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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
A Questionnaire Study of Connotative Meanings of the Show Window Display Types in Optical Shops of Optometry Students in Seoul
Lee, Ji Hye ; Kim, Young Hwa ; Kim, Dal-Young ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 219~228
Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze objectively customers' connotative meanings dependent on show window display types in optical shops. Methods: This survey was conducted on optometry students in Seoul in their 20's. We collected examples of the show window displays in Korean optical shops and deduced their representative types. After drawing out connotative meanings by the semantic differential method, we determined the connotative meanings correspondent to each show window display types by using a questionnaire and statisticl analyses. Results: Respondents chose 'clean and simple', 'luxury and simple', and 'folksy and practical' as connotative meanings of open-type, small amount-type, mass amount-type and commercial-type show window displays, respectively. Conclusions: Analyzing induced connotative meanings and correspondents' preference, we think that the small amount-type show window is the most appropriate display for college students consumer group.
Impact Resistance Testing of NK55 Ophthalmic Lenses in Domestic Market
Park, Mijung ; Jeon, Inchul ; Hwang, Kwang Hoon ; Byun, Woongjin ; Kim, So Ra ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 229~235
Purpose: The present study was performed to evaluate the safety of ophthalmic lenses in domestic market since eyeglasses wearers could be exposed to the negligent accident by damaged ophthalmic lenses. Method: Totally, 160 ophthalmic lenses (NK55,
= 1.56) with the refractive powers of -3D, -6D, +3D, +6D manufactured by 4 companies in domestic market were evaluated using drop ball test. In accordance with FDA standard, steel ball (~16 g) was freely dropped on these ophthalmic lenses from 127 cm high and the surfaces of lenses were observed. Results: From the study, center thicknesses of NK55 ophthalmic lenses manufactured by 4 different companies showed somewhat different numbers even though the lenses had the same refractive index and powers. All convex lenses of +3D, +6D were evaluated as the safe lenses since there was no damage such as crack and broken found on the lens surfaces after drop ball testing. However, some noticeable broken was shown on the surfaces of concave lenses with relatively thinner center thickness. Especially, 59(73.8%) of total 80 concave lenses with the refractive power of -3D and -6D classified as unacceptable lenses to FDA standard. Conclusions: From the results, the negligent accident by damaged ophthalmic lenses should be considered as well as the correction of visual acuity, design and price when customers purchase eyeglasses. Thus, the enforcement regulation like drop ball testing of uncut ophthalmic lens could be suggested to guarantee the safety of ophthalmic lenses in domestic market.
The Effect of Physical and Chemical Stimuli on Ophthalmic Lens Coatings
Kim, So Ra ; Kim, Ji Yoon ; Kim, Ka Young ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 237~245
Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate whether certain repeated physical and/or chemical stimuli added on ophthalmic lenses might induce any changes of the functions of lens coatings. Methods: The changes in lens surface, light transmittance, foggy duration, durability of ophthalmic lenses were determined after the application of tearing-off with tape, rubbing with acetone, soaking in acetone or distilled water of ophthalmic lens (CR-39 material) as physical and/or chemical stimuli. Results: The change of ophthalmic lens surface was detected after soaking in acetone for longer than 30 minutes by observing the lens surface to figure out the functional change of hard coating. The ophthalmic lens soaked in distilled water for 180 minutes showed little functional change of anti-reflection coating as 1% by measuring light transmittance of lens. However, the function of anti-reflection coating was almost disappeared after the ophthalmic lens was soaked in acetone for 60 minutes. The foggy duration of ophthalmic lens soaked in acetone was increased by estimating foggy duration of lens. The lens coating was shown to be defected when the pre-damaged ophthalmic lenses were torn off with tape, rubbed with acetone and soaked in distilled water or acetone by observing pre-damaged lens surface to evaluate its durability. Conclusions: The careful management during ophthalmic lens dispensing or usual eyeglass wearing is needed since the change in ophthalmic lens coatings was shown by repeated physical and/or chemical stimuli.
