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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
Comparison of Purchasing Decision Factors for Eyeglasses Buyer according to Demographic Characteristics
Kim, In-Kyu ; Lee, Ju-Hee ; Park, Sun-Hee ; Ryu, Geun-Chang ; Lee, Seok-Ju ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 107~117
Purpose: We study the eyeglasses consumer's purchasing decision, brand equity, purchase satisfaction and word of mouth. Methods: For two month, from October to December, 437 questionnaires distributed through eyeglasses shops. Sampling was performed using a convenience sampling, participants in the survey-based selflegislation (self-adminstration method) were to answer. Results: It was found that demographic characteristics - gender, age, education, income - acts as parameters representing difference of purchase decision, brand equity and word of mouth. Conclusions: Consumer's demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, income serve as parameters that represents the differences. Purchase satisfaction by age is statistically significant. Word of mouth is also classified according to their income level is statistically significant.
Comparison of Properties of Polymer Based Glass Lenses by Chemical Etching Reaction
Lee, Junghwa ; Noh, Hyeran ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 119~126
Purpose: To study changes in coating and lens materials after chemically etched different polymer based glass lenses in short-term and ambient condition using hydrofluoric acid. Methods: Vinyl ester polymer (Lens A) and thiourethane polymer (Lens B), both dyed in gray 70%, were etched in hydrofluoric acid solution for 5, 10, or 15 min. The mechanical properties, degrees of damages in hard coating, anti-reflection coating, and other coatings, rates of refractive index and light transmission of both polymer types were evaluated. Results: Rates of refractive index of both lens types were not changed significantly after chemical etching. However, anti-reflection coatings and hard coatings were removed and lens surfaces were damaged. As a results, UV light transmission of lenses increased and mechanical properties decreased. Chemical etching notably changed various properties of thiourethane polymer materials. Conclusions: Depending on types of polymer materials, chemical reactions by hydrofluoric acid were dissimilar. Thus, various properties of les materials were altered differently.
The Study about Measuring Method in Radius of Eyeglasses Lens Curvature by using Keratometer
Cha, Jung Won ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 127~133
Perpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the measuring method in radius of eyeglasses lens curvature by using keratometer in noncontact method. Methods: A trial lens for vision test in diopter range from -9.00 D to -11.50 D were attached in front part of keratometer, after that we set eyeglasses lens at the place where eyeglasses lens is apart about 25 cm from front position of keratometer. We measured the radius of curvature from observation of clear mire image while the position of eyeglasses lens is changed in a small quantity. After that, we made some formulas for compensation of radius of curvature by using spherometer. Results: The radius of curvature was successfully measured by keratometer with trial lens in front part of it. The measured radius of curvature was changed to compensation value using spherometer data, and the 5 kind of linear equation to make compensation value was made. Any kind of lenses measured by using keratometer that trial lens was attached in front part of it, after that it was confirmed that the result of calculation from line equation is exact in error ratio below 3.5%. Conclusions: It was confirmed that radius of eyeglasses lens curvature can be measured by using keratometer by noncontact method, and the accuracy is higher than "lens measure".
