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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Development and Evaluation of Smart Secondary Controls Using iPad for People with Hemiplegic Disabilities
Song, Jeongheon ; Kim, Yongchul ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 85~101
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.2.85
Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate smart secondary controls using iPad for the drivers with physical disabilities in the driving simulator. Background: The physically disabled drivers face problems in the operation of secondary control devices that accept a control input from a driver for the purpose of operating the subsystems of a motor vehicle. Many of conventional secondary controls consist of small knobs or switches that physically disabled drivers have difficulties in grasping, pulling or twisting. Therefore, their use while driving might increase distraction and workload because of longer operation time. Method: We examined the operation time of conventional and smart secondary controls, such as hazard warning, turn signal, window, windshield wiper, headlights, automatic transmission and horn. The hardware of smart secondary control system was composed of iPad, wireless router, digital input/output module and relay switch. We used the STISim Drive3 software for driving test, customized Labview and Xcode programs for interface control of smart secondary system. Nine subjects were involved in the study for measuring operation time of secondary controls. Results: When the driver was in the stationary condition, the average operation time of smart secondary devices decreased 32.5% in the normal subjects (p <0.01), 47.4% in the subjects with left hemiplegic disabilities (p <0.01) and 38.8% in the subjects with right hemiplegic disabilities (p <0.01) compared with conventional secondary devices. When the driver was driving for the test in the simulator, the average operation time of smart secondary devices decreased 36.1% in the normal subjects (p <0.01), 41.7% in the subjects with left hemiplegic disabilities (p <0.01) and 34.1% in the subjects with right hemiplegic disabilities (p <0.01) compared with conventional secondary devices. Conclusion: The smart secondary devices using iPad for people with hemiplegic disabilities showed significant reduction of operation time compared with conventional secondary controls. Application: This study can be used to design secondary controls for adaptive vehicles and to improve the quality of life of the people with disabilities.
A Study of Methodology to Examine Organizational Root Causes through the Retrospect Error Analysis of Railroad Accident Cases
Ra, Doo Wan ; Cha, Woo Chang ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 103~113
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.2.103
Objective: This study proposes a systematic process to present the analysis methods and solutions of organizational root causes to human errors on the railroad. Background: In fact, organizational root cause such as organizational culture is an important factor in the safety concerns on human errors in the nuclear power plant, railroad and aircraft. Method: The proposed process is as follows: 1) define analysis boundary 2) select human error taxonomy 3) perform accident analysis 4) draw root causes with FGI 5) review root causes analysis with survey 6) chart analysis of root causes, and 7) propose alternatives and solutions. Results: As a result, root causes of the organizations like railroad and nuclear power plant came from the educational problems, violations, payoff system, safety culture and so forth. Conclusion: The proposed process does predict potential railroad accident through retrospect error analysis by building new human error taxonomies and problem solution. Application: This study would contribute to examination of the relationship between human error-based accidents and organizational root causes.
Understanding the Characteristics of Behavior on Elderly Living in a Smart Home
Kim, Hyo Chang ; Kim, Hyang Sook ; Ji, Yong Gu ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 115~123
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.2.115
Objective: The aim of this study is to find and propose the behavioral characteristic of the elderly at their living space through diary study. Background: Recent development of technology and the emergence of various IT devices is contributing to active research in smart home, services which considers the behavior characteristics of the elderly are still unable to be provided. Method: This study performed self-diary study method with ten households aged over 65 that lived in smart home. Based on these data collected from the diary study, six behavior characteristics of elderly were drawn. Results: The elderly were aware of their cognitive and physical limitations and showed fear. They are difficult to adapt in the state of the art. Their activities to acquire information were limited and were against changes, preferring to maintain the old ways. Conclusion: The result of this study, findings of behavioral characteristics of the elderly reveal that most of them spend their time on personal maintenance, socializing and leisure activities. Therefore, smart home services related to these characteristics should be considered as a top priority. Application: The results of the behavior characteristics can be utilized for planning out future smart home services and thereby contributing to increase in convenience and satisfaction of the elderly.