Study on the Changes of Ophthalmic Plastic Lens due to Heating
Cho, Hyun Gug ; Moon, Byeong-Yeon ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 247~253
Purpose: The changes in properties of plastic lens due to heating was investigated. Methods: Plastic lenses of -2.00 diopter were heated at 60-100
, and then changes of refractive power, surface condition and transmittance were examined. Results: It was shown that the changes of lens surface due to heating happened at 70
for 1h, 75
for 10 min and 100
10 sec, respectively. More serious crack was occurred in high index lens and at higher heating temperature, respectively, and transmittance decreased depending on the extent of the damage on the surface of lens. Conclusions: Heating at temperatures above 70
drives cracks on the surface of lens. Optician should recommend an appropriate lens considering the wearer's working conditions and guide for paying attention when they use eyeglasses.
A Study on Improvement of Wettability and Comfort in Contact lens with Hyaluronic acid
Kim, Hyun Jung ; Kim, Soo-Hyun ; Kim, Jai-Min ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 255~264
Purpose: To study the effect of hyaluronic acid(HA), which was widely used in artificial tears, multi-purpose solution(MPS), cosmetics, and drug acting on the musculo-skeletal system, in wettability and comfort of contact lens, we compared HA including lens(+HA) with HA excluding lens(-HA) by clinical evaluation. Methods: During four weeks, the selected 28 university student volunteers who did not have any eye disease wore +HA contact lens on their right eyes, and -HA contact lens on their left eyes, and then compared right eyes to left eyes as control. After prescribing by spherical equivalent calculation, over-refraction by auto-refractometer, and contact lens wearing for two weeks and four weeks, tear evaluation, the anterior of eyes examination, fitting convenience evaluation, surface wetting test, surveys were checked up. Results: Compared with the control group (-HA contact lens), +HA contact lens provided better wetting properties. The amount of released tear in -HA contact lens group became less in four weeks than before, but that in +HA contact lens group showed no significant difference from the initial one. In terms of the redness in eye, there was no significant difference between +HA and -HA contact lens groups. Fitting of +HA contact lens on eye was much easier than the control, -HA contact lens. From the results of survey, comfort, wettability, ease of cleaning, and dryness of eye in +HA contact lens group were generally better than those of -HA group, but redness and contact lens handling showed little difference. Conclusions: The addition of HA in soft contact lens(+HA) may enhance the wettability of lens during lens wearing, resulted in the better comfortable wearing of lens eventually.
Usefulness of Rotation for Toric Soft Lenses Using Objective Refraction
Yu, Dong-Sik ; Moon, Byeong-Yeon ; Son, Jeong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 265~272
Purpose: The clinical usefulness of rotation evaluation using objective refraction in toric soft lenses fitting was investigated. Methods: Toric soft lenses were fitted for 32 subjects (64 eyes; mean age of 24.69
1.65 years) with astigmatism and both eyes of each subject were fitted with toric soft lenses. Objective refraction-based lenses rotation was evaluated from refraction and over-refraction data by indirect calculating technique. These calculated data were compared with the measured data from slit lamp with direct measuring technique. Results: Orientation of toric soft lenses around zero position (within
vertical line) was investigated. The orientations to the direction of nose of measured and calculated values were 69.78% and 63.64%, respectively, which showed similar values between two techniques. Agreement frequency between measured and calculated values in the magnitude of lenses rotation 54.69% and 82.82% for 10
of vertical line, respectively. The 95% limits of agreement between calculation and measurement were from -10.08
, and mean difference was 1.29
. The result showed there was no significant difference (p = 0.1984) and high correlation (r = 0.56, p = 0.0004) between two techniques. But the 95% limits of agreement was widen in
of vertical line. The magnitude of lens rotation between two methods was 9.66
for normal, loose and tight fitted conditions. Conclusions: From the results with smaller difference between two techniques, it was found that higher availability of subjective over-refraction data can be used as a supplementary tool for subjective refraction. An application using objective refraction with direct measuring could be provide high success in prescription on toric soft lenses.
