Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
A Study of the Impact of Sense of Values on Select Stores and Satisfaction - Centered on Eyeglasses Stores -
Lee, Jung-Kyu ; Cha, Jung-Won ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 419~427
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.419
Purpose: We propose an effective marketing strategy for eyeglasses stores on the basis of surveys about the relationships between customers' social values, customer satisfaction and selecting glasses store. Methods: All 245 surveys were conducted about customers had visited the eyeglasses store located in Seoul and Northern Gyeonggi-do regions from January 1 to June 30, 2014, and it were analyzed by SPSS v.20.0 statistical package program. Results: The order of customers' social values factors which have an influence on 'Selecting Store' is "Society oriented", "Ability oriented", "Freedom oriented" and "Happiness oriented". Also, the order of customers' social values factors which have an influence on satisfaction is "Society oriented", "Ability oriented". In addition, Customer Satisfaction is affected by Service, one of the factor of 'Selecting Store' factors. Conclusions: Each type of marketing activities should be conducted for customers by their various values. The best plan to elicit good reactions from customers is meeting them through "Society-oriented" factors. Meeting with customers through the "Ability-oriented" factors is second only to the best option. It is shown that the method to increase the satisfaction for customers' return visit is to manage 'Service factors' well.
Analysis of Mechanical Property Changes of Polymer Eyeglass Frames by Thermal Impact
Seo, Hogeun ; Yoon, Taeyang ; Noh, Hyeran ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 429~434
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.429
Purpose: To analyze thermal effect on mechanical properties of domestic commercial polymer-based eyewear frames. Methods: In this study, materials of cellulose acetate, polyamide, epoxy, and polyetherimide were exposed to high or low temperature and were mounted on universal test machine (TO-100-IC) for tensile strength test. Elastic behavior, Young's modulus, maximum displacement, and fatigue were tested with various temperature (
). Results: As a result, at room temperature, displacements of materials were changed with increasing impact load. At low temperature (
), maximum displacements of all specimens were decreased but young's modulus were increased. However, at high temperature, maximum displacements of all specimens were increased but young's modulus were decreased. Conclusions: Degree of displacements due to fatigue behavior was increased following direction of PEI, epoxy, polyamide, acetate. We concluded that commercial polymers used in eyewear frames physical properties were changed differently to exposed temperature.
A Study on the Design Identity of Optical Shop Brands
Hong, Sung-Il ; Son, Jeong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 435~443
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.435
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the design identity visual elements of optical shop brand
in order to provide objective data necessary for optical shop brands' design development. Methods: This study examined the design identity concept of the optical shop brands and analyzed visual elements of brand design identity with a focus on the symbols of domestic franchise optical shops, type of a symbol mark, representation style of logo type, color usage, use or non-use of character, etc. Results: Many symbols were directly associated with the eyeglasses, such as eyeglasses and eyes, face and iris. Along with that, letters or figures were also observed. For the type of symbol, most types were found to have the designs that took spherical and word mark shapes. Particularly, the word mark type had English words more often than Korean words. For logo types, the gothic format was dominant. In relation to the thickness of letter, thick boldface type was commonly used. The combination of 2 degrees was the color frequency used most often in the optical shop brand design. For the frequency of color usage, black and red colors were used most often. Particularly, the orange color, as well as the black color, was also often used for the main color of symbols or logo types. Meanwhile, the characters were used only in some optical shop. Most characters were animals and expressed in the cartoon and graphical forms. Conclusions: Typifier, symbol mark, logo type, color, and character are the elements forming the basic development system for brand design identity. Systematic design is needed which clearly ensures the function and role along with the mutual consistency as a important visual component of the optical shop brand.
