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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Journal DOI :
The Ergonomics Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
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Effect of Elastic-Band Exercise and Cognitive Rehabilitation in Cognition and Walking Speed of Elderly People -Pilot Study-
Yu, Seonghun ; Lee, Youngsin ; Kim, Seongsu ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 5, 2015, Pages 363~375
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.5.363
Objective: This study aims to recognize the risk of current traffic systems and to investigate a method to decrease risk by doing exercise using an elastic-band and cognitive rehabilitation. Background: The existing traffic system usually focuses on the ordinary citizens, which may not be appropriate to the elderly. It may affect the cognition and walking speed of the elderly. This study tries to examine whether cognition and muscle training is appropriate to improve their vulnerability. Therefore this study will provide human ergonomics - based basic data in relation to the elderly to identify the risk of current signal system and to mitigate the risk. Method: A total of 30 elderly participants were divided into two groups: experimental and control groups. Experimental group (n=15) was trained to strengthen their muscles and to promote cognition, whereas control group (n=15) was not. The training was conducted twice a week for three weeks. To strengthen muscles, a yellow colored elastic-band was used, and a computer program for cognitive rehabilitation was used to develop cognition. In the experimental group, there were significant differences between pre and post exercises However, the control group didn't show any significant difference. The increase in cognition and walking speed was found in the experimental group, whereas there were no differences in the control group. Statistically there was no significant difference between the two groups. Results: The results of this study show that the exercise program using the elastic-band gave a positive effect on gait training thanks to the development of muscle power and balance. Conclusion: This study did not show any statistical difference or significant differences between the two groups, since time was restricted, we believe. Application: The results of the walking speed will help to prevent traffic collision.
Mapping Studies on Visual Search, Eye Movement, and Eye track by Bibliometric Analysis
Rhie, Ye Lim ; Lim, Ji Hyoun ; Yun, Myung Hwan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 5, 2015, Pages 377~399
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.5.377
Objective: The aim of this study is to understand and identify the critical issues in vision research area using content analysis and network analysis. Background: Vision, the most influential factor in information processing, has been studied in a wide range of area. As studies on vision are dispersed across a broad area of research and the number of published researches is ever increasing, a bibliometric analysis towards literature would assist researchers in understanding and identifying critical issues in their research. Method: In this study, content and network analysis were applied on the meta-data of literatures collected using three search keywords: 'visual search', 'eye movement', and 'eye tracking'. Results: Content analysis focuses on extracting meaningful information from the text, deducting seven categories of research area; 'stimuli and task', 'condition', 'measures', 'participants', 'eye movement behavior', 'biological system', and 'cognitive process'. Network analysis extracts relational aspect of research areas, presenting characteristics of sub-groups identified by community detection algorithm. Conclusion: Using these methods, studies on vision were quantitatively analyzed and the results helped understand the overall relation between concepts and keywords. Application: The results of this study suggests that the use of content and network analysis helps identifying not only trends of specific research areas but also the relational aspects of each research issue while minimizing researchers' bias. Moreover, the investigated structural relationship would help identify the interrelated subjects from a macroscopic view.
Usability Evaluation of Graphic User Interfaces for a Military Computer-Based Training System
Kim, Sungho ; Lee, Soojung ; Lee, Kiwon ; Lee, Baekhee ; Lee, Jihyung ; Park, Seikwon ; You, Heecheon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 5, 2015, Pages 401~410
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.5.401
Objective: The present study was to improve the graphic user interface (GUI) of a military computer-based training (CBT) system in terms of usability. Background: Existing studies have focused on usability evaluation of a particular GUI type such as sequence, hierarchy, or context type; however, few research has been conducted which identifies preferred GUI features based on a comparative analysis of different GUI types. Method: A comparative evaluation was conducted by 9 CBT design experts using a 7-point scale (1: very low, 4: neutral, and 7: very high) on hierarchy and context GUI types of a military CBT system in terms of 10 usability criteria. Then, preferred features of the hierarchy and context types being accommodated, a new GUI was developed and validated by 22 CBT users. Results: While the hierarchy type was found preferred by 1.6 times in terms of controllability to the context type, the opposite was found in terms of attractiveness, simplicity, and responsiveness by 0.6, 0.8, and 0.8 times, respectively. The proposed GUI was found superior to the hierarchy and context types in terms of accessibility and informativeness by more than 1.5 times, but inferior to the hierarchy and context type in terms of simplicity by 0.6 and 0.9 times, respectively. Conclusion: The new GUI developed by accommodating the preferred features of the hierarchy and context types improves usability in terms of accessibility and informativeness except simplicity. Application: The comparative analysis of various GUIs can be applied to develop an improved GUI in a systematic manner based on preferred features of the existing GUIs.
