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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
A Relationship Between Visible Iris Diameter and Palpebral Aperture Size : Considered to Solve Uncomfortable Feeling of Soft Contact Lens
Lee, Jeong-Yun ; Youk, Do-Jin ; Lee, Ji-Young ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 285~293
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.285
Purpose: In order to find suitable size of soft contact lens for different ages group of elementary student to adults, visible iris diameter(horizontal, vertical) and palpebral aperture size were measured. Methods: Visible iris diameter (horizontal, vertical) and palpebral aperture size were measured in different age groups of total 514 subjects (1028 eyes) who have no eye disease and none history of surgery included cosmetic purpose. Results: No significant difference was found in iris diameter of both horizontal and vertical direction for different groups of age and sex but horizontal direction of palpebral aperture size in middle school students and university students groups and vertical direction of palpebral aperture size in high school student group shows significant difference (p<0.05) by sex. Horizontal visible iris diameter, vertical visible iris diameter, horizontal palpebral aperture size and vertical palpebral aperture size shows significant difference in difference age and sex. Conclusions: Visible iris diameter and palpebral aperture size are affective factor for soft contact lens diameter decision, especially it should considered more intensive for removing uncomfortable feeling of lens wearer.
Bleaching Observation of Cosmetic Color Lenses According to Multipurpose Contact Lens Solutions
Kim, Hyojin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 295~303
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.295
Purpose: This study aims to observe bleaching resulted from multipurpose contact lens solutions used to manage lenses with the subjects of colored contact lenses being distributed in Korea. Methods: The lenses have been worn for six months, and their refraction is 0.00D. Three types of colored contact lenses of which margin has been colored with a different manufacturing method have been adopted (type 1: pigment application method, type 2: chemical bonding process, type 3: sandwich method), and multipurpose solutions used were two types containing different components. Each of the colored contact lenses was stored in the multipurpose solutions for 20 days and went through vortexing for 15 seconds per day. Their fluorescence absorbance, surface roughness, brightness index, and color coordinate index were measured before and after the vortexing to see the degree of bleaching. Results: In the two types of multipurpose solutions, every type of the color contact lenses showed no statistically significant difference in their fluorescence absorbance value before and after the vortexing. Regarding surface image, the front surface of the lenses was smooth in every type, and about the back surface, type 3 indicated less protrusion than type 1 and 2. About the difference of color on the lens surface before and after the vortexing, type 3 showed significantly less difference than type 1 and 2; however, all fell into the permissible error. Conclusions: About the bleaching of colored contact lenses resulted from multipurpose solutions for soft contact lenses, there was no difference observed in terms of fluorescence absorbance and color. According to the methods of manufacturing dyes, however, there was difference in the protrusion of the posterior surface image.
A Correlation between Axis-Rotation and Corneal Eccentricity in Toric Soft Contact Lens Fitting in With-the-rule Astigmatism
Park, Hyung Min ; Park, Kyounghee ; Kim, So Ra ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 305~313
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.305
Purpose: A correlation between the rotating direction and rotation amount according to the eccentricity was analyzed in the present study when fitting the toric soft contact lens. Methods: One hundred fourteen eyes of with-the-rule astigmatism in 20s and 30s were appropriately applied toric soft contact lens by the guideline of manufacturer and fitting evaluations and analyzed the rotating direction and rotation amount when fixating at primary position and 8 different directions of gaze. The speed of reorientation and the correlation between the rotation amount and cornea eccentricity were also analyzed when rotating
each toward the temporal and nasal direction. Results: The cornea eccentricity and rotation amount was shown positive correlation. For the gaze of direction, it was identified that the gaze of directions other than the gaze of direction towards the nasal and temporal had correlation, and among them, the gaze of directions to superior and the superior-temporal showed the tendency of decreasing rotation amount as the cornea eccentricity increased. On the contrary, the gaze of direction towards the inferior, inferior-temporal, superior-nasal, and inferior-nasal showed tendency of increasing rotation amount as the cornea eccentricity increased thus, it was identified that the cornea eccentricity showed different correlation according to the gaze of direction. For the case of re-orientational speed, the speed of lens reorientation in the group having the smallest corneal eccentricity was fastest in both direction but was not significantly different. Conclusions: Considering cornea eccentricity to current method of prescribing toric soft contact lens which is based on total astigmatism, it will be helpful to establish the optimal axis stabilization.