A Study on the Students' Characteristics of Ophthalmic Optics under Bachelor's Degree Course in Academic Credit Bank System - Focus on the Educational Institutions in Gyeonggi Region -
Jung, Se-Hoon ; Park, Hee-Kyoung ; Lee, Ok-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 445~455
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.445
Purpose: By investigating the characteristics of the students ophthalmic optics under bachelor's degree course in academic credit bank system, this study aimed to utilize this survey as a basic material for the operation and the improvement of academic credit bank system as the continued education for opticians. Methods: A questionnaire survey for the characteristics of the students was conducted on 98 bachelors who registered in the academic credit bank system and an analysis was made out of the result. Results: As the purpose of selecting the academic credit bank system, acquisition of bachelor's degree took the major portion (51.0%); for information route, school or superior at work took the major portion (33.7%); and for educational institution, alma mater took the major portion (31.6%). Family cooperation (72.4%) to the students in the academic credit bank system was higher than workplace cooperation (46.9%) or social cooperation (39.8%). For the time required for the bachelor's degree course in the academic credit bank system, 2 semesters (55.6%) took the major portion, and 38.9% for entering graduate school and 5.6% for university transfer. The result showed a significant difference in the information route for the academic credit bank system (p<.05), selection criteria for educational institution (p<.05) and workplace cooperation (p<.01) depending on the age. It showed a significant difference in the selection purpose for the academic credit bank system (p<.01), average attendance day (p<.05), workplace cooperation (p<.01) and difficulties (p<.01) depending on working place. It showed a significant difference in the selection criteria for educational institution (p<.01) and family cooperation (p<.05) depending on the academic system of their alma mater. It showed a significant difference in the information route (p<.05), the selection criteria for educational institution (p<.01) and workplace cooperation (p<.05). Conclusions: It is necessary for optometrists to study and pay more attention to continuing education, and the operation and support for the academic credit bank system should be made in consideration of the characteristics of students.
The Importance and Difficulty of Work Capability, and the Educational Needs for Optometric Duty in Student and Optometrist
Park, Hee-Kyoung ; Lee, Ok-Jin ; Jung, Se-Hoon ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 457~469
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.457
Purpose: This study was to evaluate students and optometrist in the importance and difficulty of work capability, and the educational needs for optometric duty in order to use them as basic data for the improvement of the curriculum. Methods: 292 ophthalmic optic's college students and 123 optometrists were surveyed in the importance and difficulty of work capability, and the educational needs for the optometric duty, and data was statistically analyzed for the results. Results: The mean of the importance of work capability was higher for the optometrists (3.61) than for the students (3.51) and glasses dispensing was the highest for both students and optometrists. The mean of the difficulty of work capability was higher for the students (2.75) than for the optometrists (2.67), which was the highest in refraction for the students and in prescription for the optometrists. The mean of educational needs was higher for the optometrists (3.53) than for the students (3.45), which was the highest in glasses dispensing for the students and highest in refraction for the optometrists. There were significant differences in some tasks in between the students by gender, grade and desired working place, while between the optometrists by gender, age, work experience, working place and working area (p<0.05). Conclusions: It is necessary to improve a curriculum of the Department of Opthalmic Optics, and develop a standard curriculum reflected the importance and the difficulty of work capability, and the educational needs regarding to optometric duty.
A Study on the Method for the Local Transmittance Measurements of the Ocular Lens
Park, Sang-Kook ; Ri, Hyeong-Cheol ; Youk, Do-Jin ; Sung, Duk-Yong ; Kang, Sung-Soo ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 471~477
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.471
Purpose: We have analyzed the transmittance distribution of the ocular lens using local transmittance microscope to investigate the optical homogeneity of the lens. Methods: The transmittance of the laser which is focused on the surface of the ocular lens was measured by using the photo-detector and lock-in amplifier and analyzed. Multi-coated, uncoated, and progressive lenses were analyzed. Results: In the measurement of the progressive lens and a physical stimulated lens, local transmittance microscopy analysis showed a high degree of match with the measurement results through the optical microscope. In addition, the average value of the transmittance is reduced and the standard deviation was increased in the presence of optical defects. In unstimulated lens, there are a large impact on transmittance whether the anti-reflective coating is presence or absence in both the local transmittance microscopy and general transmittance analysis. Conclusions: The distribution of the transmittance measured by local transmission microscopy were changed when the various stimulus is applied to the lenses. These analyzes by local transmission microscopy can be utilized as a way to evaluate or determine the uniformity of the coating film or lens.