A Structure and Framework for Sign Language Interaction
Kim, Soyoung ; Pan, Younghwan ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 5, 2015, Pages 411~426
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.5.411
Objective: The goal of this thesis is to design the interaction structure and framework of system to recognize sign language. Background: The sign language of meaningful individual gestures is combined to construct a sentence, so it is difficult to interpret and recognize the meaning of hand gesture for system, because of the sequence of continuous gestures. This being so, in order to interpret the meaning of individual gesture correctly, the interaction structure and framework are needed so that they can segment the indication of individual gesture. Method: We analyze 700 sign language words to structuralize the sign language gesture interaction. First of all, we analyze the transformational patterns of the hand gesture. Second, we analyze the movement of the transformational patterns of the hand gesture. Third, we analyze the type of other gestures except hands. Based on this, we design a framework for sign language interaction. Results: We elicited 8 patterns of hand gesture on the basis of the fact on whether the gesture has a change from starting point to ending point. And then, we analyzed the hand movement based on 3 elements: patterns of movement, direction, and whether hand movement is repeating or not. Moreover, we defined 11 movements of other gestures except hands and classified 8 types of interaction. The framework for sign language interaction, which was designed based on this mentioned above, applies to more than 700 individual gestures of the sign language, and can be classified as an individual gesture in spite of situation which has continuous gestures. Conclusion: This study has structuralized in 3 aspects defined to analyze the transformational patterns of the starting point and the ending point of hand shape, hand movement, and other gestures except hands for sign language interaction. Based on this, we designed the framework that can recognize the individual gestures and interpret the meaning more accurately, when meaningful individual gesture is input sequence of continuous gestures. Application: When we develop the system of sign language recognition, we can apply interaction framework to it. Structuralized gesture can be used for using database of sign language, inventing an automatic recognition system, and studying on the action gestures in other areas.
Characteristics of Occupational Accidents by Type of Parking Lot
Park, Myoung Hwan ; Jeong, Byung Yong ; Park, Cha-O-Rum ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 5, 2015, Pages 427~436
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.5.427
Objective: This study aims to analyze occupational accidents of parking lot attendants by parking lot type. Background: Recently, efforts are made to analyze accident characteristics by occupation type targeting the workers engaged in the same work. Method: This study analyzes 303 occupational accidents of parking lot attendants occurring from 2010 to 2012. Parking lots are grouped into two groups according to the work environment. One is public/ground type which comprises road side or open area parking lots and the other is building/mechanical type which comprises a multi-story parking building with connecting ramps and/or mechanical parking system. The characteristics of occupational accidents by parking lot type are analyzed. Results: Accident characteristics showed the difference between public/ground type and building/mechanical type on the size of enterprise, age, gender and work experience of the injured. Also the accident type, source of accident and parts of body affected are different between the two parking lot types. Conclusion and Application: The findings of accident characteristics according to parking lot types can be used as baseline data for establishing systemized preventative policies for occupational accidents of parking lot attendants.
Trends of Intellectual Property on Musculoskeletal Disorder, Motion Capture Technology and Ergonomics
Yoon, Sang-Young ; Jung, Myung-Chul ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 5, 2015, Pages 437~445
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.5.437
Objective: The aims of this study are to investigate the trends of intellectual property in order to identify the ergonomic approaches on musculoskeletal disorders, harmful factors of musculoskeletal disorders, and to find the potential applicability of motion capture technology. Background: Ergonomic posture assessment tools often showed interrater variance, though the usage is easy and practical in industrial fields. Moreover new technologies such as motion capture showed the potential applicability in posture assessment. So ergonomists and practitioners became interested in the intellectual properties on musculoskeletal disorder and motion capture technology. Method: Intellectual properties were collected with the combination of keywords such as ergonomic, musculoskeletal disorder, and motion capture using the KIPRIS (Korea Intellectual Property Rights Information Service). Collected intellectual properties were classified into ergonomic area and non-ergonomic area, except unexamined intellectual properties. This study investigated the trend of application of intellectual properties and the probability of using motion capture technology. Results: Few intellectual properties with ergonomic approach on musculoskeletal disorders were founded, despite many products for rehabilitation and sports. One hundred twenty five patents in 1105 patents on musculoskeletal disorders and 138 patents in 1908 patents on motion capture technology were classified into the patents that ergonomic approach can be applied. The patents related to ergonomics area are rapidly increasing after 2010, and there are good opportunities for ergonomists to apply the patents. Conclusion: This study found opportunities on novel methodology in detecting the harmful factors of musculoskeletal disorders, and that the motion capture technology is applicable in ergonomic posture assessment. Application: The results of this study can help ergonomists prepare the ergonomic patents, and can show the potential use of motion capture technology in detecting the harmful posture of musculoskeletal disorders.
