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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
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Assessment of Visual satisfaction & Visual Function with Prescription Swimming goggles In-air and Underwater
Chu, Byoung-Sun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 357~363
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.357
Purpose: To investigate the visual function with prescription swimming goggles. Methods: 15 university students (mean age:
years) participated, with a mean distance refractive error of RE: S-1.67 D/C-0.40 D, LE: S-1.70D/C-0.37 D. Inclusion criteria were no ocular pathology, able to wear soft contact lenses to correct their refractive error to emmetropia and able to swim. Participants were fitted with contact lenses to correct all ametropia. Subjective evaluation for satisfaction of visual acuity, asthenopia and balance were also measured using a questionnaire while wearing swimming goggles with cylinder (C+1.50 D, Ax
) compared with plano sphere outside the swimming pool area. Visual acuity was assessed using the same ETDRS chart. The prescription swimming goggles powers were assessed in random order and ranged in power from S+3.00 D to S-3.00 D in 0.50 D steps. Results: Subjective evaluation was significantly worse for the swimming goggles with cylinder than for the plano powered goggles for all 3 questions, visual acuity, asthenopia and balance. Visual acuity were significantly affected by the different power of the swimming goggles (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the in-air in-clinic and underwater in-swimming pool measures (p=0.173). However, visual acuity measured in the clinic was significantly better than underwater for some swimming goggle powers (+3.00, +1.00, +0.50, 0, -1.00 and -2.00 D). Conclusions: Wearing swimming goggles underwater may degrade the visual acuity compared to within air but as the difference is less than 1 line of Snellen acuity, and it is unlikely to result in significant real-life effects. Having an incorrect cylinder correction was found to be detrimental resulting in lower score of satisfaction. Considering slippery floor of swimming pool area, it can be a potential risk factor. Therefore, it is important to correct any refractive error in addition to astigmatism for swimming goggle.
The Study on Physical Properties and Applicability of Material of Polyamide-66/Glass Fiber Blends Composition to the Eyewear Frame
Son, Jin-Young ; Lee, Ji-Eun ; Choi, Kyung-Man ; Bae, Yu-Hwan ; Kim, Ki-Hong ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 365~371
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.365
Purpose: In this study, we evaluated the physical and thermal properties of the compositions made by blending glass fiber (GF) of different contents into glass fiber polyamide-66, and investigated if the compositions applying to the glasses frame to replace the TR-90, which is polyamide-12 resin used as an injection-type spectacle frame material. Methods: To investigate the characteristics change of polyamide-66 (PA-66) compositions with the change of the content of glass fibers, we produced a composition of the content by using a twin-screw extruder. The mechanical strength of the composition production was measured and coating properties as well as cutting processability were evaluated. We evaluated the applicability of the glasses frame by comparison the results of new compositions with characterizations of traditional TR. Results: For the results of the characterization of Polyamide-66/GF composition, we found that the higher increase of content of the glass fiber, the less mold shrinkage rate, and the mechanical strength was increased. Tensile strength increased from
for 0 wt% of the content of the glass fibers to
for 30 wt% of the content of the glass fibers. As a result of a coating evaluation, the strength of coating was 4B in the GF 5wt% and 5B, which was extremely good coating characteristics, in the over than GF 5 wt%. Conclusions: In case that 30 wt% of the glass fiber was blended, the mechanical strength was greatly improved, the hardness was increased, injection temperature increased due to increase of the viscosity, and the flow mark of the product may occur. The paint coating of PA-66 blended with glass fiber was all excellent. With general evaluating physical properties and workability properties it was determined that around 10 wt% of the content of the glass fibers was possible to apply a spectacle frame.
A Study on the Refractive Power of School Children Who are Classified in Low Income Family
Lee, Wan-Seok ; Ye, Ki-Hun ; Shin, Bum-Joo ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 373~383
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.373
Purpose: In this study, we analyzed refractive power of school children in low income family. Methods: We have done a comparative analysis with 112 subjects of low-income of 17 elementary schools in the Yeongcheon area and low-income children less than -6 D of refractive errors from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Report 2010. Results: Spherical equivalent (SE) with low-income group of nation was -1.99 D for right eye and -1.81 D for left eye, while high income group of nation showed -1.26 D and -1.21 D for right eye and left eye respectively. The SE with low income group in Yeongcheon area was -1.85 D for right eye and -1.81 D for left eye. The SE with orphan was -2.75 D and -2.42 D. Single parent family was -2.10 D and -1.96 D, and two parent family was -1.75 D and -1.73. Conclusions: The lack of attention to children eye care may be one of cause for myopia, so the role of the parents and teacher is very important. However, limited role of parents to children due to low income, it is necessary to provide an institutional strategy and social interest to prevent children vision' in low income family.