Development of Prism Dot-sight Combined with Thermal Imaging Camera
Park, Seung-Hwan ; Jung, Bo-Seon ; Lee, Dong-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 479~485
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.479
Purpose: This study relates to the development of the prism dot-sight combined with the thermal imaging camera. Methods: We have placed a reflector designed to the doublet type in the front of a BS (beam splitting) prism, have placed an OLED panel and a dot reticle generator to the top and bottom of the reflecting surface of the BS prism, and have placed a detachable magnifier between the BS prism and the observer by which the observer can see the magnified image of the OLED panel. By doing this, we were able to configure the new type prism dot-sight combined with the thermal imaging camera. Results: By placing the removable magnifier designed with a new type between the BS prism and the observer, we could design the new type prism dot-sight which performs the role of the dot sight by removing the magnifier during the day-time, and performs the role of the night scope during the night-time by which we can observe the enlarged image of the thermal imaging camera through the BS prism by attaching the removable magnifier. Conclusions: In this study, we have developed the prism dot-sight combined with the thermal imaging camera which is able to play the role of the day or night scope selectively, by disposing the designed magnifier characterized by the focal length of 44 mm, the viewing angle of
, and the MTF value of 0.5 or more at the criterion of 50 lp/mm and the 0.7 field between the BS prism and the observer. By doing so, we could design and fabricate the new type prism dot-sight combined with the thermal imaging camera which can further increase the rapidity of firing and provide more convenience in the mounting of a firearm than the detachable combination of an existing dot sight and an existing night scope.
Development of 3X Scope with Objective Configured with Doublet+Meniscus Lens
Lee, Dong-Hee ; Park, Seung-Hwan ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 487~492
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.487
Purpose: This study relates to the development of the 3X scope, whose objective part is configured with a doublet + a meniscus lens. Methods: By the initial condition of the objective part having a configuration of a doublet + a singlet, we could optimize the optical system of scope in order to minimize the finite ray aberrations of the objective part and the whole optical system of scope, and so we could develope a new type 3X scope. Results: On the condition of the objective part having a configuration of a doublet + a singlet, when the optical system of scope was optimized in order to minimize the finite ray aberrations, we could find that the singlet became the meniscus type lens having the concave shape to the direction of the doublet, and the longer the distance between the doublet and the meniscus lens is, the more the finite ray aberrations are minimized. Conclusions: In this study, we could develope a new type 3X scope of which finite ray aberrations can be reduced to 1/14 than the existing scope by adopting the objective part of the 3X scope having a configuration of three lenses composed of a doublet + a singlet. We could confirm that this reduction of aberrations can be a means to increase the effective aperture than the existing scope and to shorten the length of the optical system.
The Visual Distribution Map Based on the Geographic Information System for Ocular Health State
Kim, Hyojin ; Kim, Hyi Jin ; Park, Chang Won ; Lee, Eun-Hee ; Kim, Hee Ju ; Ryu, Jungmook ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 493~498
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.493
Purpose: This study utilized the Geographic Information System (GIS) which is one of the representative methods for describing visual distribution, to show the distribution of visions of middle and high school students in 16 cities or provinces in Korea. Method: The data of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analysed from 2009 to 2011 and designed a population-based cross-sectional study. The subjects were total 1,049 students at the age of 13 to 18 and uncorrected vision was provided. Male subjects were 549 (52.3%) and female subjects were 500 (47.7%). Subjects were divided into 16 cities or provinces and average vision of regions were analysed. the differentials of vision among the regions were analysed by as a spatial analysis method. Results: The average uncorrected vision were significant difference by sex (p=0.001). However male and female student groups' average vision indicated no statistically significant difference by region in those 16 cities and provinces. In order to show the differentials of middle and high school students' vision by region with a visual distribution method, the GIS was utilized for mapping. Conclusions: The differentials of vision among regions by GIS provide a visually effective distribution map.
