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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
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Evaluation of Blue-light Blocking Ratio and Luminous Transmittance of Blue-light Blocking Lens based on International Standard
Kim, Chang-Jin ; Choi, Sung Wook ; Yang, Seok Jun ; Oh, Sang-Young ; Choi, Eun Jung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 135~143
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.135
Purpose: To evaluate the blue-light blocking ratio and luminous transmittance of blue-light blocking lenses using the blue-light hazard function as specified in international standard. Methods: In order to calculate the blue-light blocking ratio and luminous transmittance for a total of 41 blue-light blocking lenses from 8 manufacturers, UV-Vis spectrophotometer was used for measuring the spectral transmittance of wavelengths from 380 to 780 nm. Blue-light blocking ratio was calculated using blue-light hazard function as specified in ANSI Z80.3:2010 and ISO 13666(or Korean Standard KS B ISO 13666:2004). Results: The range of the blue-light blocking ratio was from 9.3 to 96.8%, the range of the transmittance from 53.5 to 92.7%, and the range of the luminous transmittance from 58.0% to 98.1%. In general the blue-light blocking lens prepared by coating tended to have a higher luminous transmittance, while those prepared by tinting a higher blue-light blocking ratio. Conclusions: The behavior of the spectral distribution of lenses showed the possibility of the performance improvement in the blue-light blocking lenses. Manufactures need to acquire their own technology that can evaluate the performance of blue-light blocking lens based in international standard.
Changes in Drug Elution Concentration and Physical Characteristics of Soft Contact Lenses Depending on the Initiator and Crosslinker
Park, Hyun-Ju ; Lee, Hyun Mee ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 145~151
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.145
Purpose: The material properties of contact lenses were measured by varying the amounts of an initiator and a cross-linking agent that are the basis for the manufacture of contact lenses, and the drug delivery effects depending on the material properties of contact lenses were compared. Methods: Contact lens samples were manufactured using HEMA by varying the concentration of the cross-linking agent and the initiator. To investigate the changes in physical characteristics depending on the material properties, the results of the experiments on the amount of drug elution, water content, refractive index, and the amount of protein adsorption were compared. Results: For the contact lenses manufactured by varying the amount of the initiator, the water content hardly changed, and the refractive index also hardly changed. The amount of drug elution was not much affected by the changes in the initiator, but the amount of elution increased as the water content increased. The amount of protein adsorption was hardly affected by the changes in the initiator, but the amount of adsorption increased as the water content decreased. Conclusions: The changes in the properties were hardly affected by the changes in the amount of the initiator, but were significantly affected by the changes in the amount of the cross-linking agent. As the amount of the cross-linking agent increased, the water content decreased, while the refractive index increased. Also, when the water content increased, the amount of drug elution increased, while the amount of protein adsorption decreased.
Changes in Subjective Discomfort, Blinking Rate, Lens Centration and the Light Transmittance of Lens Induced by Exceeding Use of Daily Disposable Circle Contact Lenses in Dry Eyes
Park, Mijung ; Kang, Shin Young ; Chang, Jung Iee ; Han, Arum ; Kim, So Ra ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 153~162
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.153
Purpose: This study was assessed to investigate the change of subjective and/or objective symptoms and the light transmittance of lens caused by the use longer than recommended wearing time of daily disposable circle contact lenses (circle lens) in dry eyes. Methods: Three daily disposable circle lenses made of etafilcon A, hilafilcon B, and nelfilcon A were applied on 30 dry eyes with smaller tear volume than normal eyes in their twenties free from any eye diseases by when subjects complained any kind of discomfort. On the first and the last days of lens wearing, subjective discomfort, blinking rate, lens centration on corneal surface and visible light transmittance of lens were recorded at every case and compared. Results: The circle lens wearers complained subjective discomfort and quit the lens wearing when they wore the circle lens longer than 10 hours even though there were some difference according to the lens materials of daily disposable circle lens. However, around 20% of dry eyes could wear the circle lens made of non-ionic materials longer than 40 hours. Dry eyes showed most sensitive feeling of subjective discomfort against the circle lens made of etafilcon A among three different lens materials. On the last day of lens wearing, the representative subjective discomforts were irritation, stiffness, dryness and tiredness. When the subjects wore circle lens more than the recommended time, blinking rate was significantly increased about 20~30% regardless of lens materials when it compared with the values right after lens wearing. On the last day of lens wearing, the vertical direction of lens centration was shifted to pupil center however, its distribution in horizontal direction was wide compared with the distribution right after lens wearing. Especially, the centration of etafilcon A lens was unstable. Furthermore, the visible light transmittance of 3 different circle lenses in dry eyes has significantly been reduced around 15% averaged. Conclusions: From these results, it was known that the increase of dryness and stiffness caused by overusage of daily disposable circle lens induced excess irritation and decreased visible light transmittance and caused significant more blinking, which provoked lens decentration. It was also revealed that dry eyes showed sensitive reaction subjectively and objectively against the overusage of circle lens made of high water content/ionic lens material even there were some difference of the degree depending on the individual and the lens material. Thus, this research can be suggested as the basic reference for the education about some unexpected problems and the side effect caused by the wearing of circle lens in dry eyes.