A Study on the Business Performance according to Management Characteristics at an Optical Store
You, Min-Jeong ; Sim, Sang-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 385~397
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.385
Purpose: We divide management characteristics into business strategy, operation management, information management, marketing, asset management. Also this will show effect on business performance according to management characteristics. Methods: For two months, from August to October, a manager (include an executive) participated in individual questionnaires. And the SPSS v14.0 was applied to analyze data of this study. Results: This study has shown that the management characteristics have an effect on the finance and satisfaction performance. In particular, the 'business strategy' and 'marketing' of management characteristics were important factors that affects finance performance and the 'business strategy', 'marketing' and 'operation management' were important factors that affects satisfaction performance. Conclusions: Consequently through this result, we should make an efforts to 'business strategy' and 'marketing' of management characteristics.
The Study on Change of Refractive error and Addition in Progressive Eyeglasses Lens Wearers
Joo, Seok-Hee ; Shim, Moon-Sik ; Shim, Jun-Beom ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 399~404
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.399
Purpose: This study was to analyse the changes of refractive error and addition in progressive eyeglasses lens wearers. Methods: Data of 244 subjects who have been prescribed progressive eyeglasses lenses were used for analysis. The range of age was between 43~69 old years and they visited the optical shop in Gwangju metropolitan city from 2003 to 2013. According to the refractive state and age, The changes of refractive error and addition was analysed respectively. Results: The changes of distance refractive power by refractive error was showed +0.10 D in emmetropia, +0.07 D in myopia, +0.23 D in hyperopia (p=0.000). The change of addition was showed +0.22 D in emmetropia, +0.29 D in myopia, +0.17 D in hyperopia (p=0.000). The changes of distance power and addition by age was +0.08 D distance refractive power, +0.30 D addition in the group of 40~49 old years, +0.17 D distance refractive power, +0.20 D addition in the group of 50~59 old years and +0.15 D distance refractive power, +0.14 D addition in the group of 60~69 old years (p=0.046, p=0.006). Conclusions: The changes of refractive error and addition of progressive eyeglasses lens wearers in all refractive state and age were gradual increase in the direction (+) diopter.
Study on Mounting Status of Trial Case Lenses
Cho, Hyun-Gug ; Moon, Byeong-Yeon ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 405~411
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.405
Purpose: In this study, the mounting status of trial case lens was investigated. Methods: We measured distances between geometric center of lens mount and optical center of lens and angle deviations between axis mark on lens and real axis using arbitrary trial case lens sets distributed in Korea, and then, compared those results with international standards. Results: In some of lenses, the prismatic power on geometric center of lens mount and the angle deviations between axis mark and real axis of cylindrical lens were out of tolerance according international standards. Conclusions: The more precise control of the manufacturing process and more thorough quality control for trial case lenses will be required to offer an accurate vision test.
Study on the Usefulness of the Classification in Ophthalmic Optics' Curriculum for Students and Optometrist - Focusing on Three-year Educational System in Gyeonggi Province -
Lee, Ok-Jin ; Park, Hee-Kyoung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 413~428
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.413
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate students and optometrist opinion of the usefulness of different subjects of optometry curriculum.This date will then be used as base-line data during a process of curriculum development Methods: 292 of ophthalmic optic's students and 123 of optometrists were surveyed in the usefulness of curriculum (five-point scale) followed by statistical analysis of the results. Results: Optometrists gave a higher average score for curriculum usefulness (3.89) than the students (3.71). The subject which showed the highest usefulness for the student was optometry (4.55) but clinical practice was the highest for the optometrist (4.48). There was significant differences (p<.05) on optics, ophthalmology, basic science, optometrist related subject and foreign language but optometry and contact lenses showed high usefulness in common without significant difference. The usefulness of subject for the student showed significant difference according to gender, grade, age, and desired working place and has demonstrated significant difference depend on gender, age, scholarship, total working experience as an optometrist, workplace, and position for optometrists as well. Conclusions: It is necessary to continue research for the development of standard and bench-marked curriculum for ophthalmic optics and also the curriculum, which reflecting the usefulness and needs obtained from ophthalmic optics' students and optometrists need to be developed.