Characterization of Hydrogel Tinted Contact Lens Containing 4-iodoaniline using Titanium Silicon Oxide Nanoparticles as Additive
Cho, Seon-Ahr ; Sung, A-Young ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 315~322
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.315
Purpose: The physical and optical characteristics of hydrophilic tinted contact lens containing titanium silicon oxide nanoparticles and the basic hydrogel contact lens material containing 4-iodoaniline were examined. In this study, the utility of titanium silicon oxide nanoparticles as a UV-blocking material for ophthalmologic devices were investigated by measuring the UV transmittance of the produced polymer. Also, titanium silicon oxide nanoparticles only without the addition of 4-iodoaniline in primary contact lens materials by copolymerizing two groups were compared. Methods: For manufacturing hydrogel lens, HEMA, MA, MMA, 4-iodoaniline and a cross-linker EGDMA were copolymerized in the presence of AIBN as an initiator. Also, the titanium silicon oxide nanoparticles was used as additive. After polymerization the physical properties such as water content, refractive index, contact angle and spectral transmittance of produced contact lenses were measured. Results: Measurement of the physical properties of the copolymerized material showed that the water content, refractive index, UV-B transmittance and contact angle were in the range of 35.01~38.60%, 1.4350~1.4418,
and 1.0~10.0%, respectively. Titanium silicon oxide nanoparticles is not used as an additive in the experimental group, the results of the measurement showed that the water content, refractive index, contan angle and UV-B transmittance of the hydrogel lens polymer was 34.00~36.80%, 1.4378~1.4420,
and 1.8~25.0%, respectively. Conclusions: Also, the transmittance for UV light was reduced significantly in combinations containing titanium oxide nanoparticles.
Contact Lens Prescribing Pattern in Korean During 2010 to 2013
Lee, Jong-Ha ; Lee, Ki-Seok ; Chu, Byoung-Sun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 323~329
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.323
Purpose: To understand the pattern of prescribing contact lenses in Korea from 2010 to 2013. Methods: Four hundred survey questionnaires were randomly posted to Korean Optometric clinics for 4 years. The questionnaire was the same form as a form used for International Contact Lens Prescribing Trend. It was also designed to collect information about the contact lenses prescribed to the first 10 patients after its receipt. Results: 1937 fits were used for the analysis among the four hundred survey questionnaires. The average patient age was
in 2012 and
in 2013. The patients were mainly women (75%). Of all the soft contact lenses, silicon hydrogel lenses were 18% of fits (17% in 2010, 10% in 2011, 20% in 2012, 24% in 2013). By degine, the percentage of toric design lenses accounted for 17% of soft lenses fits and had increased during 4 years (10% in 2010, 18% in 2011, 16% in 2012, 22% in 2013), and cosmetic contact lens made up for 29% (15% in 2010, 20% in 2011, 40% in 2012, 41% in 2013). Conclusions: The contact lenses wearers were mostly women and the average patient age becomes slightly younger. In relation to the increase in the mumber of younger female contact lens wearers,the percentage of cosmetic lenses prescription was much higher (29%) than the global average (7%), and it has gradually increased for last 4 years. This trend could be related to the growth of beauty market in Korea. By emphasizing on toric lens marketing in manufactures, the prescription rate has been gradually increased.
A Study on Comparision of the Quantity of Phoria as Way to Separation of Binocular Fusion
Kang, Seok Hyon ; Hong, Hyungki ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 331~337
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.331
Purpose: This is a comparative experimental study on the amount of phoria by the removal time of binocular fusion. In this study, three tests were used for phoria test like Howell test, Thorington test and developed 3D polarizing test. Methods: In this study, it was considered the removal time of binocular fusion for measuring phoria. The three methods were used for measuring quantity of phoria: Howell test, Thorington test and developed 3D Polarizing test. The measurements progressed quickly to avoid eye-strain. So we designed the test charts for marking 3D display modules and the apparatus inserted lenses, like Maddox lens and prism, which are compatible with three phoria tests. The phoria at the moment separation was measured when the binocular fusion was broken through the apparatus and the that at the stable separation was measured when activity of the separated two images like indicated box and figure on horizontal axis stopped. Results: There were statistically significant difference between quantity of phoria at moment separation and that at stable separation. Amount of phoria at moment separation was relatively larger than amount of that at stable separation. In result in exophoria, the quantity of phoria at moment separation was higher than that at stable separation, and in phoria measured by developed 3D polarizing test, it shows the similar results at two condition. Conclusions: For exophoria, the amount of phoria at moment separation of binocular fusion was relatively larger than that at stable separation. The amount of difference between phoria values at moment separation and that at stable separation was alike among three phoria tests. Usually in working, there is no distinction between moment separation and stable separation. But there were definitely the difference between two ways to separate binocular fusion. Therefore, it is need for writing on prescription test name for measuring phoria and condition of separation of binocular fusion.
