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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Acetate/Poly Ethylene Glycol Blend Having High Melt Processibility
Lee, Hae Sung ; Lee, Sung Jun ; Jung, Sang Won ; Kim, Hyun-Chul ; Kim, Eunjoo ; Go, Young Jun ; Lee, Se Guen ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~10
Purpose: Cellulose acetate (CA) was blended with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) having different molecular weight at various mixing conditions to enhance melt-processibility of CA, which might prevent the harmful effect resulted from the introduction of phthalic plasticizer. Methods: To establish optimal plasticizing conditions, CA/PEG blends were examined under various plasticizing conditions: PEG concentration, molecular weight of PEG, and plasticzing temperature. Mechanical properties of the CA/PEG blends, as well as migration and exudation of the PEG, were performed in order to evaluate the efficiency of plasticization. Results: Compared to industrial CA resin plasticized by diethyl phthalate, CA/PEG blends exhibited similar thermal plasticization. It was established that the optimum condition was to blend 30~40 phr PEG with molecular weight 400 at
. CA/PEG blend showed superior glassness, PEG stability, and mechanical properties. Conclusions: CA/PEG blends would be a eco-friendly glasses frame to substitute traditional CA glasses frame prepared phthalate plasticizers.
A Study on the Effective Display Method of Optician's Shop
Han, Sun-Hee ; Kim, Bong-Hwan ; Han, Myung-Hee ; Kim, Chung-Mi ; Lee, Seung-Hyun ; Jin, Kang-Hun ; Lee, Hae-Jin ; Jeong, Hyo-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 11~18
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to research the display of optician's shop through questionnaire to suggest the direction for more effective display method. Methods: The study visited 50 optician's shops located in main area of Ulsan (university street, downtown and residential street), performed questionnaire and researched optician's display preference. Results: The displays preferred by opticians were as follows. They displayed contact lens in entrance of shop, displayed sunglasses in the wall rather than displayed them in the center of shop and displayed medium or low price products in the center so that consumers could access them conveniently. In addition, they prepared resting place for customer's convenience by locating it in entrance or inside of shop. Conclusions: It seems that effective display of optician's shop can attract consumer's mind and improve purchase, resulting in significant change of optician's shop sales. Therefore, it is necessary to perform the study to use systematic, discriminated display strategy so that shop image can be controlled consistently and continuously.
Effects of the Progression Control of Myopia on Myopia Control Lenses and Single Vision Lenses
Jung, Ji-Won ; Lee, Ki-Seok ; Yoo, Wang-Keun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 19~26
Purpose: This paper was to study the clinical effects of moderating myopia by comparing the myopia control lens, which was being recently recognized as a method of inhibiting the progression of myopia, with the wearers of single vision lens. Methods: Using 56 subjects between the ages of 8-15 years (112 eyes) with myopia in the areas of City of Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk Province as study subjects, refractive error, axial length, near point of convergence and accommodative near point were measured and compared a total of 3 times at the baseline, after 1-month and after 6-months. Results: For refractive error, suppression and mitigation were seen in the progression of spherical equivalent when MC lens was worn, as compared to using SV lens, and, when axial length MC lens was worn, the axial progression was significantly suppressed and delayed (p < 0.05). The near point of convergence became shorter with the use of MC lens, and the amplitude of convergence was improved when MC lens was worn. Accommodative near point became shorter with the use of MC lens, and focus ability was significantly improved (p <0.05). Conclusions: It was shown that MC lens, compared to SV lens, could alleviate myopia progression in school-age children and youth. It is considered that MC lens can be used as a useful therapy for the inhibition of myopia progression in the increasing number of myopic children and adolescents.
A Comparison of the Movements of Circle Contact Lens and Soft Contact Lens with Identical Material on Cornea
Kim, So Ra ; Park, Sang Hee ; Joo, Seon-Ok ; Lee, Hye Rim ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 27~35
Purpose: The present study was conducted to compare any difference caused by pigmentation in the centrations and movement patterns on the cornea between circle and soft contact lens with identical material and parameters during lens wearing. Methods: Soft and circle contact lenses with identical material and parameters were applied to twenty eyes with normal tear volume for 3 hrs a day during a total of 5 days and then their lens centrations, the moving distances and rotations by repeat blinking were compared. Results: The lens centration beyond the fitting criteria was shown in initial wears of both soft contact lens and circle contact lens. However, the centration of soft contact lens was changed to the pupil center for being suitable to the fitting criteria with longer wearing time. On the other hand, the decentration of circle contact lens in the horizontal direction was still presented even with longer wearing time. The moving distances of soft contact lens and circle contact lens decreased with the expand of lens wearing but were not significantly different between total wearing period and daily wearing time. The rotation of circle contact lens by repeat blinking was significantly different from that of soft contact lens even when the wearing period was extended. Conclusions: We revealed that the lens centration and movement of circle contact lens on cornea were different from those of regular soft contact lens resulting in bigger difference with the expand of wearing period in the study.