The Analysis of Corneal Patterns in Korean 20s by Corneal Topography and Corneal Radii by Astigmatic Degree
Kim, So Ra ; Gil, Ji-Yeon ; Park, Chang Won ; Kim, Ji Hye ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 273~281
Purpose: In order to provide the fundamental information for the design development of RGP lenses and its clinical prescription, the corneal types of Korean twenties were analyzed according to corneal shapes, astigmatic degree, and the certain distance from the corneal apex. Methods: Corneal types of total 252 eyes in 20s were firstly classified, then their corneal radii from the certain distance from the corneal apex were measured by corneal topography and further analyzed based on the astigmatic degree. Results: Korean 20s' corneal types were classified as 14.3%(36 eyes) of round, 31.3%(79 eyes) of oval, 28.6%(72 eyes) of symmetric bow tie, 17.5%(44 eyes) of asymmetric bow tie, 8.3%(21 eyes) of irregular shapes. The round and oval typed corneas had mild astigmatic degree whereas the higher astigmatic degree in symmetric and asymmetric bow tie typed corneas were shown. The relative corneal radii of round and oval typed corneas at each distance from corneal apex were shown to consistently increase regardless of astigmatic degrees when they measured at certain distances from the corneal apex. However, the relative corneal radii of symmetric and asymmetric bow tie typed corneas within 1.0-1.5mm from the corneal apex were decreased, which showed steeper slope than it within 1.0 mm and somewhat different based on astigmatic degrees. Bigger change of corneal radii outer 3.5 mm from the corneal apex in symmetric bow tie typed corneas with astigmatism of 1.50-2.00 D and 2.25-2.75 D appeared. Conclusions: The consideration of radial change from the central cornea to peripheral cornea is necessary for manufacturing RGP lens and its prescription since they showed different change in corneal radii by corneal patterns and astigmatic degrees.
Empirical Fitting Curve for Luminous Transmittance in Tinted Lenses Using Superposition of Exponential Decay Curves
Choi, Eun Jung ; Lee, Sin Ui ; Lee, Eun Jin ; Yoon, Moon Joo ; Jeong, Ji-Hyeon ; Kim, Chang-Jin ; Yang, Gye Tak ; Jeong, Ju-Hyun ; Kim, Hyun Jung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 283~291
Purpose: To find an empirical fitting curve to represent the relationship between the luminous transmittance and tinted time in tinted lenses using exponential decay curves. Methods: Total ninety tinted lenses were prepared with CR-39 lenses and six different colored dyes. Single, double and triple exponential decay curves were used as trial curves in order to find the empirical fitting curve. Result: The results showed that the best empirical fitting curve was triple exponential decay curves. Conclusions: We propose triple exponential decay curves as proper empirical fitting curves to represent the tinted-time dependence of the luminous transmittance in tinted lenses.
The Correlation of Refractive Error and Ocular Dimensions in Older Age
Lim, Byung Kwan ; Jeon, Soon-Woo ; Jeong, Youn Hong ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 293~297
Purpose: This study was to know the correlation among refractive error and the dimensions of ocular components on older adults. Methods: The subjects were 95 older age who had no eye diseases. The refractive error, corneal radius, corneal diopter, axial length, anterior chamber depth and lens thickness were measured and analysed. Results: The axial length(AL)/corneal radius(CR) ratio was positively correlated with the corneal diopter, axial length, the anterior chamber depth. Then it was negatively correlated with corneal radius. It was shown that the highest correlation was between the corneal diopter and axial length (r = -0.545, p = 0.000). The spherical equivalent of the refractive error was negatively correlated with the AL/CR ratio. Conclusions: It was shown that the AL/CR ratio was a very important indicator for diagnosing the refractive error of the old age.
In Watching 3D Stereoscopic Display Using the Binocular Disparity, the Effect of Pupillary Distance of Adults and Children on the Perception of 3D Image
Kang, Seok Hyon ; Hong, HyungKi ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 299~305
Purpose: In watching 3D stereoscopic display using the binocular disparity, effect of difference of the pupillary distance between the adults and children on the perception of depth were investigated. Methods: The average PD of children was determined from the PD measurements of children of the elementary school of 2nd and 3rd grade in Seoul. The location of crossing visual axes were derived from the relation of the binocular disparity and the PD for the adults and children. Results: The average PD of the children was measured to be 57.3 mm which was smaller than the average PD of the adults that was known to be about 65 mm. As the binocular disparity increases to the positive direction, the crossing location steeply moves farther behind the screen. On the other hand, when the binocular disparity increases to the negative direction, the crossing location gradually moves toward the viewer. For the same amount of the binocular disparity, the crossing locations were derived to be larger for the children than the adults due to the difference of the PD. Therefore, children will perceive larger depth than the adults. Conclusions: Small PD of the viewer causes the larger amount of the depth perception. In producing the stereoscopic images, the average PD of children as well as adults need to be considered.