Survey of Overseas General and Ergonomics Relevant Patents
Kee, Dohyung ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 5, 2015, Pages 447~454
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.5.447
Objective: The purposes of this study are to survey general and ergonomics relevant patents of major foreign countries, to classify the ergonomics patents into some categories frequently found in the patents lists surfed and to compare the results with those of Korea. Background: Under today's severe competitions between countries and between companies, the intellectual property has never been more important. It is needed to investigate Korea's positions and worldwide status of patent applications and grants for general and ergonomics patents. Method: This study was mainly based on relevant websites surfing such as KIPRIS, FPO, EPO, WIPO, etc. Results: The results showed that while Korea placed fourth in patent applications and grants in 2012, following US, Japan and China, Korea ranked seventh in the number of ergonomics patents. Of the overseas ergonomics patents, the proportion of tool/device was the second highest to category of others, followed by chair/desk, grip/handle and keyboard, etc. Compared to the overseas ergonomics patents, Korea showed a slightly different trend that there were less patents for specific fields of ergonomics such as grip/handle, keyboard, tool/device, etc. Conclusion: The number of ergonomics patents of Korea was behind most foreign countries surveyed in the number of patent applications and grants of, and there were many categories of overseas ergonomics patents. Application: This study would be used as a reference or guideline when developing varying ergonomic products or applying to ergonomics patents.
Learning from Successes and Failures of Registration of Patent Applications Based on Physical Ergonomics Research
Kim, Sungho ; Lee, Wonsup ; Lee, Baekhee ; Choi, Younggeun ; Lee, Jihyung ; Jung, Kihyo ; You, Heecheon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 5, 2015, Pages 455~467
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.5.455
Objective: The present study suggested practical measures for successful patent registration based on a review of success and failure cases of patent application filed based on inventions obtained from physical ergonomics research. Background: The protection of intellectual property (IP) contributes to economic growth and competitiveness and facilitates innovation and creativity. IP rights are pursued on research findings for effective technology transfer and commercialization; however, a patent application can be rejected if patentability requirements such as patent eligible subject matter, utility for industrial application, novelty, or non-obviousness are not satisfied. Method: Three successful and three failed cases of patent applications based on physical ergonomics research were reviewed, critical reasons for their successes and failures were examined, and measures were proposed to avoid failures in patent registration. Results: The following measures were identified based on the patent application case review. First, abstract ideas including logical procedures and/or mathematical formulas need to include use of tangible apparatus and methods in idea realization. Second, the provision of grace period inventor disclosure exception needs to be properly followed in case an invention is disclosed before filing of patent application. Lastly, a comprehensive analysis of prior art published or publicly known anywhere in the world and a claim preparation of distinguished, non-trivial features compared to prior art solutions are needed to avoid possible violation of novelty and non-obviousness. Application: The proposed measures can help to prepare a patent application with patent eligibility.
Limitations and Challenges of Ergonomics Regarding Intellectual Property
Park, Hee Sok ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 5, 2015, Pages 469~471
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.5.469
Objective: The objective of this paper is to review the interests and limitations of ergonomics regarding intellectual property. Background: There have been less interests in intellectual property among the ergonomics professionals. However, the importance of intellectual property is increasing as competitions in industry are getting fierce. Method: Literatures on the relations of intellectual property with ergonomics were examined, and the international patent classification system was studied. Results: No profound studies were found in the area of the relations of intellectual property with ergonomics. Ergonomics was not considered in patent classification. Conclusion: It is important to induce more interests regarding intellectual property to the community of ergonomics. Further studies are expected on the relations of intellectual property with ergonomics. Application: The results from this paper would be of help to inducing ergonomists to more interests in intellectual property.