Changes in Subjective/Objective Symptoms and the Light Transmissibility of Lens Associated with Overusage of Daily Disposable Circle Contact Lenses in Normal Eyes
Park, Mijung ; Kwon, Hae Lim ; Choi, Sae Ah ; Kim, So Ra ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 429~439
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.429
Purpose: This study was assessed to investigate the change of subjective and/or objective symptoms and the light transmissibility of lens caused by over-usage of daily disposable circle contact lenses (circle lens). Methods: Three daily disposable circle lenses made of etafilcon A, hilafilcon B, and nelfilcon A were applied on 20 normal eyes free from any eye diseases by when subjects complained any kind of discomfort. On the first and the last days of lens wearing, subjective discomfort, blinking rate, non-invasive break-up time, lens centration on corneal surface and visible light transmissibility of lens were recorded at every case and compared. Results: The circle lens wearers complained discomfort when they wore the circle lens more than 15 hours, in excess of 8 hours being the recommended wearing time and the most circle lens wearers quit the lens wearing when they wore more than 30 hours. On the last day of lens wearing, the representative subjective discomforts were stiffness, dryness and tiredness. When the subjects wore circle lens more than the recommended time, a tendency of increased blinking rate and decreased NIBUT was observed when it compared with the values right after lens wearing. On the last day of lens wearing, the lens centration was shown to be decentrated from the pupil center compared with the centration right after the wearing. These changes in lens centration and blinking rate were consistently shown in all cases of lens wearing however, the difference in the degree of subjective and/or objective change was present depending on lens materials and subjects. The visible light transmissibility of circle lens has largely been changed. Conclusions: From these results, it was thought that the decreased NIBUT induced dryness and stiffness and decreased visible light transmissibility caused more blinking when daily disposable circle lens was exceedingly used, which provoked lens decentration and subjective discomfort. However, the difference of subjective and/or objective change was largely varied in accordance with the lens material types and individuality and thus it may occur some unexpected problems by the individual base. Therefore, the education about the necessity to comply with the recommended wearing time and the problem will be essential.
Axial Rotation of Toric Soft Lens by Corneal Astigmatism and Change of Posture
Kim, So Ra ; Kim, Hyun Sun ; Jung, Ga Won ; Park, Hyung Min ; Park, Sang Hee ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 441~447
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.441
Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate the axial rotations of toric soft lens during the change of lens wearer's posture, and the relationship between its rotation and corneal astigmatism. Methods: The amount, direction, and speed of toric soft contact lens rotation were measured for 42 eyes (aged 20s) with the rule astigmatism in the straight and lying postures, and it compared between their changes according to corneal astigmatism. Results: There was no significant difference in the axial rotation of lens for the astigmatism prescription between the straight and lying postures. However, the rotation angle was significantly different according to the posture of lens wearer. Rotating directions in straight posture were nasal direction for 20 eyes and temporal direction for 22 eyes. In lying posture, lenses of most wearers were rotated to a direction of lying posture, and the initial rotating speed was very fast in initial wearing for -0.75 D toric lenses, but consistency for -1.25 D toric lenses. The rotation angle in lying posture showed significantly different according to the amount of corneal astigmatism, the lens speed was also significantly different according to the wearing time but not the amount of corneal astigmatism. Conclusions: The axial rotation of toric soft lens was different by the lens wearer's posture and its amount was the greater with the higher degree of corneal astigmatism. Thus, these factors should be considered for the development of toric lens design.
The Effects of Corneal Eccentricity and Shape on Toric Soft Lens Rotation by Change of Postures
Kim, So Ra ; Hahn, Shin Woong ; Song, Ji Soo ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 449~456
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.449
Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of corneal eccentricity and shape on the rotational pattern of toric soft lens by the postural change of lens wearers. Methods: The corneal eccentricity of 41 eyes (aged 20s) having -1.0 D with-the-rule corneal astigmatism (WRCA) was measured, and then toric soft lenses were fitted with the amount of total astigmatism. In lying and straight postures, the rotation of toric soft lenses was recorded by a camera attached to slitlamp and analyzed. Results: Most toric soft lens designed with accelerated stabilization rotated to the temporal direction, which was the lying position direction, regardless of corneal eccentricity, and some lenses rotated to the nasal direction for high corneal eccentricity and corneal type of asymmetric bowtie. There was no correlation between the amount of rotation and corneal eccentricity right after of contact lens wearing in straight and lying posture, however, the amount of rotation was the greater for the cornea with the higher eccentricity after the subjects laying down for some period. The speed of lens rotation started to decrease after the subjects laying down, but the speed was not different according to corneal eccentricity difference. The amount of lens rotation for symmetric and asymmetric bowtie-typed corneas increased more than it for oval-typed cornea, and it was same even with time elapsing. The speed of lens rotation in lying posture was the slowest in asymmetric bowtie-typed cornea compared with other corneal types. Conclusions: From the present study, it was revealed that the rotational pattern of toric soft lens was affected by corneal eccentricity and corneal shape when the wearer's posture changed. Thus, it should be considered for the development of the fitting guideline and the design of toric soft lens.
