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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Design and Fabrication for the Development of Auto Pattern Maker
Lee, Young-Il ; Kim, Jung-Hee ; Park, Jee-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 231~239
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.3.231
Purpose: To design and fabricate the auto pattern maker for the development. Methods: we got the necessary data, needed in design, by using CAD. Based on the these data, we fabricated the trial product for the development of the auto pattern maker. Results: The auto pattern maker were composed with combinations of many elements; pattern making assembly, control panel, frame attachment and prober unit. The pattern making assembly was comprised of the cutter, the pattern holder, pattern remover and silence cover which could minimize the sound during the cutting process. The control panel was designed to be connected and operated with the main printed circuit board. The prober could get the eye shape data by scanning of 1.8 degrees around the groove of the frame through the encoding data according to the address. After starting, scanning was carried out in two passes, i.e. one right-handed and one left-handed. Communication connector could send the eye shape data from auto pattern maker to outer system with the RS232C transmission system. By using the one-way analysis of variance, we got the error rate of cut pattern size for
. Because F-value was 0.510 and p-value was 0.601, no statistically significant differences were found. Also, the mean cutting error of the auto pattern maker was 0.0274 mm. Conclusions: we could succeed in making the trial product by applying it to the development of the auto pattern maker. The role of this auto pattern maker is to find a exact required size of lens to fit the frame by measuring the frame. The acquired data are transferred to outer system for grinding and finishing with patternless process. Also, the trial product can produce pattern to fit the frame. Therefore, it was confidently expected that the optometrists could handily produce pattern to fit the frame with this trial product and dispense the ophthalmic lens because of its efficiency and convenience compared to the past.
A Comparative Analysis Study on Distance Contrast Sensitivities According to Progressive Lens Design
Shin, Dong-Min ; Kim, Soo-Hyun ; Jeong, Ju-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 241~246
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.3.241
Purpose: The aim of this study was a comparative analysis of the effect of distance contrast sensitivity when wearing free-form progressive lens and conventional progressive lens. Methods: The 20 subjects who do not have any ocular diseases were participated in this study. Contrast sensitivities at 5 different levels of spatial frequency were conducted by using FACT (Stereo Optical, USA). Results: Contrast sensitivity was measured for free-form progressive lens and conventional progressive lens in the order of right eye, left eye and binocular. Right/left/binocular contrast sensitivity values of the free-form progressive lenses compared to the conventional progressive lenses were higher 16%/17%/11% at A(1.5 cpd) of spatial frequency, 11%/5%/5% at B(3 cpd) of spatial frequency, 6%/6%/9% at C(6 cpd) of spatial frequency, 19%/16%/13% at D(12 cpd) of spatial frequency, 4%/3%/18% at E(18 cpd) of spatial frequency. Conclusions: In all the area of spatial frequency, distance contrast sensitivity values were measured highly on free-form progressive lens than on conventional progressive lens.
Analysis of Addition Power for New Wearer of Progressive Addition Lenses
Joo, Seok-Hee ; Shim, Hyun-Suk ; Shim, Jun-Beom ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 247~251
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.3.247
Purpose: To analyse the addition power of new wearer of progressive addition lenses. Methods: Data of 636 subjects who have been prescribed progressive addition lenses as the first time were used for analyse. The range of age for was between 41~78 years old and they visited the optical practice in Gwangju metropolitan city from 2001 to 2013Date of refractive state, gender and age were analysed. Results: The difference of addition by gender was 1.71 D in male and 1.67 D in women. The difference of addition by refractive error was 1.67 D in emmetropic patients and 1.74 D in myopic patients, 1.90 D in hyperopic patients. The difference of addition by age was1.26 D in 41~44 years old sge group, 1.48 D in 45~49 years old age group,1.72 D in 50~54 years old age group 1.84 D in 55~59 years old age group, 2.10 D in 60~64 years old age group and 2.43 D in over 65 years old age group. The difference of addition by diopter in myopic patients was 1.58 D in low myopic patients and 1.48 D in middle myopic patients, 1.67 D in high myopic patients. The difference of addition by axis of astigmatism was 1.80 D in with-the-rule astigmatism, 1.64 D in against-the-rule astigmatism and 1.65 D in oblique astigmatism. Conclusions: The Addition power of progressive lenses were different according to the types of refractive error, astigmatism axis and age.