Occupational Diseases Among Office Workers and Prevention Strategies
Lee, Jongin ; Koo, Jung-Wan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 125~134
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.2.125
Objective: In this review we discuss the health effects among office workers. Background: Even if office workers are not exposed hazardous or harmful environment frequently, some problems could be happened to the office workers. Although serious occupational diseases rarely occur to the office workers, it is important to consider occupational risk factors for the office worker because the portion of the office workers is relatively high in all industries. Method: We divided possible health effects for the office workers into three categories; musculoskeletal disorders, indoor environment, and cerebro-cardiovascular diseases. We reviewed related articles, textbooks, and statistical materials non-systematically and described risk factors, related illnesses, and prevention strategies on each category. Results: Office workers have various musculoskeletal disorders to be intervened. By medical treatment, improving working environment, and ergonomic intervention, office workers can be prevented from musculoskeletal injuries. Poor indoor environment can cause many building-related illnesses or sick building syndrome. Although the etiology of some problems by poor indoor environment is not clear, it helps to maintain adequate humidity, temperature, and clarity of indoor air. Cerebro-cardiovascular diseases are a rising issue because office workers in Korea tend to work for a lot of time. To prevent the diseases, it is needed to work for adequate time, lengthen activity level, and manage other medical risk factors for the diseases. Conclusion: There is no distinct occupational disease for office workers. However, there are some aspects to consider the health effects of office workers and it is important to prevent the possible health problems. Application: A strategy against occupational diseases among office workers can be established by reviewing this article.
Ergonomic Problems and Their Improving Measures in Office Environment of General Hospitals
Kee, Dohyung ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 135~143
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.2.135
Objective: The purposes of this study are to investigate ergonomic problems and to propose their improving measures in office environment of big general hospitals. Background: Office tasks have varying risk factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The first symptom resulted from the office work was recognized as an occupational disease in Korea in 1986. Although the symptoms have increased since its first recognition, there has been few study on the effect of office work environment settings. Method: First, the author took pictures of working scenes performed in three big university hospitals. Next, the pictures were analyzed in view point of ergonomics. Based on the analysis, their improving measures were proposed for reducing work stress. Results: The results showed that most physical office environment settings such as dimensions of tables/desks and chairs, leg room, thigh, knee and foot clearances, and chairs used did not satisfy the ergonomically recommended design guidelines. In addition, some clerks placed personal belongings under their desks, put monitors in high position and did not lean against the backrest of chairs in seated tasks, which resulted in poor working postures of leg, back, neck etc. It is recommended that the hospital management should provide their clerks with ergonomically designed office furniture and continuously perform ergonomics training program for raising clerks' recognition for office ergonomics. Conclusion: Most office environment settings investigated in this study were not in good condition in view point of ergonomic design for the settings. Application: It would be useful as basic data for establishing ergonomically good office environment in hospitals.
A Study on the Applicability of PTS to Establish Standard Time for Agricultural Work of Korea
Park, Hee Sok ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 145~149
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.2.145
Objective: This study aims to analyze qualitatively if PTS methods are applicable to the agricultural works of Korea. Background: Many studies on setting standard time have been performed for manufacturing and service industries, not many studies on agricultural work have been carried out domestically and internationally. Method: MTM, MOST, Work Factor, MODAPTS were applied to some agricultural works, and limitations of each method were found out. Results: MTM was found to be more applicable than other methods, except for mental works. Conclusion: In general, many Korean agricultural works need squat postures, which are not taken into account in most of PTS methods. Continuous observation with stop watch is recommended for establishing the standard time for the agricultural works of Korea. Application: The information drawn from this study would be helpful to the farmer safety assurance system being established by Korean government.
Development of Ergonomic Backrest for Office Chairs
Kim, Chang Yong ; Song, Gyung Yong ; Jang, Yeon Sik ; Ko, Hyo Eun ; Kim, Hee Dong ; Park, Gemus ; Hwang, Jung Bo ; Jung, Hwa Shik ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 151~165
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.2.151
Objective: This study aims to develop and scientifically investigate the efficacy of the Spine S-curve Reactive Backrest that responds to the spine curvature of the user when seated, and maintains and enhances the natural S-curve of the lower back, thereby helping to relieve fatigue, correct posture and prevent spine deformities. Background: The focus of current development, design guidelines and/or standards for office chairs is mainly placed on the chair's dimensions, incline angle, adjusting features and lumbar support. Research and development was called for developing a chair backrest that maintains and improves the S-curve of the full spine. Method: The Spine S-curve Reactive Backrest was ergonomically designed to maintain correct posture and enhance user comfort. When leaned on, the backrest responds to the user's spine line and the whole lower back sits closely against the backrest, thereby aligning the user's lower back and backrest as one to maintain and improve the natural S-curve formation of the spine. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the newly designed chair (new design) and the comparison target (chair), five male college students of standard body type with normal spine curvature were selected as test subjects, and a motion analyzer and electromyography were utilized to measure S-curve and erector spinae muscle activity when seated. Results: The spine S-curve was better maintained and improved when sitting in the new design than in the comparison chair. Particularly notable was the greater displacement gap of the thoracic spine than the cervical spine, and also that of the lumbar more than the thoracic spine, with the increase of the backrest tilting angle. Furthermore, the electromyogram results showed the new design caused a lower fatigue level of the erector spinae muscles compared to the comparison chair, and also earned a higher preference in the subjective opinion results. Conclusion: The newly designed chair in this study responds to the user's spine curvature and maintains and enhances the lower back's natural S-curve, and thereby relieves fatigue, promotes better posture, and helps to prevent spine deformities better than existing office chairs. There is a need to widely introduce and supply this new design. Application: The new design is applicable to office and student chairs, and is expected to improve concentration and work efficiency.
