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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Influences on Store Selection and Recommendation Intention According to Lifestyles - Centered on Optical Shops -
Cha, Jung-Won ; Lee, Jung-Kyu ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 83~92
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.83
Purpose: This study was performed to offer some more effective marketing strategies for optical shops on a basis of analyses of what lifestyles influence most on 'store selection' and 'recommendation intention' and of what properties of 'store selection' influence most on 'recommendation intention'. Methods: Questionnaire surveys were conducted from the customers who visited the optical shops in Seoul and northern Gyeonggi-do region from January 1 to June 30, 2014. It was analyzed via utilizing SPSS v.20.0 statistical package program. Results: The results in lifestyle-factors which influence on store selection were arranged in order as follows: 'stability oriented', 'goal oriented', 'cultural activity oriented'. And the results in value-factors which influence on 'recommendation intention' were arranged in order as follows: 'stability oriented', 'health oriented'. The most positive factor for 'recommendation intention' was revealed as 'dealing with customers' among several factors of 'store selection'. Conclusions: Today's marketing activities for customers should be suited for different lifestyles of customers. Customers who have 'stability oriented', 'goal oriented', and 'cultural activity oriented' lifestyles tend to select optical shops in consideration of 21 items when selecting an optical shop. Customers who have 'stability oriented', and 'health oriented' lifestyles have positive influences related to 'recommendation intention'. Also, it is likely for customers to recommend optical shops to others when the factor 'dealing with customers' meets their expectations.
Research Trends Analysis of Published Papers in the Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
Jung, Se-Hoon ; Park, Hee-Kyoung ; Lee, Ok-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 93~104
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.93
Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the research trends of Ophthalmic Optic by targeting the papers published in the Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society and serve it as a basis for future researches. Methods: This study was conducted through a statistical analysis of the general characteristics, researcher characteristics, research characteristics and the research trends from total 990 papers, from the first issue to the last issue in 2014, published in the Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society. Results: Most common number of the authors of the published papers were two or three, respectively 26.8%. Most of the lead authors belong to the schools in Jeolla-do province (31.3%). Most of the educational system of which lead authors belong to is four-year-course system (43.0%). Most common research methods were optometric tests (40.9%). The most common subjects of researches are about the field of optometry (29.8%). The study shows that there were significant differences in the research methods depending on the school systems of the universities to which the lead authors belong (p=0.000). There also were significant differences in the school systems of the universities to which the lead authors belong, and research methods depending on the research subjects (p=0.000). There were meaningful differences according to the period divisions (1996 to 2004 and 2005 to 2014), i.e. the number of authors has been growing, and it is the same case for the number of the authors who belong to four-year-course universities (p=0.000). The number of papers on optometry and contact lenses have increase. The benefits of the research funds have also increased (p<0.005). In addition, the number of the lead authors in the Seoul and Chungcheong province have increased (p=0.000). Conclusions: For the development of the Ophthalmic Optics, it is necessary to broaden the stratum of researchers and deal with various research topics, And joint efforts between eyewear industry and academia and international cooperations are needed.
Analysis of Vertex Refractive Power Accuracy of Soft Contact Lens with Holder Type
Lee, Min-Jae ; Sung, A-Young ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 105~115
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.105
Purpose: The accuracy for measuring the refractive power of hydrogel contact lenses by spectacle lens holder and contact lens holder was evaluated. The accuracy for each sample was also analyzed with water content and diopter categories. Methods: The hydrogel contact lenses used for measurement were classified into three categories in water content (38%, 43%, 58%). Also, three diopter categories of refractive power were used such as -3.000 D, -7.000 D, -10.000 D. And also, the reliability of measurement results were evaluated by measuring refractive power with spectacle lens holder and contact lens holder using an Manual lensmeter. Results: In case of spectacle lens holder method, the average value of refractive power was -3.3273D for -3.0000 D, -7.1306 D for -7.0000 D and -10.2944 D for -10.0000 D, respectively. In case of contact lens holder method, the average value of refractive power was -3.1060 D for -3.0000 D, -7.0028 D for -7.0000 D and -10.2611 D for -10.0000 D, respectively. In measurement of all diopters, the accuracy of contact lens holder method was better than spectacle lens holder method. Conclusions: From these results, it is judged that the refractive power of soft contact lens by manual lensmeter with contact lens holder have a higher accuracy than spectacle lens holder.
