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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
Selecting the target year
A Longitudinal Study for 3 Years on Myopic Refractive Error Changes of Myopic Children Among Patients of a Korean Optometry Clinic
Kim, Jin-Suk ; Kim, Jae-Do ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 3, 2012, Pages 249~254
Purpose: To investigate amount of myopic progression with increase of age for children myopes among patients of a Korean optometry clinic. Methods: It has followed up 99 children subjects (male 55, female 44) who had no ocular disease and have visited a Korean optometric clinic for mean
months (13 to 54 months) since June of 2001. Mean age of subjects at first visit was
months. Non-cycloplegic refractive error were measured 6 times using Canon RK-3(Japan) every mean 6 months. Results: For all subjects mean of refractive errors increased -0.78 D per year from
at first visit to
at final visit with longitudinal study, but -0.19 D per year with cross-section study, which showed a big difference between two methods. Mean of astigmatic refractive error increased -0.15 D per year. As progression of refractive error according to ages at first visit, refractive errors increased -1.04 D per year for 6 years old, -0.9 D for 7 years old, -0.89 D for 8 years old, -0.89 D for 9 years old, -0.74 D for 10 years old, -0.74 D for 11 years old and -0.72 D for 12 years old. And it showed a tendency that the younger age was the higher progression of myopia. However it was not significantly different between each groups. Conclusions: Follow-up results for myopic children among patients of a Korean optometry clinic showed increase of -0.78 D for myopic refractive error and -0.14 D for astigmatic refractive error per year.
A Comparison of the Contact Areas between Cornea and RGP Lenses by Fitting Status
Park, Eun Hye ; Kim, So Ra ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 3, 2012, Pages 255~264
Purpose: In this study, the effect of lens fitting status on the contact area between spherical/aspherical RGP lens and the cornea having different astigmatic degree and corneal type was investigated for guiding the proper selection of RGP lens. Methods: Spherical and aspherical RGP lenses were applied on ninety eyes
having with-the-rule astigmatism by different fitting status. Then, their central, mid-peripheral and peripheral areas of fluorescein pattern were calculated and compared for the quantitative evaluation of the contact area between spherical/aspherical RGP lens. Results: The central and peripheral areas with the alignment fitting was significant different based on lens design. However, the central area didn't show any significant difference by lens design and corneal type when fitted in steep or flat. When analyzed by the corneal shape, both lenses with alignment and flat fitting had significant difference in central and peripheral areas. However, the central, mid-peripheral and peripheral areas with steep fitting didn't show the difference by corneal types. When analyzed by the astigmatic degree, the central and peripheral areas with alignment fitting changed proportionally to the increase of corneal astigmatism regardless of corneal shape. With steep and flat fitting, however, the central, mid-peripheral and/or peripheral areas in round- and symmetric bowtie-typed corneas showed the conflicting result when compared to those of alignment fitting when analyzed by the astigmatic degree. Conclusions: In this study, it was confirmed that the contact areas of cornea and RGP lens fitted steep and flat status were largely affected by the corneal type and corneal astigmatism rather than RGP lens fitted in alignment status. Also, this result commonly occurred in both spherical and aspherical RGP lenses.
A Comparative Study on the Effects of Wearing Reverse Geometry Lenses by Degrees of Myopia
Yoon, Min-Hwa ; Lee, Ki-Young ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 3, 2012, Pages 265~272
Purpose: To compare the results on myopia correction with reverse geometry lenses, effects of wearing reverse geometry lenses were evaluated for the children with low-level and high-level myopia. Methods: The research investigated the corrective effects of having worn reverse geometry lenses for one week, one month, three months and six months on a total of thirty-six persons (sixty-two eyes) between the ages of seven and fifteen, divided into three groups by the degree of their myopia; nineteen eyes(Group One) with myopia of -2.00 D and under, twenty-eight eyes(Group Two) with myopia between -2.25 D and -4 D, and fifteen eyes(Group Three) with myopia of -4.25 D and above; as shown by changes in uncorrected vision and the degree of refraction in the corneal topography, and tested for statistical similarity among the pursued results. Results: After wearing reverse geometry lenses, Group One showed an improvement in vision of 0.5, from 0.45 to 0.95, after one week, and improvements to 0.91 after one month and 1.02 after three months but, after six months, the group's vision regressed to 0.95. Group Two showed an improvement in vision of 0.43, from 0.34 to 0.77, after one week of wearing and to 0.91 after one month, to 0.97 after three months and this was statistically maintained through the remainder of six months. Group Three showed an improvement in vision of 0.55, from 0.15 to 0.7, after wearing for one week, to 0.87 after one month and to 0.91 after three months but saw a regression to 0.86 after six months. The average Sim K (simulated keratometry reading) value for Group One started from
and decreased to
after one week of wearing and continued declining through three months before increasing during the remainder of six months. Group Two began from
after one week, continuing the decline through three months before increasing during the remainder of six months. Group Three began at
and showed its Sim K value decrease to
after one week of wearing, increase after one month and decrease after three months and continue the decline through the remainder of six months. Conclusions: From the results of this study, wearing reverse geometry lenses had myopia-correcting effects after one week of wearing. Although there were variations in the time for such effect to take place but myopia-correcting effects were evident in all test groups.