A Study on the Change of Corneal Refractive Power before and after Wearing RGP Contact Lenses by Flat Fitting and Alingment Fitting with Diagnostic Method
Lee, Dae-Won ; Kim, In-Suk ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 163~169
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.163
Purpose: This study is for compared the change of corneal refractive power before and after wearing of rigid gas permeable contact lense with diagnostic method which is 1 D flatter than alignment fitting on right eye and alignment fitting on left eye for 2 months and investigate the preference. Methods: Twenty middle school and high school students (40 eyes) who had never worn a contact lense before for no corneal topographical change, no ocular disease, no experience of ophthalmic surgery and have normal tear amount were selected for this study and corneal refractive power were examined before wearing rigid gas permeable contact lense and adaptation status and corneal examination were performed after 10 days of wearing and after cheking up the continuation of wearing, all candidate wear contact lens 8 hours per day for 2 month and corneal refractive power were compared. Results: After 2 months of wearing with 1 D flatter than the alignment fitting on right eyes, there was significant difference in the central corneal refractive power was
, flat K power was
, and steep K power was
decreased than before wearing (p<0.001, 0.001, 0.047). The e-value of the principal meridians also shows statistically significant difference (p=0.037, 0.015). After 2 months of wearing with alignment fitting on left eyes, the central corneal refractive power was
, flat K power was
. and flat K e-value was
which showed no statistically significant difference (p = 0.769, 0.614, 0.181). But steep K power was
, and steep K e-value was
which shows statistically significant difference (p=0.018, 0.027). Conclusions: Consider the comfort, clear vision, dryness for preference fitting investment, 6 students (30%) prefer right eye which is 1 D flatter fitting, 14 students (70%) prefer left eye which is alignment fitting. For rigid gas permeable fitting needed for accurate examination and should prescribe the alignment fitting which is suitable for each cornea.
A Study on Dye Elution from the Circle Contact Lenses
Kim, So Ra ; Kang, Ura ; Seo, Bo Min ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 171~177
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.171
Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate whether the elution of the dyes from the circle contact lenses existed or not when rubbed with cotton swab. Methods: The change of lens surface was observed by scanning electron microscope when a total of seven kinds of circle contact lens were rubbed with cotton swab, and the dye elution was further compared when the lenses were soaked in multi-purpose solution in
for a week. Results: Five of a total of 7 circle contact lenses showed the dye elution from the front or the back surface of the lens when rubbed with cotton swabs, and existence of dye elution was varied depending on the type of contact lenses and different at the front and back surface even in the same lens. The tear-off of the pigmented portion by the rubbing was found through scanning electron microscopic observation when the dye elution existed. However, the dye was not eluted when the circle contact lenses was soaked in a multi-purpose solution in
for a week. Ingredient of colorant was not provided by the manufacturers in more than 50% of the circle contact lenses investigated for this study and the basic information such as the pigmentation method was provided inappropriately. Conclusions: In this study, the result was the dye elution from circle contact lenses was obtained when a physical force is applied thus, it may appear to contribute the development of circle contact lenses and safety of lens wear.
