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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Improvement of Ammunition Box by Ergonomic Evaluation
Lee, Kyung-Sun ; Kim, Sung-Hoon ; Seo, Song-Won ; Jung, Myung-Chul ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~10
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.1.1
Objective: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate old and newly designed ammunition boxes from an ergonomic point of view. Background: The ammunition boxes made of wood, which are currently used by the military, have some difficulties such as corrosion and damage of ammunition, environmental pollution, and stock management. Also, damages to the wooden ammunition boxes take place frequently, because soldiers carry them manually. Method: Sixteen participants volunteered to randomly perform lifting, carrying, and side-by-side moving tasks with 4 different old and new boxes, respectively for the ammunitions of 5.56mm, 60mm, 81mm, and 105mm in diameter. The old boxes are made of wood and are currently used in the military, while the new boxes are made of plastics. The joint moments of the elbow, shoulder, back, and knee were measured by using a motion analysis system and force platforms. In addition, an electromyographic system was used to measure the forces of hand and wrist muscles. Results: In most tasks, new boxes caused less joint moments at the elbow and shoulder than old boxes, because the new boxes were lighter and smaller than the old boxes. New boxes also derived less hand and wrist muscle forces due to the provision of fixed hard handles rather than string handles. Conclusion: The ergonomically designed new boxes could reduce the physical stresses of soldiers manually handling ammunitions and be helpful for storage and reuse. Application: This study shows an ergonomic application example for product development and evaluation.
Are Lighter Smartphones Ergonomically Better?
Yoon, Jangwhon ; Kim, Kisong ; Yoon, Taelim ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 1, 2015, Pages 11~18
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.1.11
Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the effects of phone weight on the typing performance and muscle recruitment in the neck and upper extremity while typing a text message with dominant hand. The iPhone4 and iPhone5 were compared due to their 28-gram differences in weight. Background: Too much use of a cellular phone can lead the musculoskeletal disorders in the upper extremity. Phone makers tend to make their new models bigger, lighter, faster and smarter. Method: Fourteen healthy volunteers without any history of neuromuscular disorders or ongoing pain who used their smartphone more than one year were recruited. A 112g phone (iPhone5) and a 142g phone (iPhone4) were used for typing the lyric of the Korean national anthem with their dominant hand. Typing duration, the typing error, the perceived fatigue, and preference was investigated. Muscle recruitment and the resting gap of neck (middle trapezius and levator scapula), shoulder (infraspinatus and mid deltoid), elbow (biceps brachii and brachioradialis), thumb (extensor and abductor policis brevis) were collected using surface electromyography. Typing error was counted and typing speed was calculated in characters per min. The data were analyzed using a paired t-test and chi-square (
) analysis for the effects of phone weight on the typing performance parameters and muscle recruitment. Results: Typing text message with iPhone5 took longer but had less muscle recruitment in brachioradialis, and extensor policis brevis muscles. Lighter weight of iPhone5 made biceps brachii to rest less without increasing the mean %EMG. Conclusion/Application: Findings of this study can be valuable information for phone designers to develop more productive device and for smartphone users to prevent the musculoskeletal disorders in the upper extremities.
Comparison of Vertical and Horizontal Eye Movement Times in the Selection of Visual Targets by an Eye Input Device
Hong, Seung Kweon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 1, 2015, Pages 19~27
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.1.19
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate how well eye movement times in visual target selection tasks by an eye input device follows the typical Fitts' Law and to compare vertical and horizontal eye movement times. Background: Typically manual pointing provides excellent fit to the Fitts' Law model. However, when an eye input device is used for the visual target selection tasks, there were some debates on whether the eye movement times in can be described by the Fitts' Law. More empirical studies should be added to resolve these debates. This study is an empirical study for resolving this debate. On the other hand, many researchers reported the direction of movement in typical manual pointing has some effects on the movement times. The other question in this study is whether the direction of eye movement also affects the eye movement times. Method: A cursor movement times in visual target selection tasks by both input devices were collected. The layout of visual targets was set up by two types. Cursor starting position for vertical movement times were in the top of the monitor and visual targets were located in the bottom, while cursor starting positions for horizontal movement times were in the right of the monitor and visual targets were located in the left. Results: Although eye movement time was described by the Fitts' Law, the error rate was high and correlation was relatively low (
for horizontal movements and
for vertical movements), compared to those of manual movement. According to the movement direction, manual movement times were not significantly different, but eye movement times were significantly different. Conclusion: Eye movement times in the selection of visual targets by an eye-gaze input device could be described and predicted by the Fitts' Law. Eye movement times were significantly different according to the direction of eye movement. Application: The results of this study might help to understand eye movement times in visual target selection tasks by the eye input devices.