The Inhibitory UV-B Blocking Rate of Eyeglasses Lens on the Enzymes Denaturation in Cornea
Kim, So Ra ; Lee, Jee Hee ; Choi, Jung-Im ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 253~260
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.3.253
Purpose: To investigate the UV-B blocking rate of eyeglasses lens which can prevent enzymes denaturation in cornea. Methods: The denaturation degree of RNase A and catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined by using Acrylamide gel electrophoresis after UV-B irradiation of 312 nm for 1, 3, 6, 24 and 96 hours. Also, the inhibitory effect of eyeglasses lens having UV-B blocking rate of 50%, 80%, 95% and 99% on the enzymes denatration was measured. Results: The denaturation of RNase A was induced by 1 hour-irradiation of UV-B. To inhibit RNase A denaturation after UV-B irradiation between 1 hour and 6 hours, UV-B blocking lens of 95% were effective. UV-B blocking lens of 99% suppressed the inhibition of RNase A denaturation after the UV-B exposure between 24 hours and 96 hours. The denaturation of catalase was not induced by 1 hourirradiation of UV-B. To inhibit enzyme denaturation after UV-B irradiation between 1 hour and 6 hours, UV-B blocking lens of 50% were effective. UV-B blocking lens of 95% suppressed the inhibition of enzyme denaturation induced by UV-B irradiation between 24 hours and 96 hours. The SOD denaturation was not induced by UV-B irradiation shorter than 6 hours exposure. The UV-B blocking lens of 50% could inhibit SOD denaturation after the UV-B irradiation for 24 hours. When SOD was exposed to UV-B for 96 hrs, SOD denaturation was inhibited by eyeglasses lens with UV blocking rate higher than 95%. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that the proper UV-B blocking rates of eyeglasses lens to inhibit the enzymes denaturatioin was different according to the types of enzymes and its inhibitory effect was effective only when eyeglasses lens had higher than certain UV-B blocking rate.
Adsorption Properties of the Lysozyme and Albumin with Physicochemical Properties of the Contact Lens
Sung, Yu-Jin ; Ryu, Geun-Chang ; Jun, Jin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 261~270
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.3.261
Purpose: Adsorption properties of lysozyme and albumin according to physiochemical properties of commercial contact lens classified with the FDA categories and a contact lens fabricated in the laboratory were investigated. Methods: The contact lens were prepared using HEMA(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and TRIM(3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate) in a cast mold. Artificial tears containing lysozyme and albumin were prepared. We measured the amounts of protein adsorbed on the each lenses with varying adsorbed time (48 hour) and the pH range (6, 6.8, 7.4, 8.2, 9) of artificial tear. Amount of the proteins absorbed on the contact lenses were measured by using HPLC. Results: Time to reach the equilibrium of protein adsorption for silicone hydrogel lens was taken longer than hydrogel lens. The amount of adsorbed both lysozyme and albumin at equilibrium were greater for the hydrogel lens than the silicone hydrogel lens, and larger for the ionic lens than the non-ionic lens. Lysozyme was more adsorbed on the higher water content of contact lens, whereas albumin was more adsorbed on the lower water content of contact lens. Only lysozyme was adsorbed on the Group IV hydrogel lens of ionic higher water content. The adsorption of protein on contact lens increased with pH of artificial tears as close to the isoelectric point of each protein. Conclusions: The adsorption amount of lysozyme is more affected by the ionic strength of the contact lens surface than the water content of contact lens. Albumin adsorption is more affected by water content than the ionic strength of the contact lens surface. For the adsorption of proteins on the silicone hydrogel lens, the pore size, determined both by the number of Si atoms and the chemical structure of the silicone-containing monomers, as well as the polarity of contact lens should be also considered.
The Change of Corneal Refractive Power by Everted Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Wear
Kim, Soo-Hyun ; Shin, Dong-Min ; Jeong, Ju-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 271~277
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.3.271
Purpose: The purpose was to study the corneal refractive power changes associated with the wearing of everted silicone hydrogel soft lenses. Methods: The corneal refractive power and corneal astigmatism were measured using corneal topographer (CT-1000, Shin-nippon Co., Japan) for checking change of corneal refractive power and objective refractive error was measured by auto-refractometer (Natural vision-K 5001, Shin-nippon Co., Japan). We measured at baseline and 1 week after lens wearing. Results: The correcting of corneal refractive power could be effective in low myopia. It's more effective to the higher power of greatest meridian of cornea and the more corneal astigmatism. 73% of subjects' refractive error was decrease less than 1 D and 17% of the subjects had an reverse effect (increase) occurs. The reduction of objective refractive error was more effective when cornea refractive power was great or corneal astigmatism was much. Conclusions: Pressure which the everted silicone hydrogel lens to the cornea could be caused. It occurred as the degrees of corneal power, corneal astigmatism and objective refractive error differences. Selection of an appropriate subject is important considering difficulty of changing the parameters of the lens.