Polymerization of HEMA by Electron beam Irradiation and Fabrication of Soft contact lens
Hwang, Kwang-Ha ; Shin, Joong-Hyeok ; Sung, Yu-Jin ; Jeong, Keun-Seung ; Jun, Jin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 135~141
Purpose: Polymerization of HEMA(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) which can be used in the soft contact lens has been performed by using electron beam(EB) irradiation, and examined the best condition for the polymerization. Comparing the physical properties of the contact lenses to the one fabricated by thermal polymerization method, we check the use possibility of the EB irradiation to the fabrication of the soft contact lens. Methods: We investigated the degree of polymerization of the HEMA according to the composition of the monomer, the additive ratio and the dose of electron beam (0~120 kGy). The degree of polymerization was measured depending on the EB dose to research the best synthetic condition under the EB irradiation. The physical properties of the contact lens such as water content(%), oxygen transmissibility(Dk/t) and optical transmittance were analysed by using the FT-IR results with comparing the two different polymerization method (thermal and electron beam polymerization) with same additive ratio. Results: When the dose of electron beam was above 100 kGy, the degree of polymerization of HEMA was above 99% with regardless using cross-linker and initiator. The water content of the lens fabricated by EB method showed 10% higher than the one by the thermal method which was 40%. The lens fabricated by EB method also showed higher oxygen transmissibility(Dk/t) as same with the water content, and showed twice higher value in the lens fabricated by pure HEMA. According to the FT-IR results, hydrophilic property of the lens fabricated by EB method was increased due to increasing the intermolecular hydrogen bonding. It showed above 90% optical transmittance in the visible range of wavelength on the contact lenses fabricated by the both of two different polymerization method. Conclusions: The polymerization of HEMA without cross-linker and initiator was successful above 100 kGy of EB irradiation. Moreover the lens fabricated from the polymer synthesized by pure HEMA with 100 kGy of EB showed the highest water content and oxygen transmissibility. Therefore EB irradiation is another possible method to synthesize the polymer which can be used for the soft contact lens.
A Relationship between Corneal Type, Corneal Astigmatism and Lens Fitting States and the Stable Centration of Spherical RGP Lens
Lim, Shin Gyu ; Lee, Min Ha ; Choi, Sun Mi ; Park, Sang Hee ; Kim, So Ra ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 143~151
Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate whether there is any difference in the centration of spherical RGP lens on cornea according to corneal types, corneal astigmatism and lens fitting states. Methods: Spherical RGP lens was fitted on 29 eyes of round-typed cornea and 45 eyes of symmetric bowtie-typed cornea with 0.00~2.75 D of corneal astigmatism in alignment, steep or flat. Their lens centrations on cornea were analyzed by taking photographs. Results: The centration of spherical RGP lens in the vertical direction was decentrated to downward direction in all cases, and the degree of decentration was not consistent. The lens centration in horizontal direction was significantly more-decentrated to the temporal meridian as base curve of lens was increased, and the degree of decentration was different according to the corneal type, corneal astigmatism and fitting states. With the same degree of astigmatism, the lens decentration to the temporal meridian was bigger in round-typed cornea than that in symmetirc bowtie-typed cornea. Conclusions: The centration of spherical RGP lens varies depending on lens fitting states, corneal astigmatism, and corneal types. Thus, the consideration of these factors may improve the success rate in RGP lens prescription.
CA/C Ratio of Adults in Their Early Twenties with Normal Binocular Vision
Lee, Mu-Hyuk ; Yu, Dong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 153~158
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratio and to investigate relationships among age, accommodative amplitude and PD (interpupillary distance) of adults in their early twenties with normal binocular vision. Methods: 44 subjects (mean age,
years) with healthy eyes were examined. The CA/C ratios were measured by using the difference of Gaussian (DOG) target with retinoscopy. Results: The mean CA/C ratio was
. A moderate negative correction was present between CA/C ratio and age (r = -0.50, p = 0.0005), and a highly positive correction was found between CA/C ratio and accommodative amplitude (r = 0.79, p<0.0001). There was no relation between PD and CA/C ratio. Conclusions: The CA/C ratio presented was mean value for adults in their early twenties with healthy eye between 19 and 25 years of age. There was a high correlation between accommodative amplitude and CA/C ratio. Therefore, the CA/C ratio will be useful basic information for comparison in age, gender and binocular anomalies with similar data from other countries.