Comparison of Accommodative Function of Young Adults in their Twenties Wearing Monovision, Modified Monovision and Multifocal Soft Contact Lenses
Lee, A-Young ; Kim, Jeong-Mee ; Lee, Koon-Ja ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 117~124
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.117
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the accommodative function of young adult in their 20s wearing monovision, modified monovision, and aspheric multifocal contact lenses at near task. Methods: Thirty young adults (
) were fitted with monovision, modified monovision (the application of single vision contact lenses and center-near low addition aspheric multifocal contact lenses), and aspheric center-near multifocal contact lenses. After wearing these modalities during a week for adaption, and after watching visual display at computer for inducing accommodative pressure for 1 hour. The following assessments of accommodative function were made: contrast visual acuity (VA) at distance and near; accommodative response; near accommodative facility; and negative relative accommodation (NRA)/positive relative accommodation (PRA). All measurements were carried out binocularly. Results: In binocular distance VA with contrast of 10%, monovision was the worst among the four modalities (p=0.005). In accommodative response at 1 m (1.00 D), monovision was the lowest (p<0.05) and accommodative response at 40 cm (2.50 D) with monovision was lower than that of modified monovision and multifocal contact lens (p<0.05). We also found that there were no significant differences in accommodative facility and NRA/PRA among the four modalities. Conclusions: In young adult (20s), monovision with low add reduced the accommodative response at near task, however, modified monovision and multifocal lens with center-near type did not affect accommodative relaxation.
The Effect of Circle Contact Lens on the Stability of Tear Film
Lee, Sehee ; Hyung, Sung Min ; Koh, Seung Hwan ; Park, Mijung ; Kim, So Ra ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 125~131
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.125
Purpose: The effect of pigmentation in circle contact lens on lens wearers' tear film stability was investigated in this study. Methods: Non-invasive tear film break-up times of 54 normal eyes before and after lens wearing in twenties and the portion of first tear breakup were measured. The frontal and back surface roughness of circle contact lens was further observed with a scanning electron microscope. The clear lens which was made of hilafilcon B and circle contact lenses which were made of hilafilcon B, polymacon and copolymer of HEMA NVP were tested. Results: Non-invasive tear film breakup time was significantly reduced compared with it before lens wearing. In some case, statistically significant difference in tear film breakup time was also observed between circle contact lenses. The tear file break-up was usually early started in lower than upper portion, and in temporal than nasal portion although there was variation in the lens material. The tear film break-up of circle contact lenses made of hilafilcon B was more commonly observed in peripheral portion(pigmented area) compared with clear contact lens made of same material. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the stability of tear film was affected by wearing circle contact lens and the result seems to be used as the basis for the problem solving that can occur due to the pigmentation when wearing circle contact lens.
Difference in Rotation Pattern of Toric Soft Contact Lenses with Different Axis Stabilization Design
Park, So Hyun ; Kim, Dong Yeon ; Choi, Joo Hee ; Byun, Hyun Young ; Kim, So Ra ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 133~140
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.133
Purpose: It was investigated whether two different stabilization designs of toric contact lenses changed the rotational axis and degree of toric lenses according to body posture and gaze direction in the present study. Methods: Toric soft contact lenses with Lo-Torque
design and ASD design (accelerated stabilized design) were fitted on 52 eyes aged in 20s-30s. Then, rotational degree was measured at the five gaze directions including front gaze and the lying position. Results: When gazing the front and vertical directions in the upright posture, lens was much rotated to nasal side for the Lo-Torque
design and temporal side for the ASD design. When gazing horizontal direction, both design lenses were rotated against to the gaze direction. Rotation degree was the smallest at superior direction gaze and the largest at nasal gaze. In case of the rotation degree less than
design was more frequent when gazing front and vertical directions, and ASD design was more frequent when gazing horizontal direction. In addition, the lens with Lo-Torque
design was lesser rotation degree than with ASD design immediately after lying. On the other hand, the lens with ASD design was lesser rotation degree than with Lo-Torque
design 1 minute later after lying. Conclusions: This study confirmed that axis rotation of the lens induced by gaze direction and posture was different according to axis stabilization design during wearing toric soft contact lens.