Refractive Power Changes after Removal of Contact Lenses
Cho, Yun-Kyung ; Kim, Soo-Woon ; Yu, Dong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 279~289
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.3.279
Purpose: To evaluate the changes of refractive power when worn soft contact lenses were temporarily removed. Methods: 91 soft contact lens wearers (15 males and 76 females; total 182 eyes) from 17 to 39 years of age (average:
years) were participated. Objective and subjective refraction, and corneal radius were measured at 0, 30, 60 and 90 min after lens removal. The changes in refractive power were evaluated between measurements over time. The other parameters such as types of lenses, fitting and wearing conditions were also assessed. Results: Objective refraction, subjective refraction and corneal radius were significantly changed according to measured time (p<0.0001). A moderate myopic shifts was observed at the beginning (30 min after lens removal) and a slight myopic shift at the late of measurement (60 min to 90 min after lens removal). There are no significant differences between lens types, fitting states, wearing time, wearing days and sleeping time in the previous day. However, there was significant interaction in changes for corneal radius between measuring time and lens type (p=0.017), fitting state (p=0.019), and sleeping time prior to the test (p=0.010). Conclusions: Time to reach refractive and corneal radius stability after contact lens removal revealed at least more than 60 min, regardless of types of lenses, fitting and wearing conditions. Therefore, refraction for correction should be performed after waiting for more than that time as possible.
Effect of Under and Over Refractive Correction on Visual Acuity Performance using Two Different Charts
Chen, Ai-Hong ; Shah, Siti Salwa Mohamad ; Rosli, Saiful Azlan ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 291~295
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.3.291
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of under and over refractive correction on visual acuity performance and the variation of the visual performance measurement using two different visual acuity charts. Methods: Ten young adults, aged between 19 and 25 years old, were recruited. Inclusion criteria: no history of ocular injury or pathology with a best-corrected visual acuity of 6/6 on dominant eye. The over and under refractive corrections were induced using minus and plus spherical ophthalmic lenses in 0.50 D steps up to 3.00 D; as well as using three axis orientations of cylindrical ophthalmic lenses (
) in 0.50 D steps. The variation of visual acuity performance measurements was investigated using Bailey-Lovie LogMAR chart and Landolt C chart. Results: The visual acuity changes with lenses were significantly different between two charts [F = 49.15, p < 0.05 with plus spherical ophthalmic lenses and F = 174.38, p < 0.05 with minus spherical ophthalmic lenses]. The visual acuity changes with three different cylindrical axis showed no significant difference between Bailey-Lovie LogMAR chart [F = 2.35, p > 0.05] and Landolt C chart [F = 3.12, p = 0.05]. Conclusions: The over and under refractive correction affected the visual acuity performance differently. The Landolt C chart and Bailey-Lovie LogMAR chart demonstrated variation in measurements.
A Study on Blue Light Blocking Performance and Prescription for Blue Light Blocking Lens
Yu, Young Guk ; Choi, Eun Jung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 297~304
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.3.297
Purpose: To investigate blue light rejection and the percentage of blue light in the visible light of blue light blocking lens according to light source, and to study prescriptions for blue light blocking lens Methods: UV-VIS spectrophotometer was used for blue light rejection and the percentage of blue light in the visible light according to light source, and the percentage of blue light in solar light was used to evaluate the prescription for blue light blocking lens. Results: The blue light rejection and the percentage of blue light in the visible light of each lens were depending on light sources. Through the way to compare the percentages of blue light in the visible light passing through the lens with that in solar light, blue light blocking lenses suitable to each light source could been selected. Conclusions: In the prescription for blue light blocking lens, inquiry for user's display must be preceded. And then the percentages of blue light in the visible light passing through the lens based on that in solar light may be useful as a method of evaluating the prescription for blue light blocking lens.
