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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 33, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Development of Fruit Harvest Basket and Assessment of its Effectiveness
Lim, Cheol Min ; Chae, Hye Seon ; Seo, Min Tae ; Lee, Kyung Suk ; Kim, Hyo Cher ; Kim, Kyung Ran ; Kim, Sung Woo ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 5, 2014, Pages 313~321
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.5.313
Objective: The purpose of this study is to develop products that prevent muscular skeletal disease of farm workers, which would bring improvement for an efficient harvesting work. Background: A pretest for product development and a survey research was carried out to inspect the problems of current harvesting work procedure. The product was developed and assessed based on ideas to supplement and improve these weak points. Method: A total of twenty men were recruited to evaluate the effects of harvest baskets on the upper-limb muscle activity, working hours. For the usability evaluation, electromyogram and working hours of previous working method (disuse of harvest basket, one-hand carriage of the basket) and new working method with the usage of newly-developed harvest basket was examined. The whole anterior deltoid, biceps brachii and erector spinae on both sides, which make a total of six muscle parts, were used for this experiment. The results were analyzed using ANOVA with muscle activity (%MVC) of each three forms of work and required work time from SPSS 18.0. Results: According to the test result, all muscles did not demonstrate any statistically significant difference, with an exception of the backbone erector (right). The muscle activity of backbone erector (right) in the work method that uses the harvest basket developed in this study was detected to be approximately 23% less than that of the previous working method. Moreover, compared to the previous working method, the required work time decreased to a statistically significant degree. Conclusion: As such, the decrease in the amount of waist muscle usage at harvesting work would enable the prevention of muscular skeletal disease and stabilization of lumbar spine. Application: Which in turn would increase the effectiveness and reduce personnel expense (labor costs) while enhancing productivity with a decreased working hours.
The Effect of Personality on Psychological Responses Induced by Emotional Stimuli for Children
Jang, Eun Hye ; Eum, Youngji ; Kim, Suk-Hee ; Sohn, Jin-Hun ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 5, 2014, Pages 323~335
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.5.323
Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the relationship between personality and psychological responses induced by emotional stimuli (happiness, sadness, anger, boring and stress) for children. Background: Many researches are interested in assertion that there is close correlation between personality and emotion. The relationship between personality and emotion needs to be studied in view of the extended integration, not in view of respective property, because personality is deeply ingrained, and the relatively enduring patterns of thought, feeling and behavior and emotion can take advantage of individual differences in sensitivities to situational cues and predispositions to emotional state. In particular, studies on the personality and emotion for children are necessary in that childhood is an important period for formation of their personality and emotion expression and regulation. Method: Prior to the experiment, we made parents of 94 children rate personalities of their children, based on Korean Personality Inventory for Children (K-PIC). Results of 64 children without missing answers to all questions were analyzed. 64 children were exposed to five emotional stimuli and were asked to report the classification and intensity of their experienced emotion. Results: Children were classified into two groups of the lower 25% and higher 25% scores in twenty sub-scales of K-PIC, and psychological responses to five emotional stimuli between two groups were compared. Accuracy of emotion experienced by emotional stimuli showed a significant difference between the two groups, the lower and higher scores in Hyperactivity and Adjustment. Also, there was a significant difference in the intensity of experienced emotions between the two groups in Intellectual Screening and Psychosis. Conclusion: Our result has shown that hyperactivity, adjustment, intellectual screening and psychosis influence the accuracy and intensity of emotional responses. Application: This study can offer a guideline to overcome methodological limitation of emotion studies for children and help researcher basically understand and recognize human emotion in HCI.
Standards Sizing for Clothing based on Anthropometry Data
Lee, Young-Suk ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 5, 2014, Pages 337~354
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.5.337
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the various sizing systems and specified anthropometric data as well as the fit issues used today. Background: A standard sizing system for clothes is a system that is developed based on body shape and size classifications method. To develop an efficient sizing system, we have to classify the database from the majority of the samples. Method: The method of this paper deals with the secular trend of height spanning from 1997 to 2010 along with the morphological feature patterns for Koreans. It also investigates the comparison of the growth pattern between male and female and the body shape classification according to the drop values based on the anthropometric data samples of KATS taken from the 2010 surveys in order to develop and define the new guidelines for the size designation systems of clothes. Results: The results are classified with body size and shape categories according to the drop values by age and sex in order to develop the new guidelines for the size designation systems based on these body dimensions from the analyzed anthropometric database. Conclusion: These new guidelines for the size designation system will eliminate the confusion that currently exists among countries and individual apparel designers. Application: The adopted standards could be used to compare the sizing systems worldwide.