The Comparison of Fluorescein Patterns between Spherical RGP Lens and Aspherical RGP Lens by Corneal Type and Astigmatic Degree
Park, Eun Hye ; Kim, So Ra ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 37~45
Purpose: The change of alignment between RGP lens and cornea according to the lens design was investigated by comparing the areas of fluorescein pattern in central and peripheral regions analyzed by astigmatic degree and corneal type when spherical and aspherical RGP lenses fitted in alignment. Methods: The fluorescein patterns of 90 eyes (19-30 years,
) having with-the-rule astigmatism were analyzed after spherical and aspherical RGP lenses fitted in alignment. Then, their fluorescent areas in central and peripheral regions were calculated and compared for the quantitative evaluation. Results: The case showing concordant base curve between spherical and aspherical RGP lenses in alignment fitting was 72% however, the possibility to have same base curves between spherical and aspherical RGP lenses in alignment fitting was to be less in the case of symmetric bowtietyped cornea and high astigmatism. The fluorescent area in peripheral region of aspherical RGP lens in alignment fitting was smaller than it of spherical RGP lens. Peripheral fluorescent areas in both RGP lenses decreased according to the increase of astigmatic degree and peripheral area in symmetric bowtie-typed corea was smaller than round-typed cornea's peripheral area. In the case of same astigmatic degree, peripheral fluorescent area of aspherical RGP lens was smaller in both corneal types. Conclusions: The results above suggest the changing degree in the alignment between RGP lens and cornea can be varied according to lens design, corneal astigmatism and corneal type. Thus, the results obtained from the quantitative analysis of the alignment between lens design and cornea may be used as the basic information about the establishment of guidelines for RGP lens fitting, the development of proper lens design, and different tear volume in partial regions.
Visual fatigue in Watching 3 Dimension Television
Yoon, Jeong Ho ; Lee, Ikhan ; Kim, Taehyun ; Kim, Jae-Do ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 47~52
Purpose: This study was to evaluate visual fatigue with passing of watching 3D TV in short term and with experience of watching 3DTV in long term. Methods: 98 adult subjects aged
years (22 to 51 years; 12 females and 86 males) agreed to participate in this study. Subjects were asked to watch 52 inch LED 2D and 3D television (Shutter glasses method) at 2.7 meters for 65minutes with wearing their habitual glasses or contact lenses. For evaluating visual fatigue, subjects were verbally responded to 11 questions : eye straining, eye paining, dry eye, sore eye, watery eye, photophobia, blur vision, diplopia, eye fatigue, headache, and dizziness with scale 0 to 3 at each measurement while watching 3D and 2D TV. Results: The mean scores of visual fatigue were
for after 5 minutes, 25 minutes, 45 minutes, and 65 minutes respectively for 3D TV, and
after 25, 45, and 65 minutes respectively for 2D TV. Visual fatigue for watching 3D TV was significantly higher than for watching 2D TV at all measurements sessions (paired t-test, p < 0.001). The visual fatigue significantly increased during watching 3D TV for 65 minutes (p < 0.001, RM-ANOVA). The visual fatigue during watching 3D TV was significantly increased until 25 minutes (paired t-test, p < 0.001), stable after that. For correlation between visual fatigue and 3D watching experience, the more 3D watching experiences were significantly the less visual fatigues in photophobia, blur vision, diplopic and dizzy symptoms (ANOVA, all F(1, 96) = 4.500, all p < 0.05), but there was not significantly different in the other symptoms (ANOVA, F (1, 96) = 2.123, p = 0.148). Conclusions: Visual fatigue for watching 3D TV was higher than for watching 2D TV, increase by 25 minutes. It was different by symptoms for correlation between visual fatigue and 3D watching experience.