Effect of Overcorrection (-)Lens on Stereo-acuity and Angle of Deviation in Intermittent Exotropia
Kim, Young Cheong ; Park, Sang Woo ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 305~311
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.3.305
Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of prescription of overcorrection (-) lens, which is the one of the non-surgical treatments, on stereo-acuity and angle of deviation in intermittent exotropia. Methods: Twenty four children with intermittent exotropia were enrolled from October 2011 to December 2011. The angle of deviation(
), stereo-acuity (arcsec), monocular and binocular visual acuity (BVA, LogMAR), control of exodeviation and fusional ability using Worth 4 dot test were evaluated at near (33 cm) and far (6 m), under the overcorrecting (-)lens of -1.00, -.00, and -.00 D. Results: As a baseline finding, the angle of exodeviation was
at near and
at far. The angle of exodeviation at near decreased to
(p<0.01) compared with baseline angle of exodeviation at near, as increasing diopters of (-) lens from -.00 D, -2.00 D and -.00 D, respectively. The angle of exodeviation at far also decreased to
(p<0.01) compared with baseline, as increasing minus lens from -2.00 D and -3.00 D, respectively. However, BVA, control of exodeviation, fusional ability and stereo-acuity showed no significant decrease despite of increasing diopters of (-)lens. Conclusions: The prescription of overcorrection (-)lens is an effective therapeutic method in intermittent exotropia which can reduce the near and far angle of exodeviation, and binocular visual acuity and stereo-acuity maintained without significant decrease despite of application of overcorrection (-)lens.
A Comparative Study on Quantity of Phoria between New Phoria Measurement with 3D Display and Existing Methods
Kang, Seok Hyon ; Hong, Hyungki ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 313~320
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.3.313
Purpose: This study compared the quantity of phoria for distance by new method with that by existing methods. Methods: For this study, it was selected to two existing phoria measurements, von Graefe and Maddox rod. And new method named "3D polarizing phoria measurement" was designed to measure the quantity of phoria using polarizing glasses and 3D display. Unlike existing measurement using polarized lens, newly considered method measured the quantity of phoria in condition removed perfect binocular fusion using field stop on apparatus and polarized lens. For using new method for distance, it was developed a phoria test chart. It supports three kinds of phoria measurements. Subjects were 12 (male 6, female 6). They had three phoria tests (1 sets) including new method. It was considered the effect of experimental order, so we tested all cases about experimental order. The number of cases was 6 sets, and the sample size in this experiment was 72 sets. For removing binocular fusion, lighting of the laboratory that was below 10 lx and the background color of phoria test chart was dark, RGB=(20, 20, 20). Results: Subjects were sorted into three groups. Samples with exophoria and orthophoria were 30 sets each, and those with esophoria were 12 sets. The quantity of phoria measured three tests differ from each other like "newmethod < von Graefe < Maddox rod", and there were statistically significant difference each other. Conclusions: This study has great significance in the sense that new method was the measurement with naturally removing binocular fusion without dizziness during the tests.
A Correlation Between Vertical Fixation Disparity and Stereopsis at Near
Yoon, Min-Hwa ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 321~327
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.3.321
Purpose: To investigate a correlation between vertical fixation disparity and stereopsis by analyzing distribution of types of vertical fixation disparity. Methods: In this study, RANDOT(R) stereotest partly using random dot was used in stereopsis tests. The vertical fixation disparity in close proximity categorized fixation disparity slope into six types on the basis of the result of measurement in when two thin lines, one for one eye looks, become overlapped as a line by adding into prism with Wesson fixation disparity card while maintaining a distance of 25 cm from patients. Results: In the types of near vertical fixation disparity curve, targeting 43 people, the first type 55.82% was the most distributed, the second type is the least 23.25%, the third type of 4.65%, the fourth type of 4.65%, the fifth type of 6.98%, the sixths types of 4.65% were distributed. The result of a correlation analysis, which shows the degree of linear correlation between two variables, represented that stereopsis is not correlated with Y-intercept (r = -0.07) which show vertical fixation disparity, associated phoria (r = -0.03) and dissociated phoria (r = -0.00), but it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Fixation disparity slope of vertical fixation disparity (r = 0.36) was shown to have a positive correlation with stereopsis. It has a low positive correlation and a meaningful statistics (p<0.05). The Y-intercept which indicates vertical fixation disparity was also not associated with stereopsis (r = -0.07) and dissociated phoria (r = -0.03), and this was not statistically significant (p>0.05), while it had a high correlation as well as a statistically significant with associated phoria (r = 0.89). There was a negative correlation between Y-intercept and fixation disparity slope of vertical fixation disparity (r = -0.33). It showed a low relationship but statistically valuable (p>0.05). As a result of regression analysis, the stereopsis was changed as 7.631" if vertical fixation disparity changes 1' and the vertical fixation disparity changed as 0.017' if stereopsis changes 1', and the change was statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusions: The study shows that there is a low correlation between stereopsis and vertical fixation disparity, and it is difficult to determine stereopsis only using vertical fixation disparity. Therefore, it suggests other factors above vertical fixation disparity have greater influence on stereopsis.