Effect of Vision Training using Fresnel Prism Lens on Fusional Vergence and Accommodation
Kim, Yong-Gil ; Kim, Min-Kyung ; Jeong, Ju-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 159~164
Purpose: Of the various methods of vision training, the essay aims to explore the effective ways of using the Fresnel prism lens in order to expand the positive fusional vergence for the patient having specific condition of convergence insufficiency or basic exophoria. Methods: 15 students of city of Daejeon university without an eye disease (average age
) were selected and underwent the subjective refraction test and binocular vision test, and recording their test results before vision training and replacing an identical frame with a lens of same quality after the full calibration, the lens was then adhered with the Fresnel prism lens and continued to train for thirty minutes daily during two weeks. Afterwards, the binocular vision test was reattempted. The observation of the change in the results of the binocular vision test in use of the fresnel prism lens in the vision training test was researched. Results: After training, the positive fusional vergence had increased to a number of
, to 7.80
, at near, the fused cross cylinder test increased to an average of
D, 0.40 D after training, showing a normal result. The value of negative relative accommodation after training had an average of
D, showing that 0.42 D had increased. The value of near point of convergence after training had an average of
cm, showing that 2.80 cm had decreased. To patients who had convergence insufficiency or basic exophoria, the value of the near vision test that used the Fresnel prism lens which was able to expand BO positive fusional vergence had increased without phoria. Conclusions: The changes were tested and the effectiveness of the Fresnel prism lens, due to the nature of the lens itself, helped with both cosmetic effects and cost. It also allows good optical correction effects, in addition to these clinical effects indicated before. Therefore, it may be determined that the Fresnel prism lens binocular vision therapy for patients is more popular and highly recommended.
Evaluation of Visual Responses in Viewing a 3D Image
Lee, Mu-Hyuk ; Son, Jeong-Sik ; Kim, Jaedo ; Yu, Dong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 165~170
Purpose: The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate changes of visual responses in viewing a 2D and 3D (three-dimensional) image. Methods: The subjects were 44 college students aged 19 to 25 years with normal binocular vision. The visual responses measured were CA/C (convergence accommodation/convergence) ratio, convergence-induced PD(interpupillary distance), accommodative responses, perceived distance in viewing a 3D image. Results: Convergence and accommodative responses in viewing the 3D image were significantly larger (p<0.05) than in 2D. A moderate positive correction was found between CA/C ratio and accommodative response (r = 0.477, p = 0.001). It was indicated that smaller PD had larger depth perception. Convergence in viewing the 3D image was significantly larger (p<0.05) than that at cognitive distance. Conclusions: The visual fatigue may be more intense in larger CA/C ratio and smaller PD when viewing 3D images.
Changes in Near Lateral Phoria and Near Point of Convergence After Viewing Smartphones
Park, Kyung-Joo ; Lee, Wook-Jin ; Lee, Na-Geum ; Lee, Jeong-Young ; Son, Jeong-Sik ; Yu, Dong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 171~176
Purpose: This study was to compare changes in near lateral phoria and near point of convergence after viewing smartphones and monitors during short periods. Methods: 50 subjects with healthy eyes from 20s to 30s (mean age,
years) were examined. Viewing time was set at 5 min to 20 min, and recovery time was 10 min. Near lateral phoria and near point of convergence (NPC) were examined before and after watching smartphones and monitors, and subjectively symptoms for visual fatigue were surveyed using a questionnaire before and after viewing image. Results: The tendency of phoria in viewing smartpones found more exophoric results than in viewing monitors, and both exophoric shifts were recovered after 10 min. The receded NPC in the smartphones was more remote than in the monitors. The smartpones induced more visual fatigue than the monitors. Conclusions: Sustained smartphone works induced changes in phoria and NPC, and this type of stress could cause visual fatigue. Therefore, an appropriate rest breaks can be helpful in relieving visual fatigue.