The Deposition of Tear Protein according to Soft Lens Materials and The Cleaning Efficacy of Multi-purpose Solution according to the Surfactant Types
Park, Mijung ; Kwon, Young Dae ; Lee, Wang Jae ; Kim, So Ra ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 179~188
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.179
Purpose: The present study was aimed to investigate the cleaning efficacy of multi-purpose solutions containing different types and content of surfactants and their effect on the visible light transmittance of soft lens. Methods: Soft lenses made of different materials (etafilcon A and hilafilcon B) were deposited tear proteins by using the artificial tear and then compared the resulting cleaning efficacy and visible light transmittance after cleaning the lens with 6 types of multi-purpose solutions containing different content of surfactants. Results: The cleaning efficacy of multi-purpose solutions was variously shown as approximately 23~43% according to the active concentration of surfactants and surface tension in multi-purpose solution when etafilcon A lens cleaned with rubbing. The highest cleaning efficacy was detected when cleaned with the multi-purpose solution containing hydrogen peroxide besides surfactant however, the amount of remaining protein was still high on the lens. After washed with multi-purpose solution, the visible light transmittance of lens was in 89.8 to 90.8%. The amount of protein deposited on hilafilcon B lens was very small compared with it on etafilcon A lens even though it was incubated in artificial tears for 7 days, which showed 5~10% of protein amount in etafilcon A lens and the decrease of visible light transmittance was also not significant. In case of rubbing with multi-purpose solution, the cleaning efficacy on hilafilcon B lens was in 45.4 to 67.4% however, the order of cleaning efficacy of multi-purpose solution was different from it on etafilcon A lens. The visible light transmittance of hilafilcon B lens has been restored to the level of new lens. Conclusions: From the result, it is concluded that the appropriate multi-purpose solution should be selected according to the lens material and the amount of protein deposit on the basis of understanding surfactants and active principle for proper care of protein deposit on soft lens and the cleaning with rubbing is more efficient for lens care regardless of manufacturer's guideline.
A Correlation between Axis-Rotation and Corneal Astigmatism in Toric Soft Contact Lens Fitting
Park, Hyung Min ; Kim, So Ra ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 189~198
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.189
Purpose: The present has analyzed the correlation between the direction of lens and the amount of rotation upon soft toric contact lens fitting after classifying the corneal astigmatism. Methods: Soft toric contact lens was fitted on 114 with-the-rule astigmatic eyes with total astigmatism of at least -0.75 D in their 20s and 30s according to the fitting guideline of the manufacturer and the correlation between the astigmatic degree and the rotational direction/amount of rotation was analyzed by when keeping the eyes on the front and by changing the direction of gaze. As for re-orientation movement. The speed of lens re-orientation and total amount of lens rotation was compared and analyzed by corneal astigmatism after mis-location of lens of
to temporal and nasal direction, respectively. Results: The positive correlations were shown between corneal astigmatism and the direction of lens rotation and between corneal astigmatism and the amount of lens rotation. Meanwhile, the amount of lens rotation was different by the direction of gaze however, there was no correlation with corneal astigmatism. The speed of lens re-orientation was fastest in the group of high astigmatic degree when the lens was mis-located to both temporal and nasal directions. Conclusions: For optimal axis stabilization of toric soft lens, it is proposed that the adjustment of fitting guideline considering corneal astigmatism is necessary since the current fitting guideline is only based on total astigmatism.
Correlations between Higher-order Aberrations and Myopic Degree
Ryu, Nam-Yul ; Kim, So Ra ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 199~206
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.199
Purpose: The present study was aimed to investigate the correlation between higher-order aberration and myopic degree by the analysis of fluctuation of high-order aberration according to the change of myopic degree in certain ranges of myopia and astigmatism. Methods: The high-order aberration in a total of 992 eyes was analyzed by using a LADARWave device employing Hartmann-Shack system, and the relation between high-order aberration and myopia by the change of myopic degree through manifest refraction test. Results: In all subjects, spherical aberration and total coma aberration were significantly increased by the increase of myopic degree, however, trefoil aberration and astigmatic aberration and tetrafoil aberration were decreased. With the group of lower myopic degree, the change of coma aberration was greater by myopic degree and its change was significantly different. The change of spherical aberration by myopic degree was greatly large in the a group of -3.00 D or more and the group of -6.00 D or more where as its change was not large in the group of lower than -3.00 D. The significant decrease of coma aberration was observed only in the group of astigmatic degree of -1.00 D or less when analyzing the correlation between the higher-order aberrations and myopia in the certain groups of astigmatic degree. In the case of spherical aberration, the significant change was shown in all astigmatic groups, however, its increase was larger with the increase of myopic degree in lower degree of astigmatism. The consistent relationship in variations of horizontal and vertical coma aberration in certain myopic and astigmatic groups was neither established nor statistically significant. Conclusions: It is concluded that the correlation between the higher-order aberration and low-order aberration obtained from the results of the present study can help the understanding related to vision quality and the improvement of vision quality.