Development of Day and Night Scope with BS Prism
Lee, Dong-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 339~344
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.339
Purpose: This study relates to the development of the day and night scope using the reflecting surface of a BS (beam splitting) prism. Methods: We have placed the LCD panel and the dot reticle generator to the top and bottom of the reflecting surface of the BS prism, and have placed a reflector, which is designed to doublet type, in the front of the BS prism. Doing so, we have developed a new type of day and night scope, which is able to image the virtual image of dot reticle from the dot reticle generator to the direction of the observer, to make the observer survey the peripheral information of the outside target by 1x magnification, and to make the observer survey the image of the LCD panel directly. Results: We could develope a new type of day and night scope, which has the function of night scope as thermal image display device at night time and the function of day scope as dot sight at day time, by letting the reflective surface of the BS prism have the role of dot sight which reflects the dot reticle and have the role of reflective optical system by which the observer surveys the night thermal image displayed in LCD panel. Conclusions: In this study, we have developed the new type of day and night scope which is able to play the role of the day or night scope selectively, combining the existing dot sight and the existing night scope by using the BS prism. By doing so, we could design and fabricate the new type of day and night scope with the BS prism which can further increase the rapidity of firing and provide more convenience in the mounting of a firearm than the detachable combination of an existing dot sight and an existing night scope.
Comparison between Stimulus and Response AC/A Ratios for Each Phoria with Additional Spherical Power
Lee, Se-Hee ; Yu, Dong-Sik ; Son, Jeong-Sik ; Kwak, Ho-Weon ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 345~351
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.345
Purpose: The accommodative response and the near horizontal phoria were examined with additional spherical power to analyze the stimulus and response AC/A ratios that suggest reference data for the binocular vision. Methods: The open-field autorefractometer (Nvision-K 5001, Shin nippon) and modified thorington method (MIM card; Muscle Imbalance Measure card, Bernell) at 40 cm were utilized to measure the accommodative response and the near horizontal phoria for 81 persons (
years old) with additional spherical power. The stimulus and the response AC/A ratios were calculated by gradient AC/A method. Results: The exophoria group showed the highest accommodative response (
) at 40 cm, followed by orthophoria group and esophoria group(
, respectively) Meanwhile, the esophoria group showed the biggest ocular deviation for the near (
) followed by the orthophoria group and exophoria group (
, respectively). The biggest difference of the stimulus and the response AC/A ratios was
for the exophoria group with -2.00 D, while the one was
for the esophoria group with +1.00 D. There was a significant difference between AC/A ratios for the exophoria group with -2.00 D, -1.00 D and the esophoria group with +3.00 D, +2.00D, +1.00D and -1.00D. Conclusions: The difference between stimulus and response AC/A was greater when increased minus spherical power for the exophoria group, while it was greater when increased plus spherical power for the esophoria group. Furthermore, the difference for the esophoria group was a greater than the one for the exophoria group.
The Effect of Myopic Degree on the Change of Higher-order Aberrations Induced by Aging
Ryu, Nam-Yul ; Park, Kyoung-Hee ; Kim, So-Ra ; Park, Mi-Jung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 353~362
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.353
Purpose: The present study was aimed to investigate the change of higher-order aberrations induced by aging and the effect of myopic degree on the correlation between age and higher-order aberrations. Methods: The higher-order aberrations in 931 eyes aged from 20 to 60 were measured by using a LADARWave device employing Hartmann-Shack system to analyze the effect of myopic degree measured by manifest refraction test on higher-order aberrations. Results: Coma and vertical coma aberrations were significantly decreased by the increase of myopic degree while vertical astigmatic aberration was significantly increased. The correlations of age and coma, vertical coma, spherical, vertical trefoil, horizontal trefoil, vertical astigmatic, horizontal astigmatic and vertical tetrafoil aberrations depended on the myopic degree, except for horizontal coma and horizontal tetrafoil aberrations. Conclusions: It is suggested to consider the myopic degree for the refractive correction including the laser surgery based on the present result that higher-order aberrations are affected by the myopic degree.