The Effects of Corneal Type and Corneal Astigmatism on Tear Volume between Rigid Gas Permeable Lens and the Cornea
Kim, Jihye ; Kim, So Ra ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 141~150
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.141
Purpose: In the present study, a difference in tear volume between the cornea and the rigid gas permeable (RGP) lens relative to corneal shape and corneal astigmatism was investigated by the alignment fitting status of spherical and aspherical RGP lenses. Methods: Spherical and aspherical RGP lenses were fitted with alignment in 77 subjects (135 eyes) who were in their 20~30s. Tear volume stained with fluorescein was qualitatively analyzed by dividing cornea into center, mid-peripheral and peripheral parts. Results: For the spherical RGP lens fitting, tear volume differences were found in each part in all corneal types. For the aspherical RGP lens fitting, tear volume differences were in each corneal part in symmetric bow tie- and asymmetric bow tie-type corneas. However, the tear was equally distributed from the center to the peripheral part in round- and oval-type corneas. In the group with corneal astigmatism lower than 1.25 D, tear volume between center and peripheral parts, and mid-peripheral and peripheral parts, was different when a spherical RGP lens was fitted. However, tear volume in each part was not different in the group with corneal astigmatism over 1.50 D. Moreover, the tear volumes of the central and mid-peripheral parts were proportionally increased with increasing corneal astigmatism in both spherical and aspherical RGP lenses. Furthermore, aspherical RGP lenses showed greater increments than spherical RGP lenses. Conclusions: The results revealed that the difference in tear volume between aspherical RGP lens and cornea was less than spherical RGP lens, and the difference in tear volume varied according to corneal shape and astigmatism. In addition, the method of measuring relative tear volume between RGP lens and cornea that was established in the present study can be used to evaluate tear volume between contact lens and cornea.
Comparison of Corneal Edema Induced by Material of Contact Lens
Kim, Ki-Sung ; Kim, Sun-Kyung ; Kim, Tae-Hun ; Kim, Hyo-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 151~156
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.151
Purpose: This study has been compared the degree of corneal edema arising from the material of the lens after wearing the recommended wearing time for the contact lens. Methods: For the study, 43 adults of 77 eyes who did not use drugs and have not any disease participated. Three types of lenses including narafilcon A, HEMA, and silicone hydrogel material regular replaceable lenses were used. Central corneal thickness was measured before and after 8 hours from wearing lenses using Pentacam. The degree of corneal edema was determined by the difference before and after wearing. Results: The average corneal edema of narafilcon A, HEMA material lens, and silicone hydrogel material regular replaceable lens were
, respectively. The central corneal thickness after wearing narafilcon A was not statistically significant with the central corneal thickness before wearing the lens. Central corneal thickness before and after wearing HEMA material lens and silicone hydrogel material regular replaceable lens were statistically significant. Conclusions: The amount of corneal edema induced by silicone hydrogel material regular replaceable lens was no statistically significant difference to the amount of corneal edema induced by HEMA material lens, but there was significant difference to narafilcon A. Therefore, it is judged to be careful not to exceed the recommended wearing time depending on the composition of the contact lens material.
Comparison of Central and Peripheral Refraction in Myopic Eyes after Corneal Refractive Surgery and Emmetropes
Kim, Jeong-Mee ; Lee, Koon-Ja ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 157~165
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.157
Purpose: To evaluate changes in central and peripheral refraction along the horizontal visual fields in myopic corneal refractive surgery group compared with emmetropes. Methods: One hundred twenty eyes of 60 subjects (
years, range: 20 to 29) who underwent myopic refractive surgery and 40 eyes of 20 emmetropes (
years, range: 20 to 25) were enrolled. The central and peripheral refractions were measured along the horizontal meridianat
in the nasal and temporal areas using an open-field autorefractor. For analysis of post-op group, the group was classified by pre-op spherical equivalents of < -6.00 D and
as two post-op groups. Results: Pre-op spherical equivalent was
(rang: -2.50 to -5.58 D) in post-op group 1, and
(rang: -6.00 to -9.00 D) in post-op group 2. Spherical equivalent (M) in the emmetropes ranged from
at center to
in the temporal visual field and to
in the nasal visual field; M in post-op group 1 ranged from
at center to
in the temporal visual field and to
in the nasal visual field; M in post-op group 2 ranged from
at center to
in the temporal visual field and to
in the nasal visual field. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in M at central visual field (p=0.600) and at
in the temporal visual field (p=0.647), whereas, there was significant difference in M at paracentral and peripheral visual field (p=0.000). Conclusions: Emmetropes had relatively constant refractive errors throughout the central and peripheral visual field and showed myopic peripheral defocus along the horizontal visual field. On the other hand, in myopic corneal refractive surgery group, there were significant differences in refractive errors between the central and peripheral visual field compared with differences in the central and peripheral refraction patterns of emmetropes.