Research on the Wearing Actual Conditions of Glasses according to the Type of Parents in the Rearing of Low-income Children
Lee, Wan-Seok ; Ye, Ki-Hun ; Shin, Bum-Joo ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 207~216
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.207
Purpose: In this study, we analyzed visual acuity of children according to the rearing of the type of parents. Methods: We have done a comparative analysis about before and after of corrected visual acuity according to the wearing actual conditions with the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 document. Results: Visual acuity before correction of twoparent family's children was 0.91, single parent family's children was 0.83, grandparents family's children was 0.77 in low income and twoparent family's children was 0.80, single parent family's children was 0.77, grandparents family's children was 0.50 in lower middle income. Conclusions: In the rearing of low-income children, the lack of attention to visual acuity management according to the type of parents leads to a failing of visual acuity in myopia. The role of the parents is very important during this time period, so it is necessary to provide social interest giving decline prevention of vision.
Comparison of Accommodative System according to the Material and Font Size of Near Visual Media
Ha, Na-Ri ; Kim, Chang-Jin ; Jung, Su A ; Choi, Eun Jung ; Kim, Hyun Jung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 217~224
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.217
Purpose: This study was conducted to compare and analyze the accommodative system (accommodative response and accommodative lag) according to the material and font size of near visual media that we often encounter in daily life. Methods: Forty adult men and women aged 20 to 30 who not had specific ocular diseases and refractive surgery experience were examined to measure and compare the accommodative response according to the material of near visual media (print paper, newspaper, magazine, the I-Phone, LCD monitor) and font size (6, 8, 10, 12) by using both eyes open-view auto-refractometer. Results: The accommodative stimulus was
and the accommodative response was
. The accommodative lag namely the difference between accommodative stimulus and accommodative response was
. The accommodative response according to material of visual media using LCD monitor was
(p=0.00) and using the I-Phone was
(p=0.04). Both of them were statistically significant lower. The accommodative lag using LCD monitor was
(p=0.00) and using the I-Phone was
(p=0.04) and they were statistically significant higher. The accommodative response and accommodative lag according to font size were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusions: During near working, the accommodative system was more affected by material than font size of visual media. Especially, visual media of non-luminous material (print paper, newspaper, magazine) are considered fewer burdens on eyes than luminous material (I-Phone, LCD monitor) in terms of accommodative system.
A Relationship between Kinetic Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity
Shim, Moon-Sik ; Kang, Hye-Sook ; Kim, Sang-Hyun ; Shim, Hyun-Suk ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 225~229
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.225
Purpose: The study was to analyze the correlation between kinetic visual acuity (KVA), visual acuity(static visual angle, SVA) and contrast sensitivity. Methods: Ninety-nine undergraduate students studying Ophthalmic Optics were fully corrected by the Topcon CV-3000 Phoropter. The contrast sensitivity was measured for the participants under the photopic condition (
) with Vector Vision CSV-1000E at 2.5 meter, while KVA was measured with KOWA AS-4A. The participants were classified into three groups L, M and H depending on the KVA (0.1~0.3, 0.31~0.6 and greater than 0.61, respectively) and were analyzed whether there was the correlation between the contrast sensitivity, visual acuity and refractive error. Results: The KVA was correlated with the contrast sensitivity for 3 cpd (r=0.26), for 6 cpd (r=0.48), for 12 cpd (r=0.38) and 18 cpd (r=0.47). Except for the low frequency of 3 cpd, they all were higher than the one of the SVA and the KVA (r = -0.37). The contrast sensitivity for 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd was 59.41, 92.22, 38.41 and 14.39 in the group L, respectively. The contrast sensitivity in the group M was 66.03, 108.78, 53.51 and 19.20 and the one in the group H was 70.90, 146.10, 62.90 and 25.33 for 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd, respectively. Conclusions: The correlation of the contrast sensitivity and the KVA was higher than the one of the contrast sensitivity and the SVA. It can be assumed that the contrast sensitivity will be high if the KVA is high, except for the case for low spatial frequency.