Development of Evaluation Checklist for Personal Office Furniture and Apparatus and Fact-Finding Survey
Park, Hee Sok ; Jeong, Byung Yong ; Jung, Myung-Chul ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 167~177
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.2.167
Objective: The objective of this research is to develop evaluation checklist for personal office furniture and apparatus to shape comfortable and efficient worksite for workers' welfare improvement, productivity enhancement and labor force preservation, and to identify office work environment by applying the checklist. Background: Because most office workers work using computers in a sitting posture, the ratio of office workers among total musculoskeletal disorders patients is forecast to increase. In this regard, an effort to prevent and manage such musculoskeletal disorders is required. Method: This research developed evaluation checklist for personal office furniture and apparatus by examining 25 domestic and international ergonomic literature and anthropometric data. This research carried out a fact-finding survey targeting the A Office and B Office of one public agency using the checklist. Results: Although, the checklist items on desks, chairs, computers and other goods conformed to the checklist standards, the following items did not conformed: desk height adjustment, seat board depth adjustment, lumbar support depth, foot rest, wrist rest, mouse tray, headset, speaker phone and Bluetooth. Conclusion: The evaluation checklist for personal office furniture and apparatus and fact-finding survey results are considered to be used as basic data for office work environment and workers' welfare improvement. Application: The information drawn from this research can be helpful to manufacturers' design and manufacture of ergonomic furniture and apparatus.
A Study on the VDT Workstations Usage for Office Workers
Kim, Daysung ; Lee, Dong-Kyung ; Cho, Hae Kyeong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 179~190
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.2.179
Objective and Background: Due to increase in Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) relating to computer use, a number of ergonomics recommendations have been proposed in order to tackle this problem. However, some of these recommendations have been conflicting. Method: This study was to survey the VDT (Visual Display Terminal) use of office workers. The subjects were 452 workers at 13 places of business and the data were collected by self-administered questionnaire. Results: As a result, prevalence of self-reported MSDs of all VDT workers was 90.2% and shoulder took up 57.0% and neck 38.3% by symptom part of body. The population of computer use of more than 6h/day was 84.5%, and 33.8% also reported using the VDT 2~3h/day without the rest time. Desktop computer users were 95.6%, and a 17-inch monitor accounted for 42.0% among the desktop users. As a result of satisfaction survey on overall computer work, 21.1% of the total respondents said satisfied, desk complaint was about 24.6%, and chair complaint was 33.4%. Despite the importance of computer environment, satisfaction was from fair to uncomfortable. Conclusion and Application: In conclusion, office workers are prone to the MSDs due to their work environment. Additionally, this study found that task was a significant effect for the majority of dependent variables, and therefore, the improvement of computer workstations work environment is urgent, and the improvement of desk height adjustment, chair seat size (length, width), backrest condition, location of keyboard (mouse) and arm rest is required.
Sitting Posture-Based Lighting System to Enhance the Desired Mood
Bae, Hyunjoo ; Kim, Haechan ; Suk, Hyeon-Jeong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 2, 2015, Pages 191~198
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.2.191
Objective: As a cue for desired mood, we attempted to identify types of sitting postures when people are involved in various tasks during their working hours. Background: Physical behaviors in reaction to user contexts were studied, such as automated posture analysis for detecting a subject's emotion. Sitting postures have high feasibility and can be detected robustly with a sensing chair, especially when it comes to an office. Method: First, we attached seven sensors, including six pressure sensors and one distance sensor, to an office chair. In Part 1, we recorded participants' postures while they took part in four different tasks. From the seven sensors, we gathered five sets of data related to the head, the lumbar, the hip, thigh pressure and the distance between the backrest and the body. We classified them into four postures: leaning forward, upright, upright with the lumbar supporting, and leaning backward. In part 2, we requested the subjects to take suitable poses for the each of the four task types. In this way, we compared the matches between postures and tasks in a natural setting to those in a controlled situation. Results: We derived four types of sitting postures that were mapped onto the different tasks. The comparison yielded no statistical significance between Parts 1 and 2. In addition, there was a significant association between the task types and the posture types. Conclusion: The users' sitting postures were related to different types of tasks. This study demonstrates how human emotion can interact with lighting, as mediated through physical behavior. Application: We developed a posture-based lighting system that manipulates the quality of office lighting and is operated by changes in one's posture. Facilitated by this system, color temperatures ranging between 3,000K and 7,000K and illuminations ranging between 300lx and 700lx were modulated.