Binocular Vision Corrective Spectacle Lenses Reduce Visual Fatigue in 3-D Television Viewing
Yoon, Jeong Ho ; Kim, Jae-Do ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 363~369
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.363
Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) displays are very useful in many fields, but induce physical discomforts in some people. This study is to assess symptom type and severity of asthenopia with their habitual distance corrective spectacle (HDCS) and their binocular vision corrective spectacle lenses (BVCSL) in people who feel physical discomforts. Methods: 35 adult subjects (ages
yrs) were pre-screened out of 98 individuals to have the highest symptom/asthenopia scores following 65 minutes of 3D television viewing with HDCS. These 35 individuals were then retested symptom/asthenopia scores during they watched 3D television for 65 minutes at a distance of 2.7 m with wearing BVCSL of horizontal, vertical or base down yoked prisms. A 4-point symptom-rating scale questionnaire (0=no symptom and 3=severe) was used to assess 11 symptoms (e.g., blur, diplopia, etc.) related to visual fatigue/visual discomfort. Distance and near lateral phoria were measured using Howell phoria card and vertical phoria were measured using Maddox rod. Symptoms induced by watching 3D TV were compared between wearing HDCS and BVCSL. Results: Asthenopia in watching 3D TV with wearing BVCS was significantly lower than wearing HDCS at 5, 25, 45, and 65 minutes (all p < 0.001, paired t-tests). In only refractive error power correction power group, all asthenopia was not significantly different between HDCS and BVCSL (all
, paired t-tests). In prism correction groups for binocular imbalance, symptoms of asthenopia, however, was significantly lower for when wearing BVCSL than when wearing HDCS (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: Correction of phoria/vergence-based binocular vision imbalance can reduce asthenopia during 3D television viewing. An individual with binocular vision imbalance need corrected/compensated glasses with appropriate prisms prior to prolonged viewing of 3D television displays to reduce asthenopia/visual fatigue.
Effect of Artificially Decreased Visual Acuity upon Eye-Hand Coordination using Lee-Ryan Eye-Hand Coordination Test
Lee, Ki-Seok ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 371~376
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.371
Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of artificially decreased eye in normal vision on eye-hand coordination (EHC) when using the Lee-Ryan Eye-Hand Coordination Test recently reported. Methods: Eleven adults with normal vision aged
years participated for this study where a non-dominant eye artificially induced moderate refractive amblyopic vision at near by adding a plus lens conducted EHC tasks and then did the test again under normal vision following 2 weeks. To investigate the ability of EHC, 7 tasks including individually different level of difficulty in the Lee-Ryan EHC Test were selected to compare and analyze EHC in terms of two independent variables such as time taken and the number of errors. Results: In time taken, subjects with artificially decreased vision took more time than normal vision under monocular conditions (p=0.013), while those with the decreased vision completed their tasks faster than normal vision under binocular conditions (p=0.001). In the number of errors, subjects with the decreased vision made more mistakes (p<0.001) as shown in time taken, whereas there was no difference between monocular and binocular viewing conditions in the decreased vision. Conclusions: Unlike previous EHC tests including limitations for application, deficit in EHC can be screened by the Lee-Ryan EHC Test developed based on simple computer-based system. Therefore, it is considered that further studies relevant to deficits in visual function such as amblyopia will be carried out in clinics as well as research.