A Three-Set Type Korean Keyboard Model, 38K, with High Compatibility to the KS Computer Keyboard
Kim, Kuk ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 5, 2014, Pages 355~363
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.5.355
Objective:The purpose of this study is to design a three-set type (Sebulsik) keyboard that is to input Korean text with no shifted keys and also compatible with the standard Korean computer keyboard or ANSI keyboard. Background: The KS computer keyboard is two-set type (Dubulsik). Existing and proposed designs of three-set type of past studies are not compatible with KS or ANSI keyboard and are complex with many redundant letters. Method: The number of Korean letters for 3-set type is analyzed. Then Korean letters are arranged with normality and with spatial compatibility to the KS Korean keyboard, and symbols were arranged to same positions with ANSI keyboard. Results: Initial consonants of 14 numbers and 6 vowels are arranged as exactly same positions of KS keyboard, and other vowels are arranged with spatial compatibility. Symbols are arranged to the same positions with ANSI keyboard, and 10 digits are confirmed and has compatibility to International standard. Conclusion: A 38-key model, 38K, is designed to require minimal keys to input Korean text with no shifted keys, increased the compatibility to the KS Korean computer keyboard. Application: Using the proposed 38-key model, 38K, it can be taken into account for keyboards in industrial production. It is applicable to user group of 3-set type Korean keyboard with more easy than past keyboards.
Workplace Universal Design for the Older Worker: Current Issues and Future Directions
Jeong, Byung Yong ; Shin, Dong Seok ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 5, 2014, Pages 365~376
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.5.365
Objective:The objective of this study is to apply the principals and policies of universal design to offer a safe and efficient workplace for older workers. Background: The concept of universal design has rapidly developed under the paradigm that tasks should be easy and comfortable for all people with diverse features. The concept is also fitting when designing a workplace. Method: Legislations, policies and precedents of workplaces with older workers have been studied and analyzed. The compilation has been used to project the present and future of employing universal design at workplace devisal. Results: Every country has its own legislations/policies regarding universal design, flexible working, and age-friendly workplaces to increase hire of older workers. The basic concept of UD and its application is explained. This study provides guidelines for employing universal design at workplaces and preventing accidents for older workers. Conclusion: Following the principals of universal design is expected to furnish a comfortable and safe workplace and lengthen the period of workers participating in the labor force in an ageing society. Application: This study offers the principles for universal design, serving as fundamental research for its application to the workplace.
Altered Functional Disconnectivity in Internet Addicts with Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Seok, Ji-Woo ; Sohn, Jin-Hun ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 5, 2014, Pages 377~386
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.5.377
Objective: In this study, we used resting-state fMRI data to map differences in functional connectivity between a comprehensive set of 8 distinct cortical and subcortical brain regions in healthy controls and Internet addicts. We also investigated the relationship between resting state connectivity strength and the level of psychopathology (ex. score of internet addiction scale and score of Barratt impulsiveness scale). Background: There is a lot of evidence of relationship between Internet addiction and impaired inhibitory control. Clinical evidence suggests that Internet addicts have a high level of impulsivity as measured by behavioral task of response inhibition and a self report questionnaire. Method: 15 Internet addicts and 15 demographically similar non-addicts participated in the current resting-state fMRI experiment. For the connectivity analysis, regions of interests (ROIs) were defined based on the previous studies of addictions. Functional connectivity assessment for each subject was obtained by correlating time-series across the ROIs, resulting in
matrixs for each subject. Within-group, functional connectivity patterns were observed by entering the z maps of the ROIs of each subject into second-level one sample t test. Two sample t test was also performed to examine between group differences. Results: Between group, the analysis revealed that the connectivity in between the orbito frontal cortex and inferior parietal cortex, between orbito frontal cortex and putamen, between the orbito frontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, between the insula and anterior cingulate cortex, and between amydgala and insula was significantly stronger in control group than in the Internet addicts, while the connectivity in between the orbito frontal cortex and insula showed stronger negative correlation in the Internet addicts relative to control group (p < 0.001, uncorrected). No significant relationship between functional connectivity strength and current degree of Internet addiction and degree of impulsitivy was seen. Conclusion: This study found that Internet addicts had declined connectivity strength in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and other regions (e.g., ACC, IPC, and insula) during resting-state. It may reflect deficits in the OFC function to process information from different area in the corticostriatal reward network. Application: The results might help to develop theoretical modeling of Internet addiction for Internet addiction discrimination.