Distribution of Color Vision Deficiencies by Age in Some Area of Kyeonggi-Do
Lee, Eun-Hee ; Cho, Sung-Il ; Paek, Domyung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 307~312
Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of congenital and age-related color vision deficiencies over a wide range of ages among residents in two urban communities of Kyeonggi-Do. Methods: A total of 935 subjects, consisting of 452 males and 483 females, participated in this study. Lanthony D-15 desaturated panels test were used to assess color vision. Results: Prevalence of color vision deficiency was 4.81% for total, 6.64% for males and 3.11% for females. Congenital color vision deficiency was 3.54% for males and 0.41% for females. Tritan deficiency, which was the post-natal age-related, was 2.99% (3.32% for males, and 2.69% for females). Conclusions: The result imply that color vision deficiencies is influenced by age. As an age-related color vision deficiencies, Tritan is most frequently found in the age group over 50.
A Study of Research on Uncorrected Refractive Error in Elementary School Children in Mokpo
Kim, In Suk ; Jang, Jung Un ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 313~317
Purpose: This study was to assess prevalence of refractive errors and uncorrected refractive errors in elementary school children in Mokpo and uncorrected refractive errors were to be used as the basic data. Methods: Vision tests were conducted on 400 subjects of 1st~6th grades at 3 elementary schools in Mokpo city, and subjective, objective refraction test were also performed to survey uncorrected refractive errors. Results: The prevalence of myopia was 256, 64% of total subjects, Hyperopia was 21, 5.3%, astigmatism was 19, 4.8%. The prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors were increased as higher grade and more oculus dexter higher than oculus sinister. Conclusions: Vision impairment which need an accurate vision correction for elementary school students requires the regular examination and actively correction in order to protect the elementary school students for basic welfare.
The Relationships Between Low Vision and Socioeconomic Status in Korean Adults
Park, Jee-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 319~325
Purpose: The relativity of factors between low vision and socioeconomic status were investigated. This study represented the preliminary data for establishment of public eye health policy. Further, this report would encourage people to change the social attitudes about the eye health equity of the nation. Methods: The number of people (2,514 people) who have been tested the forced visual activity were examined as it was referred the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNE) of 2009-year data. The prevalence rate of low vision of subjects which are related with house income, education level and occupations were conducted with ttest and chi square test. Besides, the Binominal Logistic Regression was conducted to measure the odds ratio of the subjects. Results: In outline, the prevalence rate of low vision was high with low house income, low education level and low function. The odds ratio represented that 2.77(95% CI, 1.72-4.47) at low house income group and 4.02(95% CI, 1.75-9.23) at the case of below primary school education level. Moreover, the results of unemployed group showed 3.65(1.14-11.68) from the odds ratio measurement. Conclusions: The eye health policy need be instituted which is broad and meticulous support to ease the eye health equity of low eye sight patients. For instance, the education about eye health, examination business of eye disease, and education of assistant units which are useful for low eye sight would suggest practical solution.
A Study on the Accommodative Astigmatism of Near Vision
Lee, Hark-Jun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 327~331
Purpose: The purpose of this study was an accurate grasp of the astigmatic change due to eyes accommodation on near vision and suggested problems occurring accommodative astigmatism using near glasses. Methods: 154 subjects(308eyes) from 20 to 40 years selected for this study who had many opportunity of near vision. First, far vision corrective refraction measured using the phoropter, and then both eyes opened simultaneously for maintaining the function of binocular put away dot chart 40 cm. One eye was fogging and the other eye measured near vision astigmatism axis and degrees astigmatism using cross cylinder, and then compared with far astigmatism. Results: Increased degree of astigmatism persons on near vision more than decreased or did not changed degree of astigmatism persons, which could affect visual acuity more than 0.75 diopters in 30 eyes with an increase of 9.7% of total subjects. Direct astigmatism and oblique astigmatism were increased on near vision. Astigmatic axes were rotated base in direction on both eyes and 66.9% of subjects were more than
rotation. Due to the rotation axis of astigmatism, residual astigmatism is expected to occur and expect to adversely affect the eyes. Conclusions: Long-term using the glasses without correction of increased astigmatic and rotated axis on near vision should occur new residual astigmatism and increase the asthenopia also. Considered to be taken astigmatic change on near vision during near refraction examination.
