Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
A Plan to Improve Consumer Satisfaction and Reliability of Opticians by Analyzing Consumers' Spectacles Purchasing Behavior
Park, Jee-Hyun ; Lee, Eun-Hee ; Koo, Eun-Hye ; Kim, Hee-A ; Song, Da-Hye ; Hyun, Jin-Hee ; Kim, Hyojin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 1~7
Purpose: To plan and improve consumers' satisfaction by analyzing consumers' purchasing behavior of spectacles. Also this will show the need of improvement in reliance of an optician. Methods: A total of 307 people (10 to 60 years) participated in individual questionnaires. Questionnaires comprised of general characteristic of surveyed people, purchasing spectacles behavior, satisfaction after purchasing spectacles, reliability of optician, and improvement points of optician. Results: Most important points in selecting the product were the design and the price of the spectacles. 142 people (46.3%) replied "average" and 140 people (45.6%) replied "satisfying" out of maximum point of satisfaction level which was 5 points. 72.3% of people have regularly visiting optical shop due to the high accessibility, after-sales care, and courteous optician. On the contrary, 27.7% replied "never visit same optician shop again" because of the low accessibility, minimal range of products, and high price. Data showed that people had high re liability about the opticians' knowledge of product, and their technique of eye refraction. Data revealed that people did not show high satisfaction about opticians' knowledge of ophthalmology, and price of products. Most important improvement points were accurate spectacle prescription by Opticians rating 42% of reply. Factors most considered during spectacle selection among the 10 to 20 age group were design by 34.8% and price by 10.1%. Among the 40 to 50 age group, most considered factors were design by 14% and spectacle frame material by 10.1%. Conclusions: Satisfaction rate of purchasing spectacles for the total participant group was 4.2 average grades. Reliability of opticians' eye refraction result and prescription was 50.5%. However consumers wanted to obtain more accurate eye refraction result and prescription with more comprehensive explanations. Also, consumers wanted opticians to be sensitive and have appreciative eye in select spectacles for customers, and to offer precise spectacle dispensing services and courteous after-sales care.
The Problem and Solution Associated with Increasing Number of Ophthalmic Optics Student
Kim, Sang-Hyun ; Lim, Yongmoo ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 9~17
Purpose: We have studied the problems associated with increased number of ophthalmic optics students and its effects on the supply and demand of optician. Methods: We collected data from Education Statistics, a white paper of Minister for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs, academyinfo web site and University (College) web site. Results: We forecasted an estimate for supply and demand of optician using the entrance number of ophthalmic optics. Conclusions: The numbers of produced optician are in excessive supply. The excessive supply of optician can contribute towards worsening working conditions and lower job satisfaction of an optician. Therefore this can result infrequent turn over of jobs within the same field and migration into the different field of areas. To solve these problems, we will need to act with the manpower policy of government by gathering the voices of the related optician agencies. Then expansion of job domain, improvement of quality level, the improvement of the working conditions for optician can be accomplished by the unification of university system and reduction of entrance numbers for department of ophthalmic optics.
Competitiveness Comparison between Korea and Japan in the Spectacles Industry
Lim, Jun-Hyeong ; Hyun, Sung-Cheol ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 19~23
Purpose: The aims of this paper are to assess the competitiveness about the spectacles industry of Korea against Japan. Methods: We use export competitiveness indexes such as market share index, trade specialization index and market comparative advantage index to evaluate the competitiveness of spectacles industry of Korea against Japan. Results: This paper shows that the comparative advantage of the Spectacles industry of Korea in MC(market comparative advantage) against Japan arc spectacles lenses and contact lenses. Furthermore, it can also be known that the spectacles lenses and contact lenses have export competitiveness in the TSI (trade specialization index) against Japan. Conclusions: We need to choose spectacles lenses and contacts lenses as the main export items against Japan in the spectacles industry of Korea. Along with this, we need to improve the image of the Spectacles industry in Korea; after that, we have to create a strategy that would strengthen export competition in other items.