Comparative Study of the Maximum Accommodative Amplitude in 20's and 40's Myopia
Yun, Jae-Hong ; Hwang, Hae-Young ; Kim, Soo Woon ; Kim, Hyun-Mok ; Son, Jeong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 3, 2012, Pages 273~278
Purpose: Average of the maximum accommodation amplitude of myopia in different generation, early 20's and early 40's were compared according to gender, degree of myopia. Methods: Maximum amplitude of accommodation for each 100 patients of early 20's and 40's were measured with push-up method. Maximum amplitude of accommodation expectations based on Hofstetter formula were classified into three groups of under, normal and excess. Results: The average of amplitude of accommodation was 9.77~11.64 D
in early 20's and 4.67~6.21 D
in early 40's. In early 20's, minimum expectations of amplitude of accommodation for under, normal and excess groups were 20%, 75%, and 5%, repectively. In early 40's, excess and under groups were 5% and 18%, repectively, but there was no excess group. Conclusions: According to increasing age, amplitude of accommodation of both age groups showed decreased, and no significant difference was found in degree of myopia with gender. Difference between mean of expected accommodation amplitude and maximum of accommodation amplitude was compared, and it was found that maximum of accommodation amplitude of 20's was smaller than mean of expected accommodation. From the result, it was expected that people in early 20's who have more working times might have festinated accommodative insufficiency than 40's.
Measurement of Amplitude of Accommodation using Push-up and Push-away and Near Point of Convergence in Elementary School Children
Kim, Hyojin ; Lee, Eun-Hee ; Oh, Hyunjin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 3, 2012, Pages 279~284
Purpose: We measured the amplitude of accommodation using the push-up and push-away tests and near point of convergence (NPC) and investigated the accommodative insufficiency (AI) and convergence insufficiency (CI) in elementary school children of 12~13 years old. Methods: 88 students who aged 12~13
years old with more than 1.0 spectacle best corrected visual acuity were examined using push-up and push-away tests. The break and recovery points of NPC also were measured. Results: Mean amplitudes of accommodations using push-up and push-away tests were
, respectively in right eye (P<0.001). Mean break and recovery points in NPC were
. AI and CI showed 28.75% and 30.00% each. 48.75% was within normal range in both amplitudes of accommodations according to their age expected and convergence. Students having both AI and CI were 7.50%. Conclusions: A high correlation between the push-up test and push-away test was found in elementary school children (r=0.6025; P<0.05). Students having normal amplitude of accommodation by their age expected and normal convergence were 71.25% and 70.00%, respectively.
Changes in Accommodative Function after VDT Work
Seo, Eun-Sun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 3, 2012, Pages 285~291
Purpose: This study was conducted to research any effect on visual function related to accommodation by VDT work. Methods: The refraction power, accommodative lag, accommodative facility, relative accommodation, amplitude of accommodation and blink rate were measured before and after VDT work for 2 hours on 48 university students (16 males and 32 females), without abnormal accommodative function and systemic and ocular disease, who had never undergone corrective eye surgery. All examinations were performed with distant refraction, and a survey was conducted on the items related to subjective symptoms of VDT syndrome. Results: After 2 hours of VDT work, refractive power increased by 0.23 D, the amount of change in accommodative lag were
in the right eye and
in the left eye (t=2.26, p=0.03). There were statistically significant differences. Both the accommodative facility and relative accommodation and amplitude of accommodation were decreased after work. However, blink rate were increased. After VDT work, 33.4% of the subjects showed subjective symptoms of asthenopia and 33.3% of them showed shoulder pain. Conclusions: As a result, the accommodative lag increased in response to the two hours of VDT work, and overall accommodative functions were decreased. In addition, as symptoms of providing visual strain, asthenopia showed the most prominent subjective symptoms.
A Study on Usefulness of Static Retinoscopy in Eyes Opened for Hyperopic School-aged Children
Chun, Young-Yun ; Park, Seong-Jong ; Song, Woo-Jin ; Lee, Seok-Ju ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 3, 2012, Pages 293~298
Purpose: We compared static retinoscopy in eyes opened with cycloplegic refraction depending on the hyperopia for school-aged children. Methods: There were 59 eyes (30 patients) who were divided into 3 groups - the mild hyperopia (+0.25 D ~ +1.00 D), moderate hyperopia (+1.25 D ~ +2.00 D) and high hyperopia (+2.25 D or more). They all had 0.8 visual acuity or more. Autorefraction and retinoscopy were performed prior to cycloplegic refraction, and then copmared with manifest refraction and cycloplegic refraction. Results: Hyperopia measured with static retinoscopy tends to be measured higher than manifest refraction for school-aged children. Changes of spherical power was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Changes of astigmatism was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The difference between cycloplegic refraction and static retinoscopy was not significant for hyperopic school-aged children. The use of retinoscopy was limited for opticians because of legal constraints. The usage of static retinoscopy in eyes opened for optician should be generalized under the conditions not using the cycloplegic.