Effective Patent Strategies for the Protection of Research Results
Na, Dong Kyu ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 5, 2015, Pages 473~485
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.5.473
Objective: This study provides strategies of how to effectively convert an invention, created at universities or government-funded research institutes, into a strong patent with the clear understanding of its unique technological characteristics. Background: Regardless of the amount of research funds available in our country and the decent number of intellectual property rights created using the funds, there was a deficit of more than KRW 6 trillion in the technology trade balance related with intellectual property rights in the year of 2014. One of the reasons was that the vast number of patents that were being produced by universities or by government-funded research institutes were merely performance-based patents, namely, so called "patents for patents". Another reason is that developed technology from research and development could not be transformed into a strong patent right properly due to the lack of related knowledge. Method: After reviewing various references mentioned on the patent strategies, the definition of a strong patent and the strategies of producing a strong patent for an invention drawn out from research performance will be supplied. Results: To produce a strong patent right at universities or government funded research institutes, one should use strategies for strong specifications, strategies of product patents and method patents, strategies of patent portfolios, strategies of know-how, strategies of inventions defined by numerical limitation and strategies of parameter inventions for a more strategic approach. Conclusion: Strong patent rights will be produced with the use of effective patent strategies provided in this study. Application: It is estimated that the results of this study will aid the establishment of strong patents for inventions developed by research performance at universities or government-funded research institutions.
Survey of Intellectual Property Rights in the Ergonomics Field in Korea
Park, Jemo ; Hwang, Jung Bo ; Jung, Hwa Shik ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 5, 2015, Pages 487~499
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.5.487
Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the trend of ergonomics field in overall intellectual property rights in Korea, and suggest the direction for the future development. Background: Many ergonomists are trying to pursue optimal human well-being and safety, and create more convenient designs for human use. For these reasons, intellectual property rights may be used to protect the legitimate rights of originative and innovative ergonomic designs. Method: Intellectual property rights were reviewed by using Korea Intellectual Property Rights Information Service (KIPRIS), and then were classified and analyzed according to three intellectual property rights (patent, utility model, design), International Patent Classification (IPC) and ergonomics application areas. Results: The total number of intellectual property rights registered in the ergonomics field in terms of three intellectual property rights (patent, utility model, design) showed 48,814 which occupied 5.97% of the total registered Korea's intellectual property rights. Within three intellectual property rights, patent (87%) was recorded overwhelmingly higher than utility model (9%) and design (4%). Conclusion: The current trend of patent, utility model and design in the ergonomics field in Korea tend to increase over time. It is suggested based on the analysis in this study that continuing research and development should be focused on electricity section in accordance with the global trend. Application: The results of this study can direct the ergonomists to the areas of intellectual property rights in the ergonomics field that should focus on the research and development in terms of three intellectual property rights, IPC and ergonomics application areas.
Technology Trends for Developing Helmet Patents
Kwon, JuYoun ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 5, 2015, Pages 501~517
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.5.501
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the technology trend on developing helmets based on the analysis of Korean, US, European and PCT patents. Background: The usage of the personal protective equipment such as the safety helmet would be essential for preventing injuries and reducing the severity of injuries depending on the type of activity and the exposed environment. Method: Database of WIPSON was used for searching the patents. The objects were the Korean, US, European and PCT patents registered or opened from January 2011 to December 2014. The keyword to investigate was helmet, and International Patent Classification (IPC) was used for investigating the technology trend of the patents. Results: The cases of US patents annually increased, but the cases of European patents decreased. US patents belonged to all sections but Korean and European patents and PCT patents did not. The largest number of IPC, to which four areas' patents belonged, was 'Headwear' and the second largest one was 'Hygiene'. In the subgroup level, the most common largest subgroups were 'Parts, details or accessories of helmets' and 'Masks, shields, or hoods for welders'. Korean patents had the lowest ratio of single_IPC at 11%, but the ratios of single_IPC for US and European patents were 52%, respectively. 'Human necessities', 'Mechanical engineering', 'Physics', and 'Electricity' were used as a single_IPC, but lower levels of 'Performing operations', 'Chemistry', 'Textiles' and 'Fixed constructions' were used as multi_IPC. Most main applicants had patents which belonged to 'Human necessities'. Conclusion: The cases of US patents annually increased unlike others. The common technologies for creating the helmet were Parts of helmets under Headwear and Shields for welders under Hygiene. Many Korean patents tended to be categorized as multi_IPC, different from others. Application: To know the technological characteristic of patents would be helpful to initial stage developers.