Clinical Estimation of Corrected State with Change in Vertex Distance
Kim, Jung-Hee ; Lee, Hak-Jun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 25~30
Purpose: This study was conducted to estimate the changes of corrected diopter and corrected visual acuity with the change in vertex distance. Also we aimed to provide basic data for refraction test. Methods: Using the trial lens, we measured the corrected diopter and corrected visual acuity after performing binocular balance test. We measured the changes of corrected diopter and corrected visual acuity in change of vertex distance. We analyzed statistical significance and relations between vertex distance and corrected diopter and corrected visual acuity. Results: There was no difference in corrected diopter with the change of vertex distance within -1.00D, but the corrected diopter increased with it over - 1.25D. In particular, the change of diopter was largest when the vertex distance increased 15 mm. At over 11.00D, there was large changes of diopter with the changes of vertex distance at 5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm. On correlation analysis between the vertex distance and the corrected diopter, there was strong correlation (r=0.999 at 5 mm increase of vertex distance, r=0.982 at 10 mm increase and r=0.957 at 15 mm increase) and also there was significant (p<0.01). At the change of visual acuity in increased of vertex distance, the range of a decrease in visual acuity was large when the changes of vertex distance was largest. On correlation analysis between the vertex distance and the corrected visual acuity, there was strong correlation (r=0.969 at 5 mm increase of vertex distance, r=0.985 at 10 mm increase and r=0.994 at 15 mm increase) and also there was significant (p<0.01). Conclusions: The vertex distance was very important at the refraction test and at wearing spectacle. On correlation analysis between the vertex distance and the corrected diopter, and the corrected visual acuity, there was strong correlation and statistically significant. Therefore, the vertex distance should be kept at the refraction using trial lens, and the best fitting was made not to slipping forward, and so we suggested regular refitting of spectacle and the managing method of spectacle were educated to the spectacle wearers.
The Problems of Relaxed Entry Regulation for an Optical Shop
Kim, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Dae Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 31~38
Purpose: In this paper, we have dealt with problems and the improvement proposals of FTC (FAIR TRADE COMMISSION) report which insist on relaxed entry regulation for an optical shop. Methods: We analyzed each content of the FTC (FAIR TRADE COMMISSION) report which argue relaxed entry regulation for an optical shop. Results: At present, the supply of optician and optical shop are already saturated, the overseas cases cited would not be in accord with our reality. The reform of policy must take precedence in order to carry out the policy. A delicate balancing act is needed in order to satisfy both the government's and optician's needs. Conclusions: At this point, it is premature to carry out the relaxed entry regulation, this policy should be looked from a long-term point of view.
Reliability of Measurements of Back Vertex Power for Soft Contact Lenses Using an Auto-Lensmeter
Kim, Kun-Kyu ; Lee, Wook-Jin ; Lee, Sun-Haeng ; Kwak, Ho-Won ; Yu, Dong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 39~46
Purpose: To assess the reliability for measuring the back vertex power of soft contact lenses by dry blotting and wet cell method using an auto-lensmeter. Methods: The soft contact lenses used for measurement were 5 types that were distributed in Korea, and 4 back vertex powers (-1.50D, -3.00D, -6.00D, -9.00D) were used. and repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated by measuring them with an auto-lensmeter by two examiners. Results: Measured powers by dry blotting method were ranged in mean differences from 0.03D to 0.18D for overall lenses, 0.10D to 0.18D for silicone hydrogel lenses, 0.03D to 0.08D for hydrogel lenses. The mean differences between two examiners were less than 0.10D, and the inter-examiner reproducibility was good for dry blotting method. The mean difference between powers determined by wet cell method were 0.09D to 0.69D, the mean differences between two examiners were 0.02D to 0.59D. The reliability of measurements and inter-examiner reproducibility were less than dry blotting method. Conclusions: The reliability of measurements for all materials was better in dry blotting than wet cell method, the re liability of measurements for silicone hydrogel lenses was low in both methods. In clinical practical which requires quick checking of back vertex power using an auto-lensmeter. dry blotting method is thought to be more efficient than wet cell one.