Developement of Scope for Military Rangefinder Using Schmidt Prism and Biprism Theory of Optometric Instrument
Cha, Jung-Won ; Lee, Dong-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 167~175
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.167
Purpose: The new-type rangefinder, which is using the biprism principle, is introduced to develop the range finder which can be easily carried by soldiers, and in order to realize those technologies specifically, we try to develop a scope for military rangefinder by doing optical design which can secure enough space to move the biprism. Methods: After setting up the verious initial condition to realize two kinds of goals, that are the securement of enough space to move the biprism and the easy-exchangeability of two kinds of biprisms, and then the optical system was optimized by using optical design program CodeV in order to minimize the finite ray aberrations. Results: We designed the biprism housing to makes it possible to swap the two kinds of biprisms. It was appeared that the Schmidt prism is suitable as erecting prism which can make sure the space to move the biprism. 16.5 mm was good for the face length of Schmidt prism. The optical system with a Schmidt prism and a biprism was designed, and the finite ray aberrations was minimized. Conclusions: We developed a 5X scope for an optical rangefinder using a biprism and a Schmidt prism with 16.5 mm face length. This scope is valid for the optical system which has the effective field angle of
, and the finite ray aberrations are well controlled within the
The Effects of the Relative Legibility of Optotypes on Corrected Visual Acuity
Ha, Na-Ri ; Choi, Jang-Ho ; Kim, Hyun Jung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 177~186
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.177
Purpose: The Purpose of this study is to investigate if the relative legibility of optotypes affects the corrected visual acuity in visual acuity test. Methods: After measuring the relative legibility of 'Landolt ring target', 'arabic number target', 'alphabet target' by showing as a single-letter-target in 24 subjects without specific ocular diseases and ocular surgery experience, the relative legibility of 0.8, 1.0, 1.25 row of vision according to type of target in 7 types of chart were compared. After then we compared by measuring the corrected visual acuity according to type of target by using binocular MPMVA test (#7A) in 60 myopic subjects. Results: In 3 types of target the worst relative legibility target was 'Landolt ring target' with legible distance of
and the best relative legibility target was 'alphabet target' with legible distance of
. There was no difference of the relative legibility according to type of chart or visual acuity level in the row of vision if other conditions are the same. In 1.0 and 1.25 row of vision the difference of relative legibility according to type of target was shown the statistically significant difference between 'Landolt ring target' and 'alphabet target' as
(p=0.04) respectively. In myopia the difference of corrected visual acuity according to type of target was statistically significant difference between 'Landolt ring target' and 'arabic number target' as
(p=0.02) and it was especially remarkable in the low myopia. Conclusions: Measuring visual acuity with different optotypes could cause the errors in best vision measurement value because there was difference of the relative legibility according to type of target even though visual acuity level is same in the row of vision.
Changes in Visual Acuity and Values of Objective Refraction with Breath Alcohol Concentration
Jung, Su A ; Nam, Soo-Kyung ; Kim, Hyun Jung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 187~193
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.187
Purpose: This study was aimed to investigate effects of increased breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) which is the standard measurement of alcohol consumption in sobriety test under current laws on visual acuity and values of objective refraction. Methods: For twenty three males in 20s (average age
years, body mass index (BMI)
) were selected. Distance and near visual test was performed at BrAC of 0%, 0.05% and 0.08%, and objective refraction with open-field auto-refractometer was also performed at different BrAC. Results: As breath alcohol concentration is increased, distance visual acuity was decreased, which was statistically significant, but near visual acuity was not changed. Also, values of objective refraction tended to be increased towards minus as breath alcohol concentration is increased. Conclusions: As breath alcohol concentration is increased, corrected visual acuity is decreased and refractive power is towards minus, it is necessary that visual acuity test and refraction measurement should be conducted under sober condition.