Research of Difference between the Refractive Powers by Autorefractometer and the Prescription using Phoropter
Lee, Ju-Whan ; Lee, Koo-Seok ; Hong, Hyung-Ki ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 231~237
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.231
Purpose: This study is research of the conditions which causes difference between the refractive power of the measurement of autorefractometer and the prescription using phoropter. Methods: Autorefractometer (SR-7000) and phoroptor (AV-9000) were used to measure 60 eyes of 30 participants who had no eye diseases and wore the corrective lens due to Ametropia. To prevent the dependence of the prescription value of the refractive power on the testers, two testers measured the refractive power of the eyes of the participants at the same measuring conditions. Results: Statistically, the prescribed values of the refractive power by two testers were not significantly different. Most of the prescribed values of the refractive power were smaller than the refractive power by autorefractometer In case of myopic eyes, the difference between refractive powers by the measurement of autorefractometer and the prescription using phoropter showed the trend of increase as the spherical refractive power became larger. The result was analyzed by the range of the different cylindrical refractive power for the myopic astigmatic eyes. In this case, the difference between refractive powers showed the trend of decrease as the cylindrical refractive power became larger. Conclusions: No difference between the prescribed value by two testers was observed. In case of myopic or myopic astigmatic eyes, the difference between refractive powers by autorefractometer and the prescription were measured to be approximately proportional to the refractive powers of ametropic eyes. As the this difference become larger for the participant who needs the lens of larger refractive power, additional caution is needed in the prescription of the refractive power of the corrective lens.
Changes of Body Balance on Static Posture According to Types of Induced Ametropia
Kim, Sang-Yeob ; Moon, Byeong-Yeon ; Cho, Hyun Gug ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 239~246
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.239
Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the effect of induced ametropia on static posture for body balance. Methods: Twenty subjects (10 males, 10 females) of average age
years were participated and ametropia(binocular myopia; BM, simple myopic anisometropia; SMA, binocular hyperopia; BH, and simple hyperopic anisometropia; SHA) were induced with
, respectively. General stability (ST), weight distribution index (WDI), and fall risk index (FI) were measured using TETRAX the biofeedback systems. Each index of the body balance was evaluated for 32 seconds in each ametropic condition and those value was compared with the value in fully corrected condition. Results: The ST showed significant increase from +0.50 D under condition of BM, from +1.00 D under condition of SMA, from -1.00 D under condition of BH, and from -1.50 D under condition of SHA compared with under condition of fully corrected condition, respectively. The FI showed significant increases from +4.00 D under condition of BM, from -1.00 D under condition of BH, and from -1.50 D under condition of SHA. The WDI show no change in all ametropia condition. Conclusions: Whatever ametropia is, uncorrected refractive error could reduce the general stability of body balance and increase the falling risk.
Neural Reorganization in Retinal Outer Plexiform Layer Induced by Eccentric Viewing Training
Seo, Jae-Myoung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 247~252
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.247
Purpose: This study was to investigate the properties and the location of neural reorganization following eccentric viewing training. Methods: 14 subjects with normal vision took part in eccentric viewing training. The measurements of the light sensitivity and multifocal electroretinogram were performed before and after the training. Results: The measurements of the light sensitivity and multifocal electroretinogram for pre-eccentric viewing training and post-eccentric viewing training showed the significant difference (p<0.047 and p<0.028, respectively). Conclusions: The retinal outer plexiform layer is unable to regenerate. However, the neural reorganization in the retinal outer plexiform layer is able to take place following eccentric viewing training.