Availability of Astigmatism Expectation by Jin's and Beam Project Chart
Kim, Sang-Moon ; Kang, Hye-Sook ; Shim, Hyun-Seog ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 53~58
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to predict the amount of astigmatism through logMAR visual acuity by Jin's chart at best vision spherical power and to compare availability of astigmatism expectation by Jin's and beam project chart. Methods: LogMAR and decimal visual acuity were measured for 150 college students and visual acuity and compared the amount of astigmatism under full correction. Results: Jin's chart was showed marked differences at least more than 0.25 D intervals per line than beam project chart. Correlation with the amount of astigmatism was higher the logMAR visual acuity r = 0.8578 than decimal visual acuity r = -0.7199. Conclusions: LogMAR visual acuity at best vision spherical power was able to predict to amount of astigmatism and Jin's chart was easier than beam project chart to predict difference of each lines.
The Accommodative Lag and Refractive Error in Early Adults
Baarg, Saang-Bai ; Jeong, Youn Hong ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 59~65
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and correlation of accommodative lag with refractive error. Method: We had tested the clinical refraction and the accommodative lag in clinically normal 49 young adults (total 98 eyes) aged 18 to 25 years without abnormal binocular function. Monocular and binocular accommodative lag were tested with 0.50 D cross-cylinder lens and near vision test chart which had cross-hairs after full correction of LogMAR visual acuity over 0.05. Results: There was no statistical differences in monocular accommodative lag between right (
D) and left eye (
)(p=0.858). The accommodative lag of male was higher than female and the range of the value was broader than female in binocular accommodative lag (p=0.015). The wider the inter-pupillary distance was, the higher the accommodative lag was (p=0.003). However, there were no differences with age (p=0.800) and dominant eye (p=0.402). The ranges of accommodative lag of low, middle, and high myopia were 0.75 ~ -0.25 D, 1.25 ~ -0.50 D, and 1.50 ~ -0.75 D, respectively, and the regression was 'y = -0.03953x+0.09205'. Conclusions: These data suggest that clinically normal young adults with high amounts of refractive error have more variable accommodative lag and increased spherical equivalent refraction.
Study on the Correlation between Refractive error and Components of Eye's Optical system in Children and Teenagers in an Optometric Practice
Ha, Na-Ri ; Kim, Hyun Jung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 67~74
Purpose: The purpose of this study to evaluate visual acuity and refractive state and measure and analyze the components of eye's optical system in children and teenagers. Methods: With subjects of 124 (230 eyes) children and teenagers who had no eye diseases, correlation between the correlation between refractive errors and component's of eye's optical system was investigated. The spherical equivalent power of cycloplegic clinical refraction or manifest clinical refraction(SE), corneal power(CP), corneal radius(CR), axial length(AL), anterior chamber depth(ACD) and axial length to corneal radius (AL/CR) ratio were measured and analysed. Results: the SE was negatively correlated with the AL(r = -0.80, p = 0.00), the ACD(r = -0.35, p = 0.00) and the CR(r = -0.11, p=0.00) and positively correlated with the CP(r = +0.11, p=0.00). The AL was positively correlated with the AL/CR ratio (r = +0.84, p = 0.00), the ACD(r = +0.47, p=0.00) and the CR(r = +0.38, p = 0.00) and negatively correlated with the CP(r = -0.38, p=0.00). The CR was negatively correlated with CP(r = -1.00, p = 0.00), the AL/CR ratio(r = -0.19, p = 0.00) and the ACD(r = -0.06, p = 0.39). The CP was positively correlated with the AL/CR ratio(r = +0.19, p = 0.00) and the ACD(r = +0.06, p = 0.39). The ACD was positively correlated with the AL/CR ratio(r = 0.53, p = 0.00). Conclusions: the highest change of refractive errors was shown that the AL/CR ratio was a very important indicator for diagnosing the refractive errors of the children and teenagers.
Comparison between Accommodative Response Change on the Full Vision Correction and Low Vision Correction
Bae, Sung-Hyun ; Kwak, Ho-Weon ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 75~81
Purpose: The study tried to figure out accommodative changes by measuring accommodative response, appearing on the full vision correction and low vision correction, with both eyes open-view auto-refractometer (Nvision-K5001, Shin-nippon, Japan). Methods: It carried out objective and subjective refractions, targeting 79 college students (58 males and 21 females) aged between 20 and 30(
), by measuring accommodative changes with fixation distance at 1.0 m for eyesight of 1.0 after full version correction. The distances of 5.0 m, 1.0 m, 0.50 m, 0.33 m and 0.25 m for eyesight of 0.8, 0.7 and 0.6 after low vision correction arbitrarily added plus lens were applied. Results: the shorter measure fixation distances were, the greater changes accommodative response showed a tendency in the state of both full vision correction and low vision correction(0.7). The state of full vision correction showed a greater change of accommodative response than that of low vision correction(0.7). Both right and left eyes showed low accommodative responses in the state of low vision correction(0.7) than that of full vision correction. As a result of analyzing accommodative response at an eyesight of 0.8, 0.7, and 0.6 after low vision correction, the poorer eyesight was the lower accommodative response. Conclusions: Low vision correction from a near distance is expected to avoid unnecessary accommodative response, make eyes relaxed and prevent accommodative function disorder.