The Change of Accommodative Function by the Direction of Eye Movements During Computer Game
Kwon, Ki-Il ; Woo, Ji Yeon ; Park, Mijung ; Kim, So Ra ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 177~184
Purpose: In this study, the effect of the eye movement direction on visual function related to accommodation was investigated when playing computer games for a certain period of time. Methods: Total 60 subjects in 20s who had the visual acuity of 1.0 or higher without any ocular disease and accommodative dysfunction were asked to play computer games separately in horizontal and vertical directions for 40 and 90 minutes and then measured their accommodative amplitude, accommodative facility, accommodative lag and relative accommodations. Thevisual function when not doing the computer game was regarded as a control value, and further compared and analyzed. Results: The accommodative amplitude, accommodative facility, accommodative lag and relative accommodations showed the tendency of decrease after the computer game for 40 minutes, and more reduced values of the visual functions were shown when the computer game extended up to 90 minutes except positive relative accommodation. Positive relative accommodation had a tendency to increase slightly after the computer game for 90 minutes. Meanwhile, the change of the visual functions was primarily influenced by the eye movement in horizontal direction rather than by the eye movement in vertical direction during computer game when analyzed by the direction of eye movement. Conclusions: Over all accommodative functions tended to decrease with the extended VDT working time by computer game, and the frequent eye movement in horizontal direction during VDT tasks could be the main cause of eyestrain since the eye movement in horizontal direction rather than vertical direction significantly affected the change of accommodative function.
Change of Phoria and Subjective Symptoms after Watching 2D and 3D Image
Kim, Dong-Su ; Lee, Wook-Jin ; Kim, Jae-Do ; Yu, Dong-Sik ; Jeong, Eui Tae ; Son, Jeong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 185~194
Purpose: The changes of phoria and subjective asthenopia before and after viewing were compared based on 2D image and two ways of 3D images, and presented for references of 3D image watching and production. Methods: Change in phoria was measured before and after watching 2D image, 3D-FPR and 3D-SG images for 30 minutes with a target of 41 university students at 20-30 years old (male 26, female 15). Paired t-test and Pearson correlation between changed phoria and subjective symptoms which were measured using questionnaires were evaluated by before and after watching each images. Results: Right after watching 2D image, exophoria was increased by 0.5
, in distance and near, but it was not a significant level. Right after watching 3D image, exophoria was increased by 1.0~1.5
, and 1.5~2.0
, in distance and near, respectively when compared with before watching. In the significant level, exophoria tended to increase. Changes in near was increased more by 0.5
, compared with those in distance. Changes based on way of 3D-FPR and 3D-SG image were less than 0.5
, and there was almost no difference. In terms of visual subjective symptoms, eye strain was increased in 3D image compared with that in 2D image. In addition, there was no difference depending on way of image. In terms of Pearson correlation between phoria change and eye strain, as exophoria was increased, eye strain was increased. Conclusions: Watching 3D image increased eye strain compared with watching 2D image, and accordingly exophoria tended to increase.
Comparative Study of Korean Letters Legibility of Progressive Lens Wearers and Single Focus Lens Wearers under the VDT Circumstance
Ku, Hye Yeon ; Kim, Dal-Young ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 195~202
Purpose: We intended to study effects of wearing the progressive lenses on legibility of Korean letters under the VDT circumstance. Methods: Fifty subjects wearing the progressive lenses and the single focus lenses were asked to find designated characters on web-pages under the VDT circumstance. We measured times for subjects to read the web-pages and numbers of missed characters, considering them as standards of legibility, and compare results of the progressive lenses with those of the single focus lenses by variables of the size and legibility of letters and the width of web-pages. Results: In case of the progressive lenses, all the times to read the web-pages and some of the numbers of missed characters increased with statistical significance. Smaller the character size, lower the legibility of character itself, and wider the width of web-page, the legibility tended to be seriously lowered by the progressive lenses. Conclusions: It is presumed that the intermediate part of progressive lenses with narrow visual field lowers the legibility of Korean letters under the VDT circumstance.
De-Noising of Electroretinogram Signal Using Wavelet Transforms
Seo, Jung-Ick ; Park, Eun-Kyoo ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 203~207
Purpose: Electroretinogram(ERG) signal noise as well as conducting other bio-signal measurement were generated. It was intened to enhance the accuracy of retinal-related diagnosis with removing signal noise. Methods: Sampling signal was made with generating 60 Hz noise and white noise. The noise were removed using wavelet transforms and bandpass filter. De-noising frequency was compared with Fourier transform spectrum. Removed noises were compared numerically using SNR(signal to noise ratio). Results: The result compared Fourier transform spectrum was showed that 60 Hz noise removed completely and most of white noise was removed by wavelet transforms. 60 Hz and the white noise remained using bandpass filters. The result compared SNR showed that wavelet transforms was 22.8638 and bandpass filter was 4.0961. Conclusions: Wavelet transform showed less signal distortion in removing noise. ERG signal is expected to improve the accuracy of retinal-related diagnosis.