Influence of Artificial Tear Containing Carboxymethyl Cellulose Component on Physical Properties of Hydrogel Contact lens
Cho, Seon-Ahr ; Sung, A-Young ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 457~463
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.457
To determine the impact of artificial tears which include carboxymethyl cellulose on a hydrogel contact lenses. Methods: A contact lenses made of the cross-linking agent, EGDMA (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and with added NVP (n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and MMA (methyl methacrylate) was evaluated for water content, refractive index, spectral transmittance and contact angle of produced contact lens. Results: The physical properties of the sampled copolymerized polymers showed that water content, refractive index, visible ray transmittance and contact angle were in the range of 26.61%~48.58%, 1.422~1.455, 80.8%~91.4% and
, respectively. In addition, after soaking with artificial tears, the water content, refractive index and contact angle were in the range of 24.46%~48.25%, 1.422~1.457, 77.0%~91.0% and
, respectively. The changes of the physical property depending on hydration time and showed an increase of refractive index and contact angle, decrease of water content and visible ray transmittance. Conclusions: Artificial tears which include carboxymethyl cellulose sodium which is used as a wetting agent influenced water content, refractive index, contact angle and spectral transmittance of a hydrogel contact lenses.
Comparison of Stereopsis by Influence Factors in Induced Aniseikonia
Jung, Su A ; Kim, Hyun Jung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 465~471
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.465
Purpose: This study was conducted to research effects of influence factors on stereopsis of induced aniseikonia in emmetropia. Methods: 20 college students (a mean age of
years, 14 males, 6 females) were selected as subjects and all of them had no ocular disease or systemic disease, the refractive correction of spherical equivalent within
D, the corrected visual acuity of 1.0 or better and the aniseikonia values less than 1% by AWAYA. Subject's dominant eye was checked by Hole in card method and contact lenses of -7.00 ~ +7.00D were fitted to cause anisometropia in dominant eye or non-dominant eye, respectively. And then aniseikonia was induced with spectacles to correct refractive error by contact lenses. Stereopsis was measured by Random Dot Stereo Acuity Test with LEA symbols
(Vision Assessment Corporation
, USA). Results: Stereopsis was remarkably reduced by inducing aniseikonia, with induced aniseikonia in dominant eye, with higher diopter of wearing contact lenses to induce anisometropia, with spectacles lenses correction of minus power after fitting contact lenses with plus power and in case of men. Conclusions: It should be considered to correct anisometropia that aniseikonia could cause reduction of stereopsis.
The Changes of The Eye and a Correlation Depending on Watching a Smartphone and taking in Alcohol
Lee, Jeong-Yun ; Yun, Eon-Jeong ; Kim, Sung-Min ; Hwang, Hye-Kyung ; Park, Gyeung-Ju ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 473~479
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.473
Purpose: This article tried to find the changes of the eye and a correlation depending on watching a smartphone and taking in alcohol. Methods: This paper conducted the refraction inspection, the radius of corneal curvature, tonometry and the corneal thickness measurement and analysis for 31 persons (18 males and 13 females) who have healthy drinking habit, not having the medical history of taking medicine related with disorders of the eye, a mental disease, systemic disease and alcohol metabolism. Results: Of respirations depending on watching a smartphone, the alcohol concentration was significantly decreased in 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 60 minutes and the convalescent stage. (p<0.01, p<0.001) As the result of comparing the refraction inspection after and before watching a smartphone when drinking alcohol, there was a significant difference in the cylindrical power and the axis. (p=0.005, p=0.001) The change of intraocular pressure depending on watching a smartphone after drinking alcohol was decreased significantly from 30 minutes (p<0.001), and watching a smartphone didn't have any significant effect on the corneal thickness depending on the elapsed time from when drinking alcohol. Conclusions: Watching a smartphone and taking in alcohol had a significant effect on the cylindrical power and the axis. Watching a smartphone and taking in alcohol which may cause the visual function-strain are the factors that need to consider before the refraction inspection.