Use of Piggyback Contact Lens System to GP Lens Wearers
Kim, Yong Gil ; Kim, Soo Hyun ; Kim, Jai Min ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 47~53
Purpose: This study was performed to achieve an acceptable piggyback fit utilizing each subject's own GP lenses, in subjects with regular low myopic astigmatism. Methods: A randomized, prospective study of 15 subjects with the diagnosis of low myopic astigmatism was conducted. Nine subjects were female and 6 were male, and mean age was: 23.73
1.68 years. Subjects were evaluated before participate on this study and then also evaluated with period of at two hours and two weeks after obtaining their lenses. All subjects were submitted to the following tests: measurement of comfort level by means of the analogical visual scale, best corrected visual acuity and over-refraction at distance. contrast sensitivity and stereo acuity. After evaluating the fit of plano soft lens, we applied each subject's own GP lens on top. Results: Vision, visual performance and satisfaction of piggyback contact lens system were stable, if not improved, for the 15 subjects when the data was compared to the patients' wear of rigid gas permeable contact lenses. Fit with a piggyback system had the same or improved comfort, visual acuity and contrast sensitivity compared to previous GP lens wear alone. The visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereo acuity did not show differences in relation to the studied lens type. Conclusions: These results suggest that it is possible to achieve a successful piggyback lens fitting utilizing a patient's own GP lens. The piggyback lens system satisfied the visual performance and visual requirements of this subject with GP lens alone for the correction of low myopic astigmatism.
Changes of the Plastic Lens Properties Caused by Etching of the Coating Films
Moon, Byeong-Yeon ; Hwang, Ki Ju ; Lee, Yoon Jeong ; Yu, Dong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 55~60
Purpose: We investigated the changes of plastic lens after etching of coating films by comparing uncoated lens. Methods: CR-39, middle index and high index lenses of 0 (zero) diopter were etched at
and room temperature using a coating remover, and then changes of refractive power, transmittance and surface morphology were investigated. Results: There were no differences in refractive power and transmittance between uncoated and etched lenses. The etching rate was similar in both CR-39 and middle index lens, but in the case of high index lens, it was slower and less steady than the others. From the SEM observation of lens surface, etching damage was found out on the surface of etched lens. It was shown the least damage in middle index lens but the most damage in high index lens. Conclusions: If the etching of coating films is demanded on condition that the surface of ophthalmic lenses are not damaged, a using of most adequate coating remover based on lens material should be considered, and a caution for proper etching conditions is required.
The Study of Vertical Fixation Disparity by Fixation Disparity Card
Park, Hyun-Ju ; Yoon, Young ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 61~66
Purpose: This study was performed to determine vertical fixation disparity by Fixation Disparity Card. The purpose of this study was to investigate distribution of the curve types obtained with Wesson card. Methods: Fixation disparity curves were measured on 52 subjects with the Wesson fixation disparity card. A fixation disparity curve was an x, y coordinate plot of the angular amount of fixation disparity as a function of the power of prisms through which the patient views. The fixation disparity curve variables that were used to aid in the diagnosis and management of binocular vision disorders included the x-intercept, y-intercept, curve slope and curve type. Results: Vertical fixation disparity curves by Wesson Fixation Disparity Card were very various. Conclusions: Vertiical fixation disparity curves could be used to aid in the diagnosis and prescription.
Comparison of Subjective Refraction Findings in Two Different Levels of Room Illumination Using Three Different Types of Letter Charts
Chen, Ai-Hong ; Norazman, Fatin Nur Najwa ; Buari, Noor Halilah ; Ahmad, Azmir ; Omar, Wan Elhami Wan ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 67~71
Purpose: The effect of two different levels of illumination and the effect of three letter chart types on subjective refraction findings were investigated. Methods: This study involved thirty Malay university students aged between 19 to 23 years old (7 males, 23 females), with their spherical refractive error ranged between plano to -7.75D astigmatism ranged from plano to -1.75D, anisometropia less than 1D and with no history of ocular injury and pathology. Monocular subjective refraction was measured under two levels of illumination (with and without room light) and with three different letter charts (Snellen letter chart, wall mounted letter chart and projected letter chart). Subjective refraction finding was calculated in spherical equivalent in unit diopter (D). Results: There was no significant effect in the subjective refraction findings with Snellen letter chart (t-test=0.15, p-value=0.88), projected letter chart (t-test=-0.19, p-value=0.85) as well as wall mounted letter chart (t-test=0.12, p-value=0.94). One Way ANOVA also revealed when the subjective refractive measures were compared under two different level of room illumination (with and without room light), no significant effect of letter chart types on subjective refraction readings with room light (
=0.11, p-value=0.89) and without room light (
=0.02, p-value=0.98). Conclusions: Subjective refraction findings were not affected whether the room light was on or off. They were also not affected by the types of letter chart used.