Comparative Analysis of Questionnaires for Dry Eye Screening Test
Kim, Da-Young ; Lee, Sun-Haeng ; Cho, Hyun-Gug ; Kim, Kun-Kyu ; Kim, Ha-Na ; Moon, Byeong-Yeon ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 499~504
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.499
Purpose: This study is to evaluate the accuracy of dry eye screening test by comparing coincidences between three types of questionnaires and objective tests. Methods: 90 adults were classified into the normal and dry eye groups using evaluations of three types of questionnaires (SPEED, OSDI, TERTC-DEQ) and objective tests (NIBUT, Schirmer test). Coincidences-between the results of objective tests and questionnaires were compared and analyzed for dry eye diagnosis. Results: Coincidences between NIBUT test and each questionnaire were 83.3% by SPEED, 77.8% by OSDI and 72.3% by TERTC-DEQ, respectively. Concordance by SPEED was highest among three types of questionnaire. Coincidences between the Schirmer test and each questionnaire were 57.8% by SPEED, 58.9% by OSDI and 73.3% by TERTC-DEQ, respectively, thus coincidence by TERTC was higher than by others. But coincidences by Schirmer test were generally lower than those by NIBUT test. Conclusions: SPEED questionnaire showed the highest concordance with objective test as compared with others. Therefore, SPEED is expected to be used usefully to diagnose dry eyes.
A Study on the Change of Contrast Sensitivity with Breath Alcohol Concentration in Various Luminance
Nam, Soo-Kyung ; Jung, Su A ; Kim, Hyun Jung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 505~511
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.505
Purpose: This study was to investigate the effect of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) increase with drinking alcohol on contrast sensitivity in the conditions of restricted BrAC. Methods: 23 males in 20s (average age
years, body mass index (BMI)
) were selected and administered the amount of alcohol to reach 0.05% and 0.08% BrAC calculated by BAC (blood alcohol concentration) Dosing Software program, which was developed as basis of Watson's formula. Then, the contrast sensitivity in various luminance conditions (photopic, mesopic, and mesopic with glare) was measured and compared between these conditions. Results: The contrast sensitivity in all spatial frequency was decreased with BrAC increase. Although BrAC was increased, the peak of contrast sensitivity didn't change as 6 cycle per degree (cpd) in the photopic condition and 3 cpd in the mesopic condition, respectively. But, in the mesopic condition with glare, the peak of contrast sensitivity was shifted from 6 cpd at 0% and 0.05% BrAC to 3 cpd at 0.08% BrAC with increase of alcohol concentration. Conclusions: The increase of BrAC by drinking alcohol induces the decrease of contrast sensitivity in all spatial frequency and the shift of peak of contrast sensitivity, which can cause safety accidents, and may have an effect on various visual tasks.
A Study on Color Distortion according to Colors and Luminous Transmittance of Lenses using Word-color Test
Lee, Gyeong Sun ; Jung, Su A ; Kim, Chang Jin ; Yang, Seok Jun ; Oh, Sang-Young ; Jeon, Byoung Jin ; Kim, Hyun Jung ; Choi, Eun Jung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 513~518
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.513
Purpose: This study was to investigate color distortion by colors and luminous transmittance of lenses with word-color test included in computerized neurocognitive function test (CNT). Methods: 32 subjects aged
years with no ocular disease and color vision deficiency were selected. Four colors of tinted lenses, which were red, green and blue included in the primary colors of light and pink, and word-color test in CNT to evaluate changes in cognitive function by color distortion were used. Results: Response time was not significantly increased in green, blue, and pink among four colors, but significantly increased in only red color. And response time was significantly increased below 46% of luminous transmittance in red color. Conclusions: It should be cautious and careful of the red-tinted lens choice because red color with below 46% of luminous transmittance can distort colors of objects, and it could be related to safety problem. It is suggested that word-color test could be extensively used for further studies on color recognition.
