chair B, chair C and chair D, respectively. And the movement was remarkably small at the prototype chair. Conclusion: The developed seat sliding chair allows back tilting maintaining hand position at working space. We expect the user tilting back more often than normal tilting chair during seated work. But further investigation is required to figure out the effectiveness of the developed chair using prolonged working hours. Application: The developed office chair directly affects commercialization.
Ergonomics of Office Seating and Postures
Jeong, Byung Yong ; Yoon, Ara ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 2, 2014, Pages 167~174
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.2.167
Objective: This research focuses on the working environment of office workers and aims to propose an ideal seating posture and chair design. Background: Generally, office workers having to seat in a fixed posture for long periods of time tend to suffer from an increased rate of musculoskeletal disorders. Method: The measurement and survey of 123 office workers on their working conditions and literature survey will lead to a suggestion of an ideal seating posture and workstation design theory. Results: Work environment satisfaction appeared low for chair and desks. Work-related pain over the last year was experienced among 47.2% of the respondents in shoulder (34.2%), neck (30.9%). Observation of working posture revealed that only 27.6% of workers utilize backrest during work. Conclusion: Office work embodies many situations where risks of musculoskeletal disorders may be high. Thus, the seated workplace must be set up to allow proper seating posture for workers. Application: The results of this study can be applied as baseline data for preventing musculoskeletal disorders of office workers.