Eye Dominance and Reading Speed
Chen, Ai-Hong ; Mustapha, Nurfazliha ; Rahman, Muhamad Irwan ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 333~338
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate eye dominance and reading performance based on eye movements and reading speed. Methods: The eye dominance of 30 subjects was determined using the sighting test (hole formed by hands). The subjects were asked to read the numerical reading material aloud in English from left to right and from right to left at random. The number of saccades, regressions, and inter-fixations per minute was calculated using Visual-Oculography (VOG) and the reading speed was recorded as number of characters per minute using stopwatch. Results: No significant differences in reading speed among right and left eye dominant subjects as they read from left to right and right to left directions (p>0.05). However, left eye dominant subjects were found to read significantly faster compared to right eye dominant subjects in both directions of reading (p<0.05). In term of eye movement patterns, no significant differences in saccades, regressions, and inter-fixations per minute were found between subjects with right eye dominance and left eye dominance for both reading directions (p>0.05). Conclusions: Reading performance in term of eye movement and speed was not affected by eye dominance, but subjects with left eye dominance read faster than subjects with right eye dominance.
The Change of the Phoria in Accordance with the Color and Concentration of the Color Lens
Choi, Hyun-Soo ; Park, Sung-Jong ; Lee, Seok-Ju ; Jin, Moon-Seok ; Jun, Jin ; Ryu, Geun-Chang ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 339~343
Purpose: In this study, we investigated changes of phoria based on varying the color and concentration of the color in lenses. Methods: We measured distance phoria for 39 students who aged 20 to 40 with different concentrated lenes - red, gray, brown and green lenses in concentration 20%, 50% and 80%, respectively. Results: Subjects were divided into three groups which were orthophoria, esophoria and exophoria. Orthophoria in all the color and concentration, there were a few of the esophoria. Esophoria of average 2.07
,B.O showed that a slight increase in all colors and concentration, especially in brown lenses showed the greatest increase. Exophoria of average 3.82
,B.I showed that a slight decrease in all colors and concentration, especially in green lenses showed to 2.95
,B.I to the greatest decrease. Different concentration in same color had no specific tendency regarding phoria. Conclusions: The phoria must be considered when selecting color of the lens because of phoria is changeable by color of the lens. It is expected to study the criteria that minimize the asthenopia.
The Change in Binocular Function and Sensory Anomaly After vision Training on Intermittent Exotropia and Recurrent Intermittent Exotropia Patients After Surgical Correction
Lee, Chang-Seon ; Kim, Jong-Ki ; Shin, Jeong-Hoon ; Kim, Dae-Nyoun ; Lee, Hyun Mee ; Kim, Ki-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 345~350
Purpose: This was a study of the effects of the vision training on binocular function and sensory anomaly for intermittent exotropia and recurrent intermittent exotropia patients. Mehtods: The change was examined weekly at the clinic during the 8 week vision training. The sample group of 17 patients, intermittent exotropia and recurrent intermittent exotropia patients without amblyopia, were chosen from the patients with the short and the long-distance deviation angle p=0.558 and p=0.338, and also greater than 10
, respectively. Results: The longdistance deviation angle was reduced by 67.9(
32.7)%, and the short-distance deviation angle by 75.4(
32.9)% after the vision training. There is an improvement on the binocular function and sensory anomaly according to the fusion reverse and Worth 4 dot tests. Conclusions: This study shows that the vision training is effective for phoria, function and sensory anomalyon of the intermittent extropia and recurrent intermittent exotropia patients.
Ocular Symptoms on VDT Syndrome and Symptoms-Related Factors
Woo, Hyunkyung ; Moon, Byeong-Yeon ; Cho, Hyun Gug ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 16, issue 3, 2011, Pages 351~356
Purpose: The most common symptoms of eyes on VDT syndrome and symptoms-related the factors were investigated. Methods: Self-questionnaire for VDT syndrome was done with 250 teachers from 1st to 15th October, 2010, and the data from 231 teachers (68 male, 163 female) was statistically analyzed to find the factors related to ocular symptoms. Results: The most common ocular symptom on VDT syndrome was 'feeling of eyes fatigue', and the factors which have correlation significantly to ocular symptoms were regular exercise, ages, VDT work time, and regular resting. Conclusions: Taking a rest and regular exercise contribute to relieve the ocular symptoms related to VDT syndrome.