Changes in Optical and Surface Properties of Contaminated Soft Contact Lenses
Kim, Jungeun ; Jung, Boyoung ; Noh, Hyeran ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 83~89
Purpose: This article was to study the optical and surface properties of soft contact lenses (SCL) exposed to eye make-ups. Methods: Rates of the light transmission of etafilcon A (HEMA based hydrogel lens) and lotrafilcon B (silicone based hydrogel lens) exposed to four different cosmetics over time were investigated. After cleansed with multi-purpose solution (MPS), rates of the light transmission and surface change of lens that were exposed to the cosmetics for 7 consecutive days were analyzed. Results: Visible light transmissions of all lenses exposed to cosmetics decreased to 93.35% (HEMA based hydrogel lens) and 90% (silicone based hydrogel lens) compared with those of the fresh SCLs, such as 97.8% and 96.4%, respectively. It was found that cosmetic residues from powder eye shadow and mascara attached to the lenses were not removed completely when cleansed with MPS. Especially with silicone based hydrogel lens, we found a decrease in visible light transmission of the lens and noticeable particles on lens surface imaged by SEM. Conclusions: Depending on types of eye make-ups and contact lens materials, make-ups were not completely eliminated with current cleansing methods and that caused a decrease in optical property and a change in surface property of the lenses.
The Effect of Brown Tinted or UV-A blocking Ophthalmic Lens Against the Photooxidation of A2E, a Lipofuscin in Retina
Park, Sang-Il ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 91~97
Purpose: This purpose of study is to investigate the effect of UV-A-blocking or brown-tinted ophthalmic lens against A2E photooxidation which known as one of the etiologies of AMD(Age-related macular degenaration). Methods: The photooxidation of A2E, synthetic product of two molecules of all-trans-retinal and ethanolamine, was induced by the exposure to blue light (420~470 nm,
) for 3 minutes. The inhibitory effect of UVblocking or brown-tinted ophthalmic lens against A2E photooxidation was evaluated by UV absorbance and HPLC analysis of remained A2E after the exposure to blue light. Results: UV-blocking ophthalmic lens could not inhibit A2E photooxidation induced by blue light irradiation. There was no difference in A2E photooxidation in the presence of brown-tinted ophthalmic lens to block 15% of visible ray, however, those lenses blocking 55% or 86% of visible ray showed the inhibitory effect of A2E photooxidation as 9.98% and 16.55%, respectively. By HPLC analysis, the amount of residual A2E which was not blocked by any lens was
, however, the inhibitory effect against A2E photooxidation was shown in the presence of brown-tinted lens. The remained A2Es were
in brown-tinted lenses of 55% and 86% blocking visible ray, respectively. However, there was no inhibitory effect against A2E photooxidation in the case of UV-blocking lens by HPLC analysis. Conclusions: In this study, brown-tinted ophthalmic lens was confirmed to have the inhibitory effect against the photooxidation of A2E, a causing substance of AMD onset.
A Study of Sterilization Effect of Long-wavelength UVA-LED Irradiation on Bacteria Causing Eye Diseases
Lee, Cheol-Woo ; Jeong, Kyeong-In ; Hwang, Kwang-Ha ; Lee, Seok-Ju ; Yoo, Geun-Chang ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 1, 2012, Pages 99~105
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate inactivation effect of UVA-LED ultraviolet radiation upon Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus which are the major bacteria causing eye diseases. Methods: The small sterilization device was made using UVA-LED of 400 nm. After Pseudomonas aeruginosa was diluted to
and Staphylococcus aureus to
and diluted solutions were put onto each liquid medium. They were irradiated by 400 nm of UVA for different amount of time; 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, 240 min, 360 min and 480 min each. Results: The data from sterilization test was solved to regression line equation and the target log inactivation was obtained. The 3 log inactivation UV irradiation value of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 54,847 UV dose (
) and irradiation time was 135.42 min while the 3 log inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus was 39,066 UV dose (
) and irradiation time was 98.72 min. Conclusions: The inactivation effect of sterilization method using 400 nm of UVA-LED upon Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus has been verified and it is considered as a useful method in inactivating the contact lenses.