A Study of Correlation Among Binocular Dysfunctions and Academic Achievement
Lee, Sun Haeng ; Cho, Hyun Gug ; Park, Chun Man ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 481~487
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.481
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions and academic achievement for primary school children. Methods: A total of 1,123 parents and their children aged 8-13 years responded to the College of Optometrists in Vision Development Quality of Life (COVD-QOL) questionnaire. Among the all participants, 123 children who have
of visual symptom scores, no amblyopia, no strabismus, no any ocular and systemic pathology, and no contact lenses wearing were chosen for this study finally. Binocular functions were evaluated for final subjects. Results: Of 123 primary school children who have criteria-eligible symptoms 93 had non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions. Accommodative dysfunction was significantly correlated to subjects of science and English, and vergence dysfunction was also significantly correlated to Korean, mathematics, social science, science and English in the final subjects. Conclusions: Correlations between academic achievement and accommodative/vergence dysfunctions were statistically significant. Therefore, accommodative/vergence dysfunctions may be factors to affect academic achievement.
Study on Physiological Summation in Peripheral Retina for Eccentric Viewing Training
Seo, Jae-Myoung ; Lee, Ki-Young ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 489~493
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.489
Purpose: This study was to investigate peripheral vision and provide people with macular degeneration with a guideline for eccentric viewing training. Methods: 30 adult subjects with normal vision took part in this study. The lateral area of
eccentricity from the fovea of right eye was only used to measure the physiological summation. The target was sinusoidal vertical gratings within a circular aperture. The critical points in spatial and temporal summation was found to compare each other for 0.7 cpd and 3.0 cpd, respectively. Results: Critical duration and contrast sensitivity for 0.7 cpd were 540 ms and 1.1, and 315 ms and 0.98 for 3.0 cpd respectively. The critical degrees and contrast sensitivity for 0.7 cpd were
and 2.8, and
and 2.63 for 3.0 cpd respectively. Conclusions: The critical point in peripheral vision reaches relatively faster than the one in central vision. It is recommended to train the peripheral retina under the lower spatial frequency more frequently for a short time than constantly for a long time.
Study on Golf Range Finder by using Biprism Theory of Keratometer
Cha, Jung-Won ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 495~501
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.495
Purpose: This study was to develop golf range finder which could measure exact distance from golfer to flag by using telescope and biprism. Methods: Golf range finder was made that included telescope and biprism which could move in the telescope, and an accuracy of the range finder was analyzed in distance range 20~200 m. Results: An equation was made for measuring distance which was related at position of biprism, and we could measure distance successfully by using developed golf range finder. Biprism of 2
was useful to measure in short distance but it had bad accuracy in long distance, and 0.5
was more useful in long distance. Image got worse when the biprism approch to focal point of objective lens for measurement in long distance, so we developed multi-layer biprism to prevent the weak point. Conclusions: Image stabilization by biprism for measuring distance was confirmed. Even if hand was moving, the distance could be measured well by using biprism, and we could find that the induced equation for distance measurement was useful. We found that multi-layer biprism, which is was new developed, was more useful than general biprism when the biprism approched to focal point of objective lens for measurement in long distance.
The Design of Wide Angle Mobile Camera Corrected Optical Distortion for Peripheral Area
Kim, Se-Jin ; Jeong, Hye-Jung ; Lim, Hyeon-Seon ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 503~507
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.503
Purpose: This study was to design wide angle mobile camera corrected optical distortion for peripheral area, which were reduced optical distortion and TV distortion by using 4 aspherical lenses. Methods: The optical design was satisfied with
optical distortion in viewing angle of
and total length of optical system was less than 4.5 mm which was considering a thickness of mobile camera. 1/3.2 inch (5M) CCD sensor was used in the optical system and set design condition to satisfy MTF which was over than 20% in 140 lp/mm. Results: Optimized wide angle mobile camera showed
optical distortion in full field of
viewing angle and TV distortion was 0.46% so that distortion of peripheral area was reduce. MTF showed over than 20% in every field. Ray aberration and astigmatism were small amount so that it showed stable performance. Conclusions: Obtain wider and clearer view which is reduced image distortion of surrounding area via optical method in wide angle mobile camera which has wider view angle than current mobile camera. And it was able to fix a demerit when it occurred via software correction. It is able to apply to study of camera which is related to spectacles.