The Comparative Assessment of the KVA and Dynamic Stereoacuity
Kim, Young-Cheong ; Shim, Hyun-Suk ; Kim, Sang-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 519~525
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.519
Purpose: On this study, we investigated the relationship between the kinetic visual acuity (KVA) and the dynamic stereoacuity and the effects of anisometropia with measuring KVA and the dynamic stereoacuity. Methods: For 63 adults (male 30, female 33), KVA and the dynamic stereoacuity were measured by using the kinetic visual acuity tester (KOWA AS-4A) and the Howard-Dolman test (H-D test) at distance 2.5 m after conducted full correction of subjects' refractive error respectly. Results: The means of KVA were
for total subjects,
for female, and LogMAD (Log minimum angle of displacement) dynamic stereoacuities were
of arc) for total subjects,
of arc) for male,
of arc) for female. KVA showed a statistically significant difference between male and female (p=0.00), but dynamic stereoacuity was no significant difference (p=0.97). No significant correlation was present between KVA and dynamic stereoacuity (r=0.03). Also there were no significant differences in the dynamic stereoacuity of the three group which were classified according to the low, middle, high range of KVA (p=0.99). The anisometropia were less than 1 D and over 1 D when divided into two groups, KVA and dynamic stereoacuity showed no significant difference between each (p=0.11, p=0.99). There was no significant correlation between anisometropia and KVA (r=0.33), dynamic stereoacuity (r=0.18) but the correlation between KVA and anisometropia revealed more higer than between dynamic stereoacuity and anisometropia. Conculsions: The KVA for adults showed a significant difference between male and female and male was higher than female for KVA. The dynamic stereoacuity due to the KVA, the KVA and dynamic stereoacuity due to anisometropia were not significant differences between each and also were not great correlations.
Induced Prisms of Wearing Glasses Measured by Photographing
Shin, Hyung-Sup ; Jang, Jun-Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 527~532
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.527
Purpose: The matching of the optical center and the pupil center was measured by photographs in wearing glasses. In this study, the influences of the induced prism by the mismatching are studied. Methods: 74 subjects (148 eyes) who were spectacles wearer were participated in this study. The mean age was
years (range 19-55 years). The facial photographs of subjects were taken while wearing spectacles. The matching of the corneal reflected image and optical center of the spectacle lens in the horizontal deviations, and the vertical deviations were measured by the observation of the photo image. The prisms induced in accordance with various frame type were calculated from the mismatching deviations. Results: The binocular horizontal deviations were
for the metal frame,
for the clings type plastic frame, and
for the plastic frame. In the horizontal direction induced prism, the ratio over the tolerance was 23%. The ratio were the 17.6% at the BI prism, and 5.4% at the BO prism. The binocular vertical deviation comparisons were
for the metal frame,
for the clings type plastic frame, and 1
for the plastic frame. In the vertical direction induced prism, the ratio over the tolerance was 44.6%. Based on the refraction power, the ratio were 12.2% at -0.25
, and 32.4% at -3.00
. Conclusions: The induced prisms in the horizontal direction were much in the BI prism. The binocular vertical deviations of the glasses.