Development of Management Guidelines and Procedure for Anthropometric Suitability Assessment: Control Room Design Factors in Nuclear Power Plants
Lee, Kyung-Sun ; Lee, Yong-Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 1, 2015, Pages 29~43
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.1.29
Objective: The aim of this study is to develop management guidelines and a procedure for an anthropometric suitability assessment of the main control room (MCR) in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Background: The condition of the MCR should be suitable for the work crews in NPPs. The suitability of the MCR depends closely on the anthropometric dimensions and ergonomic factors of the users. In particular, the MCR workspace design in NPPs is important due to the close relationship with operating crews and their work failures. Many documents and criteria have recommended that anthropometry dimensions and their studies are one of the foremost processes of the MCR design in NPPs. If these factors are not properly considered, users can feel burdened about their work and the human errors that might occur. Method: The procedure for the anthropometric suitability assessment consists of 5 phases: 1) selection of the anthropometric suitability evaluation dimensions, 2) establishment of a measurement method according to the evaluation dimensions, 3) establishment of criteria for suitability evaluation dimensions, 4) establishment of rating scale and improvement methods according to the evaluation dimensions, and 5) assessment of the final grade for evaluation dimensions. The management guidelines for an anthropometric suitability assessment were completed using 10 factors: 1) director, 2) subject, 3) evaluation period, 4) measurement method and criteria, 5) selection of equipment, 6) measurement and evaluation, 7) suitability evaluation, 8) data sharing, 9) data storage, and 10) management according to the suitability grade. Results: We propose a set of 17 anthropometric dimensions for the size, cognition/perception action/behavior, and their relationships with human errors regarding the MCR design variables through a case study. The 17 selected dimensions are height, sitting height, eye height from floor, eye height above seat, arm length, functional reach, extended functional reach, radius reach, visual field, peripheral perception, hyperopia/myopia/astigmatism, color blindness, auditory acuity, finger dexterity, hand function, body angle, and manual muscle test. We proposed criteria on these 17 anthropometric dimensions for a suitability evaluation and suggested an improvement method according to the evaluation dimensions. Conclusion: The results of this study can improve the human performance of the crew in an MCR. These management guidelines and a procedure for an anthropometric suitability assessment will be able to prevent human errors due to inadequate anthropometric dimensions. Application: The proposed set of anthropometric dimensions can be integrated into a managerial index for the anthropometric suitability of the operating crews for more careful countermeasures to human errors in NPPs.
The Effect of Personality Type on Human Performance Tool Compliance and General Recommendations for Enhancement of the its Practical Utilization
Lee, Kyung-Sun ; Lee, Jong-Hyun ; Lee, Yong-Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 1, 2015, Pages 45~62
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.1.45
Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of personality type on human performance tool compliance in nuclear power plants (NPPs) and to propose general recommendations for an enhancement of its practical utilization. Background: Various guidelines, regulating criteria, and recommendations have been developed to prevent human errors in NPPs. Despite these efforts, the accidents sometimes caused by human errors have steadily occurred, and therefore, various human performance tools have been adopted as countermeasures against human errors. The major and inevitable contributing factors among the many hazards to human errors might be the trait and personality, which are considered to be the inner world of humans. Thus, we try to investigate the utilization of human performance tools by considering the different types of operating crew personalities, and we suggested more practical recommendations to prevent human errors according to the personality. Method: We developed the Questionnaire using the Big 6 (HEXACO) models, which are human performance tools for workers in NPPs, and individual (condition) variables to investigate the effect of personality types on human performance tools. We slightly modified them to help the survey respondents understand them better. A survey was conducted for ordinary people over the age of 20. SPSS 22.0 was used to perform a correlation analysis and a hierarchical regression analysis to find the relationship between personality types and human performance tools. Results: The utilization of human performance tools shows significant differences statistically by personality. The correlation result reveals that the types of Honesty (H), Extraversion (X), Conscientiousness (C), and Openness to experience (O) show a higher utilization of human performance tools. In hierarchical regression results, human performance tools of task preview, questioning attitude, stopping when unsure, self-checking, effective communication, and place-keeping show a higher utilization with personality types. However, the Agreeableness (A) type did not show significant differences statistically with human performance tools. Conclusion: We tried to investigate the utilization of human performance tools by considering the different types of human personality and provide more practical recommendations to prevent human errors according to the personality. These results will be able to prevent human errors owing to the characteristics (advantages and disadvantages) of personality types. Application: This information can be utilized as guidelines for proactive recommendations according to the workers' personalities for more practical human performance tools to prevent human errors in an NPP.