A Study on Diurnal Variations of Accommodation
Lee, Jeong-Yun ; Yu, Dong-Sik ; Son, Jeong-Sik ; Moon, Byeong-Yeon ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 73~78
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine diurnal variation of accommodation on people whose age are between 35 and 50 years old with frequent alternation of accommodation at period 1 (8:00-10:00), period 2(13:00-15:00) and period 3 (18:00-20:00). Methods: All \04 subjects were separated to nonpresbyopia and incipient presbyopia. Tests were done for amplitude of accommodation, accommodative facility and relative amplitude of accommodation. Results: Both nonpresbyopia and incipient presbyopia had the highest amplitude of accommodation in oculus dexter, oculus sinister and oculus uterque at period 2. In addition, the incipient presbyopia showed the statistical significance of daily change. The nonpresbyopia had the most accommodative facility at period 3 and incipient presbyopia had the most accommodative facility at period 2. Their daily variations were statistically significant. Both nonpresbyopia and incipient presbyopia had the most negative relative accommodation of daily change at period I. Both of them had the most positive relative accommodation at period 2. Conclusions: The incipient presbyopia had the highest amplitude of accommodation, accommodative facility. and positive relative accommodation (except the negative relative accommodation) at period 2.
Comparison between Subjective and Objective Angle of Deviation Using by Synoptophore and Prism Bar in Strabismus Patients
Wi, Dae-Gwang ; Joo, Seok-Hee ; Lee, Koon-Ja ; Leem, Hyun-Sung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 79~85
Purpose: We studied the relationship between subjective and objective deviating angle. Methods: Those who were diagnosed with strabismus among the patients who had no systemic diseases that fifty-one subjects (Male; 21, Female; 30) were measured between seven to sixty three years, evaluated to alternate cover test after AR/K (Canon RK-FI, Japan) and retinoscope measured refractive errors. Objective deviating angle was measured using prism bar; and subjective and objective deviating angles were measured and compared using the synoptophore. Results: For the correlation between subjective and objective deviating angles. The differences were
, between subjective deviating angle measured using synoptophore and objective deviating angles measured using synoptophore were
, the average with each other were
, with all the differences highly significant. Conclusions: We thought not only reduced angle of deviating errors and identified the significance in the correlation between subjective and objective deviating angles but also considered to be useful in determining deviating angle of patient with strabismus.
The Effects of Sports Vision Training on Baseball Player's Visual Performance and Baseball Records
Lee, Min-A ; Oh, Jae-Man ; Jeong, Ju-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 87~97
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of sports vision training on baseball player's visual performance and baseball records. Methods: All subjects were 21 males of high school baseball players, and they participated on eight weeks of sports vision training program. Pre- and post- test results were obtained for static and dynamic visual acuity, static and dynamic stereo acuity, distance and near phoria, fusional reserves, near point of convergence, contrast sensitivity, visual-reaction time. Results: Statical analysis indicated significant improvement in most of mentioned visual variables and baseball records (p<0.001). Conclusions: It can be concluded that the sports vision training program improves visual skills of baseball players, which could lead to improvement in the baseball records. Vison training will be a promotor for baseball player to enhance their performance if proper test instruments and training course is supplied.