The Study of Visual Fatigue by Monitor Letter Contrast with an Eye Tracker
Kim, Ha-Rim ; Jeong, Ju-Hyun ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 533~538
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.533
Purpose: This study is to investigate correlation between eye fatigue and letter contrast according to letter contrast changes on monitor display. Methods: Reading speed test were carried out for 53 subjects (mean age:
years) who have over Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) 1.0, and 45 subjects, who could read over 123 out of 163 letters among 53 subjects were selected. They were asked to read the letters which were composed of Black (contrast 100%), Dark gray (contrast 80%), Gray (contrast 80%), Light gray (contrast 30%) randomly. The change of their eye fatigue by letter contrast on monitor display was measured by monitoring their eyes with an eye-tracker while they were reading letters. Results: Event Duration (sec) was 33.635 for Black, 32.266 Dark gray, 33.936 for Gray, and 34.848 for Light gray. Average of Fixation Duration (sec) was 0.224 for Black, 0.218 for Dark gray, 0.239 for Gray and 0.243 for Light gray. Average of Pupil diameter (mm) was 41.133 mm for Black, 41.160 mm for Dark gray, 40.880 mm for Gray and 40.459 mm for Light gray. Frequency (blinks/sec) was 0.211 for Black, 0.206 for Dark gray, 0.221 for Gray, and 0.238 for Light gray. Conclusions: Event Duration and average of Fixation Duration were the shortest for Dark gray and the longest for Light gray. In average Pupil diameter was the biggest Dark gray and the smallest for Light gray. Blink Frequency (blinks/sec) was the lowest for Dark gray and the highest for Light gray. Visual fatigue by brightness of letters on monitor display was the least for Dark gray followed by Black, Gray and Light gray.
The Change After Visual Training of Forced Vergence Fixation Disparity Curve
Choi, Sun-Mi ; Lee, Ki-Young ; Park, Hyun-Ju ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 539~550
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.539
Purpose: This research was designed to figure out if there are changes based on types of vergence fixation disparity curve after optical correction and vision training to for people with steep slope of forced vergence fixation disparity curve and symptoms. Methods: For 30 subjects out of 91 subjects, who have steep slopes of fixation disparity curve examined with Wesson Fixation Disparity Card and symptoms about steep slope of fixation disparity curve, proper vision training was offered for 5 weeks. Results: After Vision training for 30 people with the symptoms of type I, II, III, IV for 5 weeks, slope of fixation disparity curve was significantly changed (p=0.013), and the results of binocular vision test and subjective symptoms were also significantly improved. Conclusions: Vision training can not only affect the change of fixation disparity curve, but also relieve the symptoms. Fixation disparity curve has lots of visual function information of the subject and can be suggested as a guideline for prescribing.
Effect of Visual Sensory Improvement by Amblyopia Treatment on Improvement of Ocular Functions
Kim, Jae-Do ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 19, issue 4, 2014, Pages 551~555
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2014.19.4.551
Purpose: This study is to investigate if the improvement of visual sensory (VS) by amblyopia treatment affects the ocular functions in refractive errors, accommodative errors and phoria at distance and near. Methods: 10 subjects (17 eyes, mean age of
years) who treated amblyopia completely, were participated for this study. Refractive errors, accommodative errors, and distance and near phoria were compared between before and after treatments of amblyopia. Refractive errors and accommodative errors at 40 cm were measured using openfield auto-refractor (NVision-5001, Shin Nippon, Japan) and using monocular estimated method (MEM) respectively. Phoria was determined at 3 m for distance and at 40 cm for near using Howell phoria card, cover test or Maddox rod. Results: Mean corrected visual acuity (CVA) significantly increased from
(decimal notation) for before amblyopia treatment to a level of
for after amblyopia treatment (p < 0.001). For spherical refractive error, hyperopia significantly decreased from
to a level of
(p < 0.05) but astigmatism did not significantly change;
for before treatment and
D for after treatment (p > 0.05). Accommodative error significantly decreased from accommodative lag of
to a level of
(accommodative lag) (p < 0.05). Distance phoria significantly changed from eso
(prism diopters) to a level of eso
(p < 0.05), and near phoria also significantly changed from eso
to level of exo
(p < 0.05). There was a high correlation (r = 0.88, p < 0.001) between improvement of visual acuity and decrease of accommodative lag. Conclusions: Hyperopic refractive error decreased with improvement of CVA or VS by amblyopia treatment. And the improvement of VS by amblyopia treatment also improved accommodative error, and changed phoria coupled with accommodation.