Survey of Status for Ageing Population, Charge Organizations and Polices in UK
Kee, Dohyung ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 5, 2014, Pages 387~394
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.5.387
Objective: The purpose of this study is to survey trend and the real state of ageing population in UK, and its charge organizations, relevant policies and studies. Background: As in other countries, UK population is ageing and people aged 65 or over account for about 17% of population in UK. Considering this ageing population, there are varying basic studies and policies for older people in UK. Method: First, the author consulted ageing and its policies in UK with some faculties in an UK university. Next, based on the results of consultation, wide literature survey was conducted, which includes papers in relevant academic journals, publications and website surfing. Results: A number of basic studies for surveying status and characteristics of older people as well as simple population trend for them have been conducted in UK. Healthcare services are free for all UK residents, and varying social care services including equipment, home and residential cares, financial support, etc., are provided by local governments. Cost of social cares is means-tested and is not free for everyone. There are a number of governmental or non-profit organizations dedicated to help older people access social care services or to financially fund research projects older people. Conclusion: There are more basic studies, and healthcare and social care services for older people in UK, compared to Korea. Application: It would be useful as basic data for establishing effective polices for old people in Korea.
Neural Activation in the Somatosensory Cortex by Electrotactile Stimulation of the Fingers: A Human fMRI Study
Seok, Ji-Woo ; Jang, Un-Jung ; Sohn, Jin-Hun ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 5, 2014, Pages 395~405
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.5.395
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate 1) somatotopic arrangement of the second and third fingers in SI area 2) difference of neural activation in the SI area produced by stimulation with different frequencies 3) correlation between the intensity of tactile perception by different stimulus intensity and the level of brain activation measurable by means of fMRI. Background: Somatosensory cortex can obtain the information of environmental stimuli about "where" (e.g., on the left palm), "what" (e.g., a book or a dog), and "how" (e.g., scrub gently or scrub roughly) to organism. However, compared to visual sense, the neural mechanism underlying the processing of specific electrotactile stimulus is still unknown. Method: 10 right-handed subjects participated in this study. Non-painful electrotactile stimuli were delivered to two different finger tips of right hand. Functional brain images were collected from 3.0T MRI using the single-shot EPI method. The scanning parameters were as follows: TR and TE were 3000, 35ms, respectively, flip angle 60, FOV
, matrix size
, slice thickness 4mm (no gap). SPM5 was used to analyze the fMRI data. Results: Significant activations produced by the stimulation were found in the SI, SII, the subcentral gyrus, the precentral gyrus, and the insula. In all participants, statistically significant activation was observed in the contralateral SI area and the bilateral SII areas by the stimulation on the fingers but ipsilaterally dominant. The SI area representing the second finger generally located in the more lateral and inferior side than that of the third finger across all the subjects. But no difference in brain area was found for the stimulation of the fingers by different frequencies. And two typical patterns were observed on the relationship between the perceived psychological intensity and the amount of voxels in the primary sensory cortex during the stimulation. Conclusion: It was possible to discriminate the representation sites in the SI by electrotactile stimulation of digit2 and digit3. But we could not find the differences of the brain areas according to different stimulation frequencies from 3 to 300Hz. Application: The results of the study can provide a deeper understanding of somatosensory cortex and offer the information for tactile display for blinds.