Comparison of Autorefraction and Refraction with iTrace for Elementary School Children
Kim, Hyojin ; Lee, Koon-Ja ; Kim, Sam-Yi ; Kim, Se-Rom ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 99~104
Purpose: Difference of refraction result from the method of autorefraction and iTrace were investigaged for the children of elementary school in Asan City. In iTrace method. exclusion of accommodation without cycloplegia was used. Methods: Manifest refractive stale of 42 eyes of 12~13 years old were measured using autorefractor and iTrace. Refractions of far (more than 5 m) and ncar (30 cm) vision were measured using iTrace. All data showed that the spherical equivalent were classified as being in the group 1 (-0.50D < ~ < +1.00D) and 2 (below -0.50D) according 10 refractive errors. Results: Mean spherical equivalent using autorefractor and iTrace (far and near vision) were -1.08D, -0.29D and -2.34D, respectively (p<0.01). Compared with the far vision using iTrace, autorefraction was measured the myopia with -0.50D ~ -1.00D in 52.4% of total eyes. Autorefraction also statistical significant were measured a more myopia than the far vision using iTrace in group I and 2. Conclusions: The difference of refractive errors between autorefraction and iTrace, objective refraction were measured with far vision of more than 5 m were -0.79D. Autoreftaction showed statistically decreased refraction errors than iTrace with far vision.
Comparison and Analysis for the Effects of Functional Progressive Addition Lenses on Binocular Vision of University Students
Kim, Chang Jin ; Kim, Hyun Jung ; Kim, Jai-Min ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 105~116
Purpose: To analyze and compare differences between single vision lenses and functional progressive addition lenses and improvement to binocular visual function wearing functional lenses for pre-presbyopes altered their single vision lenses to functional progressive addition lenses with low addition. Methods: Healthy 32 subjects aged 24.03
1.87 (male 23, female 9) who were recruited from university students wore functional progressive addition lenses (EYE-T, Chemilens Co., Korea, ADD 0.750) for 2 months. Objective refraction, corrected visual acuity at distance and near, near point of convergence, near point of accommodation, accommodative facility, phoria at distance and near were measured. And subjective satisfaction was investigated by using a questionnaire designed to fatigue, comfort, discomfort, overall satisfaction and preference. Results: Functional progressive addition lenses were better than single vision lenses at near point of convergence and accommodation, accommodative facility. Exo phoria measured at distance with single vision and functional progressive addition lenses. Exo phoria measured at near with functional progressive addition lenses was higher than that with single vision lenses. As a survey, the satisfaction was increased in questions related near work. However, single vision lenses were preferred in distance test of overall satisfaction, easy 10 adapt, lime to adapt. A survey showed thai preference of functional progressive addition lenses were increased 75.00% to 81.26% for near work, 50.00% to 65.63% for visual fatigue, 47.75% to 50.00% for visual comfort and 31.25% to 46.88% for overall comfort. Conclusions: Comparing between single vision lenses and functional progressive addition lenses, binocular visual function related near work, subjective satisfaction and preference was improved after wearing functional progressive addition lenses. This study suggested that functional progressive addition lenses were useful for long time near work.
A Study on the Active Force of Extraocular Muscles
Kim, Sang-Moon ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 15, issue 1, 2010, Pages 117~122
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the active force of extraocular muscles on mono- and binocular movements for 62 healthy koreans (male: 29, female: 33). Methods: The force of adduction, abduction, elevation and depression, of right and left eye on monocular movement were tested with horizontal moving distance based on corneal limbus and the force of superior oblique muscle and inferior oblique muscle on binocular movement were measured with vertical moving distance between corneal limbus. The distances were obtained by high resolution digital image processing. Results: At monocular movements of tested subjects. the power of abduction, adduction, elevation and depression of right and left eye were (male) 9.35 nun, 9.75 mm, (female) 9.02 mm, 9.52 mm, (male) 10.23 mm, 10.16 mm, (female) 10.17 mm, 10.07 mm, (male) 7.01 mm,6.91 mm, (female) 6.98 mm, 6.64 mm, (male) 7.52 mm, 6.82 mm, (female) 7.52 mm, 6.67 mm, respectively. The active force of binocular movements were 54.8% hyperergasia and 45.1% hypergasia/67.7% hyperergasia and 32.2% hypergasia with inferior oblique muscle, 64.5% hyperergasia and 35.5% hypergasia/58.1% hyperergasia and 41.9% hypergasia with superior oblique muscle, respectively. Conclusions: The force of horizontal movement was higher than vertical movement. The value of adduction was higher than abduction on horizontal movement, and the value of depression was higher than elevation on vertical movement. In the both of inferior and superior oblique muscle, the ratio of hyperergasia was higher than that of hypergasia.