Repeatability of Monocular Spherical Endpoints Test
Kim, Sang-Yeob ; Moon, Byeong-Yeon ; Cho, Hyun Gug ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 209~213
Purpose: To assess the repeatability of the monocular spherical endpoints, a test was performed with four methods which are the retinoscopy, the MPMVA (maximum plus maximum visual acuity) method, the R/G duochrome method, and the crossed cylinder method. Methods: The monocular spherical endpoints was measured by four kinds of method (Retinoscopy, MPMVA method, R/G duochrome method, Crossed cylinder method) on 20 subjects (40 eyes) of average age 23.0 year-old men and women. After a week, retest was performed by same procedure and the test-retest repeatability was assessed by using the Bland-Altman plot analysis. Results: The test-retest mean difference of retinoscopy was the smallest diopters of -0.03 and that of R/G duochrome method was the largest diopters of -0.19. The upper/lower 95% limits of agreement for repeatability was the narrowest in retinoscopy and was the widest in crossed cylinder method. When compared the spherical endpoints of each eye between by retinoscopy and by other three methods, the error rate of
in total eyes was 85% in MPMVA method, 80% in R/G duochrome method, and 24% in crossed cylinder method. Conclusions: Test-retest repeatability is the highest in the retinoscopy, and the retinoscopy, the MPMVA method, and R/G duochrome method are suitable for monocular spherical endpoints test.
The Influence of Office Indoor Air Qualitys on the Dry Eye Symptom of Contact Lens Wearers
Kim, Dea Jong ; Park, Moon Chan ; Lee, Se Hoon ; Kim, Hyun Uk ; Lee, Wha Ja ; Cha, Jung Won ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 215~222
Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the influence of indoor air qualities of an office environment on dry eye syndrome for wearing contact lens and non-wearing contact lens. Methods: To study the effects of indoor air qualities on dry eye syndrome for seventy-one subjects,
, temperature, humidity, TSP, PM10, HCHO were measured. Each subject was tested by a McMonnie's dry eye syndrome questionnaire, a Schirmer Tear Test-I (S.T.T-I), a Schirmer Tear Test-II with anesthetics (S.T.T-II), and Tear film break-up time (T.B.U.T) in the their offices. Results: There was significant relation between the indoor air quality and dry eye syndrome for wearing contact lens and non-wearing when TSP was over
, PM10 was higher than
and Formaldehyde was over
. However, there was no significant effect on dry eye syndrome with
(p=.0146), temperature (p=0.074) and humidity (p=0.053). Conclusions: It was indicated that
, temperature and humidity were no effect on dry eye syndrome in the office environment. However TSP, PM10, formaldehyde, and wearing contact lens were effect on dry eye syndrome. Therefore, the entire management of wearing contact lens and the individual evaluation of the indoor air quality are required.