Development of Usability Evaluation Criteria for Senior-Friendly Autonomous Transportation Robot
Kim, Seon Chil ; Kim, Sun Jung ; Choi, Kyongon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 5, 2014, Pages 407~422
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.5.407
Objective: The purpose of the study is to develop quantitative usability evaluation criteria for senior-friendly autonomous transportation robot. Background: The Republic of Korea has become the most rapidly aging society, and is anticipated to enter the post-aged society in 2026. To raise the quality of life of a senior with limited mobility and to reduce the burden of caregivers, many high-tech assistive products with information technologies are developed nowadays. The senior-friendly autonomous transportation robot is one person robot vehicle to move a senior to the destination for hospitals, nursing homes or silver town complex. With built-in navigation system and environmental monitoring censors, it automatically seeks the path to the destination and avoids collision to obstacles and pedestrians on the way. Due to the early stage of the product, few usability studies in this field have been done, mostly on general service robots to assist seniors, power wheelchairs and delivery robots. ISO and KS standards for the service robots are focused on safety. Method: Based on the reference usability index, the early draft of the usability evaluation questionnaires was developed. After small group tests and interviews, the experts modified the initial draft to the Usability Evaluation Criteria for Senior-Friendly Autonomous Transportation Robot (UEC-SFATR). Result: UEC-SFATR consisted of 4 subscales - Safety, Controllability, Efficiency and Satisfaction. All of the 4 subscales of UEC-SFATR were passed the reliability criteria by 4 groups of seniors, divided by gender and familiarity of smart-devices. Conclusion: UEC-SFATR covers wider area of user experiences of the SFATR and is a good measurement tool to help both the users and developers of the robot. Application: This study provides guide to the future product development and product competitiveness evaluation by quantifying user experiences for the SFATR.
A Study on Work Ability among Aging Workers in Korea
Kim, Day Sung ; Park, Jae Oh ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 5, 2014, Pages 423~432
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.5.423
Objective and Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of individual characteristics, work-related factors, lifestyle factors, and health problems with work ability among aging workers in Korea. Method: In this cross-sectional survey, the study population consisted of 1,594 workers who had participated in a voluntary health promotion center and private workplace. Participants completed the work ability index. Results: The mean WAI score was 37.4, while the mean age of the sample was 43.25. In the age group over 50 showed 36.26. The majority of participants rated their work ability as `good` to `excellent`, one-third moderate and about 7.5% poor. Work ability decreased significantly with age among the men. The younger group had higher scores on the work ability index than the age group over 50, except for mental resources. By work characteristics, work ability was analyzed to be the lowest in the case of work handling heavy stuff. Lastly, as a result of health factors analysis, the good management and retention of current health status can be the measure helpful to the improvement of work ability. Conclusion and Application: According to the results, it can be a basic principle to devise and enforce preventive measures on the factors for which improvement or action is possible, together with workplace-level systematic approach, in order to improve work ability. For such measures to be realized, it is necessary to check trends in change for several years.
Review of ISO Standards on Human-System Interaction Published during 2008-2013
Lee, Dhong Ha ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 33, issue 5, 2014, Pages 433~452
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2014.33.5.433
Objective: The aim of this study is to give ergonomists the brief summary of the recently published ISO standards on human-system interaction and tips for application of the standards. Background: Standard developers did hard work on developing a standard in a concise manner. But most of standards are often bulky in volume. Readers of the standards are difficult to catch key points from the voluminous contents of standards and intermingle among them. Method: Focused on newly developed display/control technology, this study reviewed the 14 ISO standards on human-system interaction published during 2008-2013 and summarized key points from them. Results: Schematic diagrams and tables concisely illustrated the processes, procedures, dimensions, or best practices recommended by the standards concerning conception, design, and usability testing for consumer products. Conclusion: The standards provided the minimum level of requirements on design and evaluation on the physical input devices, electronic displays, and control interfaces based on the current state of technology. But the minimum requirements specified in the standards nowadays become mandatory ergonomic requirements in global trade world. Application: Ergonomists can take a quick and broad view on international standardization activities on newly developed display/control technology from this summary study.