Effects of Variation of Illumination on Visual Function Factors
Kim, Da-Young ; Kim, Sang-Yeob ; Cho, Hyun Gug ; Moon, Byeong-Yeon ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 195~200
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.195
Purpose: This study was performed in order to figure out the influence of illumination on visual function. Methods: 40 adults (male 21, female 19) of average age
years were participated in this study. The test chart surface illumination was adjusted to 5, 50, 200, 500 and 800 lx, and then amplitude of accommodation, near point of convergence, far and near distance phoria, far and near distance fusional vergence, relative accommodation, and accommodation lag were measured at each illumination condition. Results: As illumination intensity of test chart was reduced, amplitude of accommodation was significantly decreased (p<0.05), accommodation lag was also decreased, near point of convergence was receded, and horizontal phoria showed a tendency of esodeviation. In the case of negative fusional vergence, with reduction of illumination intensity, the break point and the recovery point were decreased but in the case of positive fusional vergence, the break point was increased. The negative and positive relative accommodation were significantly decreased (p<0.05) with reduction of illumination intensity. Conclusions: In clinical practice, visual functional test should be performed under condition of adequate illumination level through patient's living environment and job.
Binocular Visual Functions Effect of Vision Therapy Programs : A Meta-Analysis
Lee, Jeong-Yun ; Park, Chun Man ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 201~210
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.201
Purpose: In order to aggregate effect of the improvement of binocular vision function by vision therapy, total mean effect size, mean effect size by dependent variables, and effect size by characteristics of the subjects and characteristics of treatment were analyzed by meta-analysis. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 Korean National primary studies, which reported effects of vision therapy programs, using meta-analysis. Results: The effect size of total mean was 1.207, which showed high effect. The mean effect size according to the subcategory of the binocular dysfunctions was the highest for vergence dysfunctions group (2.989), followed by accommodative dysfunctions group (0.868) and group with both vergence dysfunctions and accommodative dysfunctions (0.692). The effect size according to the characteristics of the subjects was the highest in the vision therapy conducted in the binocular dysfunctions group (2.509) that had no other dysfunctions. The mean effect size according to the number of programs was the highest (2.310) for 7 times a week. Vision therapy for improving the binocular functions was the most effective (2.019) in 8 weeks later from vision therapy start. Conclusions: It can prove that the therapy for the improvement of binocular vision function is effective through that each result of the vision therapy effect is converted to mean effect size, and being objectifying the mean effect size.
Comparisons of Phoria Test Among Prism Settings of Von Graefe Technique
Yu, Dong-Sik ; Ha, Eun-Mi ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 211~218
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.211
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the differences among prism settings of the von Graefe technique for phoria measurement. Methods: Thirty eight healthy subjects (mean age
) were tested with eye examination by interview, cover test, and refraction. Phorias were measured in a random order using four prism settings for the von Graefe method: base-in (BI) and base-up (BU), BI and base-down (BD), BU and BI, and BD and BI over the right and left eye, respectively. Results: Among the four prism settings in measurements of lateral and vertical phoria, there were not significant differences at distance, whereas there were significant at near. The reliability of near lateral phoria (ICC: 0.95) was good, but that of near vertical phoria was less reliable (ICC: 0.83). In comparisons of the paired t-test, the 95% limits of agreement, and mean difference between prism settings, BU had more useful than other prism settings at near phoria. Conclusions: Results from this study suggest that the von Graefe test with BU or BU including other setting prisms have useful methods, especially for near phoria measurements.
Change of Binocular Vision Induced by Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration during Near Work
Kim, Se-il ; Park, Mijung ; Kim, So Ra ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 219~228
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.219
Purpose: The current study was performed to compare the difference in binocular visual function depending on variable background colors at near work. Method: Fifty four adults (18 males, 34 females) who consented to the present study and had no ocular disease, ocular surgery history, strabismus and amblyopia with normal binocular vision were participated into this study. The subjects were asked to read the novels with black letter printed on white, red, green and blue background for 15 min. Then, their heterophoria, AC/A ratio, near point of convergence, accommodation facility, relative accommodation and vergence were measured before and after reading. The difference of measurements were compared. Result: Overall heterophoria was tended to decrease with regardless of background color. AC/A ratio showed a tendency of increase after reading the novels with all backgrounds except white background. Near point of convergence was significantly increased compared to before reading at all background color. Accommodative facility of dominant and non-dominant eyes were also significantly increased after reading however, binocular accommodative facility showed a tendency of decrease. Negative relative accommodation also decreased at all background colors however, the change of positive relative accommodation was not significantly different. In case of vergence, there was significant difference in break point of far BO and recovery point of far BI by the wavelength of background color. Conclusions: From the results, it was known there is convergence change depending on the wavelength of light even though same amount of accommodation and convergence is required when doing near work for certain period. Thus, it can be suggested that the adjustment of the near working environment which perception of various color was required, should be conducted according to the main wavelength.