Study on Relationship between the Obesity Index and the Refractive Power in Adolescent
Lee, Wan-Seok ; Ye, Ki-Hun ; Shin, Bum-Joo ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 329~339
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.3.329
Purpose: In this study, nutrient intake during the adolescent period is a critical time for the development of the vision. Therefore we analyzed the relationship between the obesity index and the refractive power. Methods: We used the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 document. The obesity index is classified as Broca index (less than 80.0% is low weight, 80 to 89.9% is underweight, 90.0 to 109.9% is normal, overweight is from 110.0 to 119.9%, 120.0% or more is obesity) and body mass index (BMI)(less than 18.5 is underweight, 18.6~22.9 is normal, 23.0 to 24.9 is overweight, and obesity is higher than 25.0). We analyzed correlation with the body mass index and refractive error in adolescent. Results: As shown in the statistics, according to Broca index and body mass index (BMI), the refractive power and the obesity index showed a statistically significant correlation in the ages 15 to 18. Under weight subjects are ingested 43.84% dietary fiber, vitamin C 56.55%, 35.20% iron, 31.84% of, and 38.03% potassium less than the average food intake by the standard group. Conclusions: Moderate weight with a broad variety of taking nutrition and good eating habits seems to have an effect to the good growth and the good vision.
An Evaluation of Habitual Head Posture in Phoria
Ha, Eun-Mi ; Son, Jeong-Sik ; Yu, Dong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 341~346
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.3.341
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a relationship exists between head posture and phoria, and usefulness in examining habitual head posture. Methods: Twenty two subjects (20 males and 2 females, mean age
years) with abnormal phoria from participants randomized were enrolled in this study. For all subjects, testing included case history, cover test, refraction, phoria and vergence test. Habitual head posture (head posture, head tilt and face turn) was measured by Impression IST, and observed by examiners. Results: The abnormal head posture was revealed in some subjects with abnormal phoria. Spearman' correlation (
=0.524, p=0.045) showed significant correction between face turn and phoria at distance in 15 subjects with prism prescription. No significant relationship between head posture and phoria was found in subjects with abnormal phoria. The objective measurement and subjective observation of head posture showed insignificant correction but there was a distinct difference. The former was detail and the latter was discriminate. Conclusions: Presence of abnormal head posture was found in phoric subjects. The results indicate the need to observe habitual head posture at all major positions of gaze in phoria.
Evaluation of Visual Performance for Implanted Aspheric Multifocal Intraocular Lens in the Cataract Patients
Kim, Jae-Yoon ; Lee, Koon-Ja ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 3, 2013, Pages 347~356
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.3.347
Purpose: To evaluate the visual acuity and visual performance after implantation of a aspheric multifocal (ReSTOR
SN6AD3) intraocular lens (IOL). Methods: Nineteen cataract patients (30 eyes) implanted with an aspheric multifocal IOL (ReSTOR
SN6AD3) either unilaterally or bilaterally were participated. Visual acuity (VA) and objective optical performance were evaluated at the time of preoperation, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 month after operation. At 3 month of post-operation, objective visual performance were measured and compared with the 38 eyes of 20 age-matched normal control. Distance VA was measured by using the ETDRS LCD chart and intermediate and near visual acuity were measured using Jaeger chart. Objective visual performance was assessed preoperatively and 1 week, 1 month and 3 month postoperatively using a double-pass system (Optical Quality Analysis System) with a 4-mm pupil diameter, the OSI (objective scatter index), MTF (modulation transfer function) cut off and strehl ratio. At 3 month of post-operation, visual acuity and visual performance compared with age matched normal control. Results: The uncorrected distance VA, OSI, MTF cut off and strehl ratio were significantly improved (p<0.05) until 1 month postoperatively. Visual performance of MTF cut off and strehl ratio after 3 month of operation were significantly improved compared to the normal control (p=0.063, p=0.103 respectively), however, OSI was higher than normal control. Patients implanted with aspheric multifocal IOL were satisfied with distance and near VA however, were unsatisfied with intermediate VA and reported glare and halos. Conclusions: The visual performance reaches to a stable condition in 1 month of implantation of aspheric multifocal IOL and improved to the level of age-mated normal patients. Also patients were satisfied with their quality of vision, however, intermediate VA, glare and halos were reported as complications.