A Comparative Analysis of Occupational Accidents between Indoor and Outdoor Workers in Telecommunications Industry
Kim, Yang Rae ; Jeong, Byung Yong ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 5, 2015, Pages 519~529
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.5.519
Objective: This study aims to analyze the characteristics of occupational accidents and injuries of telecommunications line and cable workers by type of workplace and operational process of cabling service and to provide baseline data in establishing the preventive policies for occupational accidents and injuries. Background: In order to set up the preventive policies for occupational injuries and illness systematically, the accident analysis by industry should be preceded. To establish more effective policies, it should be done by occupation for persons who work in various kinds of occupation rather than by industry for persons who do in the same occupation. Method: In this study, the 176 occupational accidents and injuries were classified by type of workplace - indoor (inside building) and outdoor (at the top of utility pole, in a manhole, or in the fields) - and also done by operational process involved at the time of the accident. By analyzing the characteristics of occupational injuries and illness by type of workplace and operational process, respectively, this study can be helpful in establishing the preventative policies for occupational accidents and injuries. Results: The characteristics of occupational accidents and injuries by type of workplace showed that there were differences in terms of accident rate between indoor and outdoor on age of the injured, while not on employment-size and work experience of the injured. In addition, the characteristics on accident type, agency of accident, parts of body affected, and operational process between indoor and outdoor workplaces were statistically different each other. Conclusion and Application: The findings of occupational accidents' characteristics can be applied to the establishment of systematic preventative policies for occupational accidents of telecommunications line/equipment workers.
Technology Requirements for Wearable User Interface
Cho, Il-Yeon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 5, 2015, Pages 531~540
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.5.531
Objective: The objective of this research is to investigate the fundamentals of human computer interaction for wearable computers and derive technology requirements. Background: A wearable computer can be worn anytime with the support of unrestricted communications and a variety of services which provide maximum capability of information use. Key challenges in developing such wearable computers are the level of comfort that users do not feel what they wear, and easy and intuitive user interface. The research presented in this paper examines user interfaces for wearable computers. Method: In this research, we have classified the wearable user interface technologies and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages from the user's point of view. Based on this analysis, we issued a user interface technology to conduct research and development for commercialization. Results: Technology requirements are drawn to make wearable computers commercialized. Conclusion: The user interface technology for wearable system must start from the understanding of the ergonomic aspects of the end user, because users wear the system on their body. Developers do not try to develop a state-of-the-art technology without the requirement analysis of the end users. If people do not use the technology, it can't survive in the market. Currently, there is no dominant wearable user interface in the world. So, this area might try a new challenge for the technology beyond the traditional interface paradigm through various approaches and attempts. Application: The findings in this study are expected to be used for designing user interface for wearable systems, such as digital clothes and fashion apparel.
Hand Gesture Segmentation Method using a Wrist-Worn Wearable Device
Lee, Dong-Woo ; Son, Yong-Ki ; Kim, Bae-Sun ; Kim, Minkyu ; Jeong, Hyun-Tae ; Cho, Il-Yeon ;
Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, volume 34, issue 5, 2015, Pages 541~548
DOI : 10.5143/JESK.2015.34.5.541
Objective: We introduce a hand gesture segmentation method using a wrist-worn wearable device which can recognize simple gestures of clenching and unclenching ones' fist. Background: There are many types of smart watches and fitness bands in the markets. And most of them already adopt a gesture interaction to provide ease of use. However, there are many cases in which the malfunction is difficult to distinguish between the user's gesture commands and user's daily life motion. It is needed to develop a simple and clear gesture segmentation method to improve the gesture interaction performance. Method: At first, we defined the gestures of making a fist (start of gesture command) and opening one's fist (end of gesture command) as segmentation gestures to distinguish a gesture. The gestures of clenching and unclenching one's fist are simple and intuitive. And we also designed a single gesture consisting of a set of making a fist, a command gesture, and opening one's fist in order. To detect segmentation gestures at the bottom of the wrist, we used a wrist strap on which an array of infrared sensors (emitters and receivers) were mounted. When a user takes gestures of making a fist and opening one's a fist, this changes the shape of the bottom of the wrist, and simultaneously changes the reflected amount of the infrared light detected by the receiver sensor. Results: An experiment was conducted in order to evaluate gesture segmentation performance. 12 participants took part in the experiment: 10 males, and 2 females with an average age of 38. The recognition rates of the segmentation gestures, clenching and unclenching one's fist, are 99.58% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: Through the experiment, we have evaluated gesture segmentation performance and its usability. The experimental results show a potential for our suggested segmentation method in the future. Application: The results of this study can be used to develop guidelines to prevent injury in auto workers at mission assembly plants.