Changes in Accommodative Function of Young Adults in their Twenties following Smartphone Use
Park, Mijung ; Ahn, Young Joo ; Kim, Soo Jung ; You, Jiyoung ; Park, Kyung Eun ; Kim, So Ra ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 253~260
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.253
Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate whether near work with smartphone could induce the change of accommodative function. Methods: Total 63 subjects(26 male and 37 female) in their 20s were firstly examined their visual functions related to accommodation and uncorrected spherical equivalent power as the control. After that, the subjects were asked to read a book for 30 min and sequentially watch a movie on smartphone for the same time after 30 min-break under the indoor light or as it was in the reverse order to avoid time-ordered effect. Their accommodative functions, 1) accommodative amplitude, 2) accommodative facility, 3) relative positive/negative accommodation, and 4) accommodative lag and their uncorrected spherical equivalent power were examined again following each task and compared with the control values. Results: The monocular accommodative amplitude was significantly decreased after smartphone watching compared with it after reading. The monocular and binocular accommodative facilities were tended to reduce after smartphone watching and book reading but were not significantly different. Neither significant change in positive relative accommodation was determined after smartphone watching nor book reading. Negative relative accommodation after smartphone watching was almost unchanged unlike reading a book. The accommodative lag after smartphone work was significantly higher than after book reading. Conclusions: The near work with a smartphone for 30 min induced the change of some accommodative functions, which was significantly greater than when reading under the same working environment.
Effects of Induced Dioptric Blur on Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity
Kim, Chang-Jin ; Choi, Eun Jung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 261~270
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.261
Purpose: To study the effect of an artificially induced dioptric blur on acuity and contrast sensitivity using the
6500. Methods: Healthy 31 subjects aged
(male 16, female 15) who were recruited from university students with 6/6 (20/20) or better corrected visual acuity and normal binocularity. They were measured objective and subjective refraction for full correction and dioptric blur using 0.00 ~ +3.00 D (+0.50 D steps) trial lenses and trial frame. They were measured binocularly visual acuity and contrast sensitivity with the
6500 (Stereo Optical Co., Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) under day conditions (photopic condition,
). Results: The higher dioptric blur, the less distance visual acuity and decrease rate of visual acuity. The higher dioptric blur, the less contrast sensitivity at all frequencies, and the peak of contrast sensitivity was shifted from middle frequency (6 cpd) to low frequency (1.5 cpd). When the visual acuity was best visual acuity to 0.77, there was the peak point at 6 cpd which was normal contrast sensitivity peak point. Conclusions: If the low refractive error is uncorrected or the refractive error is inappropriate, the contrast sensitivity is decreased and the peak point of contrast sensitivity frequency is shifted abnormally though small uncorrected refractive error. So it will be considered that regular eye test and decision of refractive error correction is important.
Identification of Calretinin-immunoreactive AII Amacrine Cells in the Brazilian Opossum (Monodelphis domestica)
Jeong, Se-Jin ; Jeon, Chang-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 271~277
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.271
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunoreactivity of calretinin in Brazilian opossum (Monodelphis domestica) retina. Calcium-binding protein calretinin is known to play a key role in calcium-mediated signal transduction. Methods: Experiments have been performed by standard immunocytochemical techniques on retina of the Brazilian opossum. Results: Calretinin-immunoreactivity was exhibited within the horizontal subpopulations, AII amacrine and ganglion cell subpopulations in the Brazilian opossum retina. Especially, all calretinin-immunoreactive AII amacrine cells also expressed parvalbumin. Conclusions: Similar to other mammalian retinas, calretinin-immunoreactivity was also observed within the AII amacrine cells in the Brazilian opossum retina. Thus, calretinin can be a marker of AII amacrine cells in the Brazilian opossum retina.
A Study of Legibility by Monitor Letter Color with an Eye Tracker
Kim, Ha-Rim ; Kim, Soo-Hyun ; Shin, Dong-Min ; Jeong, Hee-Young ; Kim, Young-Gil ; Kim, Tae-Hong ; Seo, Jae-Myoung ; Jeong, Ju-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 2, 2014, Pages 279~284
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.2.279
Purpose: This study will be a basic research providing data which can reduce eye strain using monitor and electric media by measuring legibility of text color on monitor. Methods: Total experimental subjects who don't have color anomaly and best corrected visual acuity was over 1.0 were 50 and their mean age was
. Reading speed test were carried out with 163 words and subjects who could read over 123 words were selected for legibility examination. Monitor background color was white and letter colors were black, blue, red, and yellow for the legibility examination. Results: In case of text color of black, blue, red, and yellow, Event duration(sec) was measured to 41.89, 42.89, 45.32, and 56.28, respevtively, and reading error (number) was measured to 1.94, 2.74, 3.36, and 5.14. Average of fixation duration(sec) was measured to 0.25, 0.26, 0.27, and 0.32. Conclusions: In this paper, event Duration, reading error and average of fixation duration which can measure the legibility was reduced in a sequence of black blue, red, and yellow.