The Correlation of Myopic Refractive Error and Ocular Components in Primary School Students
Jeon, Soon-Woo ; Lee, Hyun-Joo ; Hwang, Hye-Kyung ; Park, Chun-Man ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 3, 2012, Pages 299~303
Purpose: In this study the correlation among the myopic refractive error and ocular components in primary school students was investigated. Methods: The subjects were 62 children who had no eye diseases. The refractive error, corneal radius, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length were measured and analysed. Results: Myopic refractive error in primary school students was negatively correlated with the axial length (1~3rd grade r=-0.653, p=0.000/4~6th grade r=-0.742, p=0.000), AL/CR ratio (1~3rd grade r=-0.571, p=0.000/4~6th grade r=-0.852, p=0.000). Conclusions: It was shown that the axial length and axial length(AL)/corneal radius(CR) ratio were very important data for myopic refractive error in primary school students.
Aided Distance Visual Acuity and Refractive Error Changes by Using Smartphone
Kim, Bong-Hwan ; Han, Sun-Hee ; Shin, Young Gul ; Kim, Da Yeong ; Park, Jin Young ; Sin, Won Chul ; Yoon, Jeong Ho ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 3, 2012, Pages 305~309
Purpose:This study was conducted to research any effect on aided distance visual acuity and refractive error changes by using smartphone at near for long term. Methods: 20(
years) young adults subjects with no ocular diseases, over 0.8 of aided distance visual acuity, normal amplitude of accommodation and normal accommodative facility agreed to participate in this study. The subjects were divided into two group, Group 1 (15 cm fixation distance) included 10 subjects and Group 2(40 cm fixation distance) included 10 subjects. Aided distance visual acuity and refractive error were measured before and after using smartphone for 30 minutes by auto-chart project (CP-1000, Dongyang, Korea), phoropter (VT-20, Dongyang, Korea), auto refractor-keratometer (MRK-3100, Huvitz, Korea). After then, the subjects looked at distance with wearing spectacles. Refractive error was measured at 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15 minutes later, respectively. Results: After using smartphone at 15 cm for 30 minutes, there was statistically significant reduction of aided distance visual acuity (p=0.030) and increasing myopia (p=0.001). The increased myopia was not statistically significant after 5 minutes rest (p
0.464). However there was no statistically significant changes in aided distance visual acuity (p=0.163) and refractive error (p=0.077) after using smartphone at 40 cm for 30 minutes. Conclusions: It is recommend to keep 40 cm off the smartphone from eyes to avoid any aided distance visual acuity and refractive error changes. If smartphone is used closer than 40 cm, a rest for 5 minutes is also recommend after every 30 minutes use with smartphone to avoid any aided distance visual acuity and refractive error changes.
Induced Prism by the Categories of Spectacle Frames
Park, Woo-Jung ; Kim, Soo Woon ; Hwang, Hae-Young ; Yu, Dong-Sik ; Son, Jeong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 17, issue 3, 2012, Pages 311~319
Purpose: One of the critical aspects on dispensing glasses is to match the center of pupils to the optical center of lenses as the mismatched glasses are able to induce uncomfortable effects called prism which has been known to induce phoria, a main cause for asthenopia in many cases. Therefore, we investigated the induced prism occurred by mismatching centers between the center of pupils and the optical center of lenses. Methods: In this study, total 103 subjects were examined whether the center of pupils and the optical center of lenses are matched in horizontal and vertical directions, and then, the data was categorized into 4 groups based on the structural components of glasses. Total amount of prism was compared to show the effect of the glasses frame on the prism induction, and the value of measured prism was compared with the German RAL-RG 915 regulations. Results: The results in respect to the horizontal component showed that the induced prism was not found in 10.7% of total subjects. 73.8% of total subjects were influenced by induced prism, the range of prism was in a tolerance level. However, the 15.5% of total subjects seemed to be influenced by prism which is out of the criterion of tolerance. In case of vertical component, 23.3% of total subjects showed no effects of prism while early adopting glasses, 54.4% of total subjects showed a little prism effect within the criterion of tolerance, and 22.3% of total subjects showed the prism effect out of the tolerance range. This data indicates that group A and B that are less likely adjustable by fitting induce more prism than group C and D in horizontal and vertical components. Conclusions: In higher refractive error condition, it was found that aligning the optical center of lenses with the center of pupils by pre-fitting of glasses frame minimized prism induction in horizontal and vertical components, which ameliorates ocular fatigue. Therefore, appropriate optometric dispensing through fitting by opticians and precise design about monocular PD and monocular Oh are necessary to improve visual perception.