Correlation between Anterior and Posterior Corneal Astigmatism in Total Corneal Astigmatism
Kim, Hyojin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 377~382
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.377
Purpose: To investigate the effect of anterior, posterior corneal astigmatism and total corneal astigmatism on posterior corneal astigmatism by analyzing correlation. Methods: Participants were 31 patients (31 eyes) without corneal disease at the age range of 22 to 28 who had visited hospital to receive corneal refractive surgery. The total corneal astigmatism and anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism were measured using a rotating scheimpflug camera before surgery. The magnitude of astigmatism was calculated with the difference between the meridian of the steep refractive power and the flat, and With-The-Rule and inverse astigmatism were divided according to the direction of the meridian that was the steepest. Results: The averages of total corneal astigmatism and anterior and posterior astigmatism were found to be
. The magnitude of posterior corneal astigmatism was distributed between -1.0 D and -0.25 D in all the subjects, and when the magnitude of total corneal astigmatism was set as 100, the magnitude of anterior corneal astigmatism was
. Total corneal astigmatism indicated the highest correlation with the magnitude of anterior astigmatism (y = 0.871x-0.184,
) and high negative correlation with posterior astigmatism (y = -2.974x-0.184,
). All the subjects' anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism was classified into With-The-Rule. Conclusions: Anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism in the subjects in their 20's showed the magnitude of -3.8 D in 0.2 D and -0.25 D in -1.0 D separately, and both anterior and posterior astigmatism indicated a high percentage of With-The-Rule.
Changes of Refractive Errors Caused by Corneal Shape and Pupil Size
Noh, Yeon Soo ; Kim, Sang-Yeob ; Moon, Byeong-Yeon ; Cho, Hyun Gug ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 383~387
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.383
Purpose: To investigate the effect of corneal unique shape to changes of refractive full corrections when pupil size changes. Methods: Subjective refraction for monocular full correction was performed to 30 subjects (
of age, 60 eyes) in two room conditions, 760 lx and 2 lx, respectively. Pupillary diameter was measured in two conditions and the change pattern was analyzed using a peak data of corneal topography. Results: Pupillary diameter was 3.74~4.00 mm in 760 lx and 5.52~5.90 mm in 2 lx. By comparison with refractive data in 760 lx, those data in 2 lx was changed as follows: more (-) spherical power of 17 eyes (28.3%), more (+) spherical power of 10 eyes (17.7%), more (-) cylinderical power of 17 eyes (28.8%), less (-) cylinderical power of 9 eyes (15.3%), and astigmatic axis rotation of 36 eyes (62.1%). From peak data of corneal topography, the changing pattern of two principal meridians was classified into 4 types. Conclusions: Expansion of the corneal refractive surface accompanied with pupillary dilation may be a main factor that effects the changing a values of subjective refraction because of unique corneal shape. Therefore, subjective refraction should be performed under the nearest lighting condition to a main living environment.
Effects of Dry Eye Symptoms on Work Productivity and General Activity in Newly Building
Kim, Hyojin ; Park, Chan-Jung ; Lim, Byung-Seo ; Kim, Ho-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 389~396
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.389
Purpose: The study examined dry eye symptoms of occupants in a newly constructed building and its effects on their work productivity and general activity. Methods: The study subjects were 33 office workers who spent more than eight hours per day on average in a new building constructed in the past three months. The indoor air quality of the new building was evaluated by measuring aldehydes, temperature and humidity. The level of dry eye symptoms was classified into normal, mild, moderate and severe by using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). The experience of LASIK surgery, use of eye makeup, daily use time of a computer and smart-phone, and average daily working hours were also examined. The Work Limitation Productivity Questionnaire was used as the questionnaire about work productivity and general activity to measure the impairment level on a ten-point scale. Results: The concentration variation of formaldehyde in the office was
. The temperature and humidity were
, respectively. The respondents with normal, mild, moderate and severe dry eye symptoms were 15.2%, 18.2%, 18.2% and 48.5%, respectively. The severity of dry eye symptoms and impairment of work productivity and general activity demonstrated high correlations of 0.599 and 0.655, respectively (p<0.001). Compared to the normal case, severe dry eye symptoms demonstrated significantly high impairment of work productivity and interruption of general activity (p<0.001). The case of serious dry symptoms showed the possibilities of having impairment level of work productivity and interruption of general activity above three points 3.26 times (p=0.032) and 2.25 times (p=0.045), respectively, higher than that of the normal case. Conclusions: It was confirmed that dry eye symptoms among office workers in a newly constructed building affects work productivity and general activity.