Validating a New Approach to Quantify Posterior Corneal Curvature in Vivo
Yoon, Jeong Ho ; Avudainayagam, Kodikullam ; Avudainayagam, Chitralekha ; Swarbrick, Helen A. ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 223~232
Purpose: Validating a new research method to determine posterior corneal curvature and asphericity(Q) in vivo, based on measurements of anterior corneal topography and corneal thickness. Methods: Anterior corneal topographic data, derived from the Medmont E300 corneal topographer, and total corneal thickness data measured along the horizontal corneal meridian using the Holden-Payor optical pachometer, were used to calculate the anterior and posterior corneal apical radii of curvature and Q. To calculate accurate total corneal thickness the local radius of anterior corneal curvature, and an exact solution for the relationship between real and apparent thickness were taken into consideration. This method differs from previous approach. An elliptical curve for anterior and posterior cornea were calculated by using best fit algorism of the anterior corneal topographic data and derived coordinates of the posterior cornea respectively. For validation of the calculations of the posterior corneal topography, ten polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) lenses and right eyes of five adult subjects were examined. Results: The mean absolute accuracy (
standard deviation(SD)) of calculated posterior apical radius and Q of ten PMMA lenses was
(95% confidence interval (CI) -0.033 to 0.139), and
(95% CI -0.10 to 0.31) respectively. The mean absolute repeatability coefficient (
) of the calculated posterior apical radius and Q of five human eyes was
(95% CI -0.05 to 0.19) and
(95% CI -0.05 to 0.23), respectively. Conclusions: The result shows that acceptable accuracy in calculations of posterior apical radius and Q was achieved. This new method shows promise for application to the living human cornea.
The Change in the Amounts of Proteins and Lipids Deposited on Soft Contact Lens Caused by Drinking
Kim, So Ra ; Lim, Shin Gyu ; Bae, Seok Chun ; Choi, Jung Hyun ; Park, Sang Hee ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 233~239
Purpose: In the study, the change of protein and lipid deposits on soft contact lens by drinking was investigated. Methods: Fifty male subjects wearing soft contact lens were surveyed whether they felt any discomfort induced by drinking or not. Further, 32 male subjects who has no ocular disease drank 190 mL alcohol. The protein and lipid deposits on soft contact lens (etafilcon A material) of subjects were measured after 4 hours later and compared with those of non-drinking subject. Results: When subjects drink alcohol with soft contact lens on, 58% of subjects answered they experienced the change of lens awareness such as stiffness, blurry sight, dryness and so on. The protein deposit on soft contact lens increased an average of
by drinking and the case of more than double in protein deposit was reached in 9 eyes. However, the protein deposited on soft contact lens was lysozyme which was unchanged by drinking. The amounts of cholesterol and methyl oleate after drinking were 85.5% (p=0.25) and 52.6% (p=0.002) of non-drinking's indicating some change of lipid deposit on soft contact lens by drinking. Conclusions: The results showed the composition of protein and lipid deposited on soft contact lens was changed due to drinking. Thus, it is suggested that wearing soft contact lens when drinking might be one of the reasons to feel discomfort.
Associations of Metabolic Syndrome with Glaucoma in Korean - Based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005, 2007-9, 2010
Park, Sang Shin ; Kim, Taehun ; Pak, Yun-Suk ; Lee, Sang-Yoon ; Lee, Hae Jung ; Lee, Eun-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 2, 2012, Pages 241~247
Purpose: This study was conducted to assess the association of metabolic syndrome and its components with glaucoma. Methods: We investigated the associations of metabolic syndrome and its components (abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia) with glaucoma using data from 19,162 adults aged 40 or above among the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (2005), IV (2007-9), V (2010). The logistic regression analysis was used for assessing those associations after adjusting demographic, lifestyle, and social economic status and for assessing the association of metabolic medication intakes with glaucoma risks. Results: After adjusting for age and sex, the risk of glaucoma was significantly higher in the subjects with impaired fasting glucose(Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.78 (1.25, 2.53)) and metabolic syndrome (1.45 (1.01, 2.08)) than subjects without those. These associations increased when additional adjusting for smoking, alcohol use, regular physical activity, income, education status(impaired fasting glucose: 1.89 (1.29, 2.77), metabolic syndrome: 1.52 (1.03, 2.25)). Glaucoma prevalence was borderline significantly increased according to the number of metabolic abnormalities(age and sex adjusted p for trend = 0.055). Use of antihypertensive medication was significantly associated with the risk of glaucoma. Conclusions: Metabolic syndrome and impaired fasting glucose were significantly associated with the increased glaucoma risk. Use of antihypertensive medication was also significantly associated with the increased glaucoma risk.