Development of Scope with Abbe-König Prism
Lee, Dong-Hee ; Park, Seung-Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 509~517
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.509
Purpose: The purpose of this study is developing the 2.6
optical scope with a Abbe-K
nig prism. Methods: First, considering the size of the effective aperture and the focal length of the objective lens, we designed an Abbe-K
nig prism. Next, we calculated the optical and geometric distances of Abbe-K
nig prism designed in this way. After allocating the focal length of the objective lens and the eyepiece lens so as to satisfy the magnification and optical effective distance of the entire system by using this calculation result, we completed the entire system by optimizing this optical system. Results: We were able to complete the optical scope of about 2.6
magnification by designing an objective lens with a focal length of 63.13 mm which was composed of two pieces, an eyepiece with a focal length of 24.3 mm which was composed of four pieces, and an Abbe-K
nig prism with a face length 11.5 mm. Conclusions: We designed and fabricated an optical scope with 2.6
magnification employing an Abbe-K
nig prism. Then, this system became the compacted optical system with a barrel diameter of 31 mm, characterized by an effective aperture of 12.0 mm and an effective optical barrel length of 103 mm and a resolution of 200 cycles/rad at 50% MTF criterion within the half viewing field angle of
Development of Dot Sight with Prism Beam Splitter
Lee, Dong-Hee ; Jung, Bo-Seon ; Park, Seung-Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 519~524
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.519
Purpose: This study relates to the development of dot-sight device, whose length is reduced, with a prism beam splitter. Methods: We developed a new dot-sight device whose length was reduced by eliminating the optical axis tilt of the doublet reflector to reduce the occurrence of the parallax and by redesigning the doublet reflector to use a prism beam splitter. Results: We could develop the new type dot-sight device having a prism beam splitter and the dot reticle generator and the doublet reflector, of which optical axises showed a T-letter type with the optical axis of the observer's eye. Conclusions: In this study, we designed and developed a new type dot sight employing a prism beam splitter that could be able to further enhance the accuracy of the fire in comparison with the traditional dot sight, thereby reducing the overall optical length of system. The new designed dot sight was able to be reduced 2.2 times on the overall optical length, and could be improved more than three times on the accuracy of shooting in the horizontal direction, than the traditional dot sight.
Study on the Protective Effect of EGCG Against the Cytotoxicity Induced by Topical Anesthetic Proparacaine Hydrochloride
Seo, Eun-Sun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 525~531
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.525
Purpose: To identify the apoptosis caused by Proparacaine hydrochloride (PPC), a topical anesthesia, applied to conjunctival cell lines and determine whether pigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), has protective effects on. Methods: The conjunctival cell lines were treated with 0.5% of Alcaine
, 0.5% of PPC and 0.01% of Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) for 15 minutes, respectively in order to investigate the effects of topical anesthesia on cells, and followed by cultured for 12 and 24 hours. The recovery effects were investigated by measuring level of cellular proliferation inhibiting using MTT assay and LDH assay. The conjunctival cell lines were pre-treated with EGCG
for 3 hrs and post-treated with 0.5% PPC for 15 mins in order to investigate whether EGCG has protective effects, flow cytometry were performed in order to observe apoptosis. Results: A result of the additional culture of 12 and 24 hours and again immediately after the treatment for 15 minutes 0.5% of Alcaine
, 0.5% of PPC, the 0.01% of BAC, cell viability was not increased in all groups (p<0.05). The cell viabilities were higher than in cells 3 hours post-treated with
of EGCG and pre-treated PPC 0.5% (68.2%), compared to cells (
) treated only with 0.5% of PPC. PPC 0.5% also induced apoptosis in the treated group was reduced by the addition of EGCG. Conclusions: It is considered that the EGCG has cell protective effects when it is added to PPC, a topical anesthesia, by improving cell viability and inhibiting apoptosis.