Association between Axial Length and Anthropometric Value in Korean Children
Kim, Hyojin ; Lyu, Jungmook ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 397~402
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.397
Purpose: To investigate the relationship between axial length (AL) and anthropometric parameters in Korean children. Methods: This study included 40 urban school children aged 11-12 years (mean age,
years; 45.0% girls) residing in Seoul, South Korea. AL (using partial coherence laser interferometry), corneal radius, refractive error, height (m), and weight (kg) were measured. Body mass index (BMI
) and degree of obesity (DO[%]=[actual weight standard weight]/standard weight) were calculated. Furthermore, the number of hours spent reading, watching television, and using a computer every day was determined using a detailed questionnaire. Results: The students had a mean spherical equivalent refraction of
D. Weight (r=0.427, p=0.006), BMI (r=0.508, p=0.001), and DO (r=0.371, p=0.018) showed a significant positive correlation with AL. Furthermore, longer AL was significantly associated with heavier weight (p=0.041), and higher BMI (p=0.015), and higher DO quartiles (p=0.042). After adjust for age, sex, and near-work activities, multivariate linear regression models showed that weight, BMI, and DO were still significantly associated with AL. Among the near-work activities, daily reading time was significantly associated with AL. Conclusions: AL was positively related to weight as well as daily reading time in Korean urban school children.
A Study on Ocular Disease by Ages in Ulsan
Han, Sun-Hee ; Kim, Bong-Hwan ; Kim, Hak-Jun ; Park, Jo-Eun ; Baek, Jin-Hee ; Seo, Jin-Yun ; Chu, Sun-Jin ; Park, Jun-Sung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 403~406
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.403
Purpose: In this study, we studied ocular disease by age in Ulsan. Methods: We checked medical record of 300 patients who visited eye clinic in Ulsan. Results: The main ocular disease on the age of 10 was keratitis, that of 20 was dry eye syndrome & keratitis, that of 30 was chalazion & conjunctivitis, that of 40~50 was conjunctivitis, that of 60 was conjunctivitis & cataract. Conclusions: The main cause of ocular disease of 10~20's are unsuitable wear of contact lenses & long-time use of smart phone as well as computer. That of 30~50's are allergic conjunctivitis and chemical material reaction as well as other several factors. Especially, attack rate of conjunctivitis of 30~50's is higher than city because of industrial area (Ulsan). The main cause of ocular disease in 50~60's is a kind of senility. Therefore, based on the results of this study, it could be used the basic data of education on ocular disease prevention in Ulsan.
Study on Developing the Equipment of the Time Division System for Rehabilitation in People with Homonymous Hemianopia
Seo, Jae-Myoung ; Park, Gune-Ho ; Heo, Min-Young ; Jung, Ju-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 407~412
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.407
Purpose: It is investigated whether the time division system can extend the field without diplopia for people with homonymous hemianopia. Methods: The time division system was manufactured by a modified mini fan and a black cardboard. In order to verify the effectiveness of the equipment, subjects with and without the equipment took part in the experiment to bisect the space and to recognize letters. Results: Subjects with and without the equipment showed +8.91 and +18.14 degrees in the experiment to bisect the space. In the experiment reading the letters and numbers with the equipment, there were 9 percentage point increase in
charts and 15 percentage point increase in
charts. It turned out that there was a remarkable improvement for the worst group for reading the charts. Conclusions: The time division system is effective in the mobility and orientation for people with homonymous hemianopia.
Distribution of Glutamate Receptors in the Retina of the Greater Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum)
Kwon, Oh-Ju ; Jeon, Chang-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 3, 2014, Pages 413~418
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.3.413
Purpose: The objective of this study was analyzing the distribution of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate receptor to investigate the function in the retina of the greater horseshoe bat. Methods: After retinal tissues of adult greater horseshoe bat were cut into
vertical sections, standard immuno-cytochemical techniques was applied for analysis. Immunofluorescence images were obtained using the Bio-Rad MRC 1024 laser scanning confocal microscope. Results: AMPA (GluR1-4), Kainate (GluR5-7, KA1-2) and NMDA (1, 2A, 2B) mainly distributed in the inner plexiform layer and outer plexiform layer. KA1 receptors have existed not only plexiform layer but also ganglion cell layer. Conclusions: The greater horseshoe bat has same neuron and neurotransmitter to mammalian retina. These findings suggest that bat has a functional retina for visual analysis.