Comprehensibility of Newly Introduced Water-sport Prohibitive Signs in Korea by Koreans and Westerners
Kim, Woojoo ; Siswandari, Yohana ; Xiong, Shuping ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 1, 2015, Pages 63~73
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.1.63
Objective: The goal of this study is to evaluate the comprehensibility of the newly introduced water-sport prohibitive signs by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE, later merged into the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy) among Koreans and westerners, and to check whether the comprehensibility is affected by cultural differences. Background: The Ministry of Knowledge Economy had newly introduced fourteen water-sport prohibitive signs at the end of 2011 to alert people to potentially dangerous situations. However, no studies had been found so far to review or assess their comprehensibility. Method: Comprehensibility tests of fourteen water-sport prohibitive signs were conducted with forty Koreans and forty Westerners in two sequential sessions. In session I, participants were asked to guess the meaning of each sign verbally in an open-ended test. In session II, participants were encouraged to provide feedback for each sign after its intended meaning was given. Results: Only two out of fourteen signs satisfied the comprehension rate (67%) recommended by ISO standard for both groups (Koreans and Westerners). Cultural difference between Koreans and westerners significantly affect the comprehension rates of the investigated signs, and Westerners exhibit better overall comprehension than Koreans. Five poorly comprehended signs for both Korean and Western groups were identified. Conclusion: The recently introduced water-sport prohibitive warning signs by MKE still need a lot of improvements in order to be implemented nationally or internationally. There were significant differences in the signs' comprehensibility between Koreans and westerners. Application: The findings may serve as a useful input for researchers and watersport sign designers in creating easy-to-comprehend safety signs.
Compatibility of the Direction Sign on the Pendant Switch of Overhead Cranes
Park, Jae Hee ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 1, 2015, Pages 75~83
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.1.75
Objective: The aim of this study is to suggest the standard of the direction sign on the pendant switch of overhead cranes which can reduce human errors in control. Background: A great number of crane accidents occur in industries. One of the major causes of the accidents is the mistake in the control of cranes by confusing the orientation of crane movements. Nevertheless, three different direction sign styles, 'East, West, South, North (EWSN)', 'Forward, Backward, Left, Right (FBLR)', and arrows for four directions are used without standardization. Method: An overhead crane simulator was installed for a laboratory experiment. It could move along six directions by the control of a pendant switch. 90 participants were evenly assigned to the three different conditions of direction sign styles. The participants were asked to control the pendant switch according to the continuously appearing 16 direction signs on a monitor ahead. The participants were allowed to refer an orientation sign board on the ceiling representing correct movement directions of the overhead crane simulator. Results: The direction sign style, 'EWSN', showed statistically significant better performance in task completion time and number of errors than the other sign styles. The direction sign style, 'EWSN', adopting the cardinal direction system, made the participants clear in direction controls after customizing to the crane movements. However, the direction sign styles, 'FBLR' and the arrows adopting the relative direction system made conflicts in direction controls due to the egocentric view of human. Conclusion: The direction sign style, 'EWSN', is the most appropriate for the standardization of the direction sign on the pendant switch of overhead cranes. Application: The results of this study can be applied to the standardization of direction sign in the legal notification on the safety certifications of crane manufacturing.