Synaptic Pattern of NMDA R1 upon the Direction-Selective Retinal Ganglion Cells in Developing Mouse Retina
Lee, Jee-Geon ; Kwon, Oh-Ju ; Jeon, Chang-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 533~540
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.533
Purpose: To investigate the synaptic pattern of NMDA glutamate receptor subtype NMDA R1 on the dendritic arbors of ON-OFF direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (DS-RGSs) in developing [(5,10) days postnatal (PN)] mouse retina. Methods: ON-OFF DS-RGCs were injected with Lucifer yellow and the cells were identified by their characteristic morphology. To identify glutamatergic excitatory input from bipolar cell, we used a marker for the membrane traffic motor protein kinesin. Results: We identified DS-RGCs in P5, and P10 mouse retina. The immunofluorescence labeling of NMDA R1 was most prominent in the IPL. Our results showed that their presence upon the entire dendritic arbor of ON-OFF DS-RGCs is without any evidence of asymmetry, which would predict direction selectivity. Conclusions: The glutamatergic input from bipolar cell reveals symmetry pattern in all periods of P5, and P10. The results may suggest that direction selectivity not lies in the specific pattern of NMDA R1 receptors.
Transplantation of Marrow Stromal Cells into the Developing Mammal Retina
Lee, Eun-Shil ; Kwon, Oh-Ju ; Ye, Eun-Ah ; Jeon, Chang-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 541~548
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.541
Purpose: Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) have been known for their potential to trans-differentiate into neural and glial cells in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the influence of the developing host environment on the survival and morphological and molecular differentiation, murine MSCs transplanted into the eye of Brazilian opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Methods: Enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) - expressing MSCs were transplanted into developing Brazilian opossums. Animals were allowed to survive for up to 4 weeks after transplantation, at which time the eyes were prepared for immunohistochemical analysis. Results: Some transplanted MSCs survived and showed morphological differentiation into neural cells with some processes within the host vitreous chamber. Some transplanted cells expressed class III
-tubulin (TuJ1, a marker for neuronal cells) or glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP, a marker for glial cells) or Nestin (a marker for neural stem cells). In addition, some transplanted cells were located in ganglion cell layer but did not show morphological and molecular differentiation. Conclusions: Our result show that the most effective stage of development for transplantation into the retina was postnatal day 16, which retinas developmentally corresponded to postnatal day 4-5 days mouse retina based on cell differentiation and lamination patterns. The present findings suggest that the age of the host appears to play a key role in determining cell fate in vivo.
Minimal Illumination to Identify the Chart in Each Visual Acuity and Deviation of Identification Capability According to Illumination and Chart Contrast
Kim, Sang-Yeob ; Cho, Hyun Gug ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 549~554
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.549
Purpose: To determine the minimal illumination for visual acuity with the decimal vision chart and individual difference with varying contrast and illumination. Methods: Landolt's vision chart with 10 different grade of contrast was made. Minimal illumination was measured for 69 eyes using 100% contrast vision chart. Minimal contrast for identifying the chart was measured in conditions of the minimal illumination and 230 lx, respectively. Results: Minimal illumination was gradually increased with decrease of the chart size. Mean of minimal illumination to identify the 1.0 visual acuity was
lx with range of 17~107 lx. In conditions of the minimal illumination and 230 lx, the minimal contrast for identifying the chart were gradually increased with decrease of the chart size in both conditions, the those deviation for 69 eyes was also increased. Conclusions: For refractive correction, examiners need to consider the individual difference for identifying the visual chart according to illumination and contrast.
A Study on the Prescription of Size Lens for Myopic Aniseikonia
Kwon, Young-Seok ; Kim, Ki-Hong ; Lee, Hyun-Mee ; Chu, Byoung-Sun ; Kwon, Yun-Kyung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 18, issue 4, 2013, Pages 555~560
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2013.18.4.555
Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the stereoacuity and subjective symptoms of aniseikonia with prescription of the size lens. Methods: Participants were myopic anisometropia patients with the binocular refraction difference between 1.75 D~3.50 D. Inclusion criteria of participants were no ocular pathology, no amblyopia, more than 1.0 of corrected visual acuity. With fully corrected spectacles and a correction with the size lens, Awaya aniseikonia test and Randot Stereo test were conducted respectively. In addition, subjective symptoms were also examined using questionnaire. Results: As the anisometropia increased, the aniseikonia increased. Under the anisometropia with same refractive correction was different for each individual. The prescription of size lens caused less aniseikonia than the general prescription of glasses. In addition, prescription of the size lens improved stereoacuity and relieved the symptoms of asthenopia. Conclusions: The prescription of size lens that can correct aniseikonia with prescription of glasses can improve stereoacuity and reduced asthenopia.