Research on Visual Function Before and After Prescription of Vertical Prism
Kim, So-ra ; Lee, Gi-yung ; Park, Hyun-ju ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 229~235
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.229
Purpose: This study was undertaken to study on visual function before and after prescription of vertical prism. Methods: 80 subjects (10-30ages) who had been precribed vertical prism and 1 year after they were represcribed vertical prism. Results: Phoria (p=0.000), supra vergence (p=0.000), NPC (p=0.003), NPA (right eye) (p=0.005), NPA(left eye) (p=0.000) showed a significant change. Conclusion: Vertical prism prescription was reduced during revisit. Supra vergence, NPC, NPA(right eye), NPA(left eye) showed a significant change. Binocular Accommodative lag was not associated with vertical prism prescription and binocular vision findings.
Denaturation and Inactivation of Antioxidative Enzymes due to Repeated Exposure to UV-B and Inhibitory Effect of RGP Lens
Byun, Hyun Young ; Lee, Eun Jung ; Oh, Dae Hwan ; Kim, So Ra ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 237~246
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.237
Purpose: The present study was conducted to reveal the correlation of structural denaturation and decrease of enzyme activity when the antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were repeatedly exposed to UV-B, and further investigate whether the denaturation and inactivation of those enzymes can be effectively blocked by using UV-inhibitory RGP lens. Methods: Each enzyme solution was prepared from the standardized SOD and CAT, and repeatedly exposed to UV-B of 312 nm for 30 minutes, 1 hour and 2 hours a day over 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days. Structural denaturation of SOD and CAT induced by repeat UV-B irradiation was confirmed by the electrophoretic analysis, and their enzyme activity was determined by the colorimetric assay using the proper assay kit. At that time, the change in structure and activity of the antioxidant enzymes directly exposed to UV-B was compared to the case that UV-B was blocked by UV-inhibitory RGP lens. Results: SOD exposed repeatedly to UV-B showed the polymerization pattern in the electrophoretic analysis when it repeatedly exposed for 30 min a day, however, the change of its activity was less than 10%. On the other hand, CAT repeatedly exposed to UV-B reduced size and density of the electrophoretic band which indicated a structure denaturation, and its activity was significantly decreased. In the case that the repeat exposure time was longer, CAT activity was completely lost even though some enzyme band occurred in the electrphoretic analysis. In addition, the degeneration of CAT due to UV-B irradiation was inhibited to some extent by using RGP lens with a UV-B blocking of 63.7%, however, it was not completely inhibited. Conclusions: From these results, it was revealed that the structural denaturation of antioxidative enzymes was not perfectly correlated with the reduction in enzyme activity according to the type of enzyme. It is recommended to minimize the exposure time to UV when wearing contact lens, or wear the contact lenses having UV blocking rate of the FDA Class I blocker or the sunglasses having equivalent UV-blocking rate for reducing the damage of antioxidative enzymes induced by UV.
Thermographic Assessment in Dry Eye Syndrome, Compared with Normal Eyes by Using Thermography
Park, Chang Won ; Lee, Ok Jin ; Lee, Seung Won ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 247~253
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.247
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the ocular surface and the palpebral conjunctiva of categorized subjects, which were divided into normal eye group and dry eye group, by using a thermal camera. Methods: Subjects were 144 eyes of 72 normal university students, who didn't have any corneal disease, abnormal lacrimal ducts, medical records regarding ocular surgeries, or experience of using contact lens. Subjects were divided into two groups, which were normal eye group and dry eye group, based on the results of TBUT, Schirmer I test, and McMonnies test. After categorizing the subjects, the temperature of the subjects' ocular surface and the palpebral conjunctiva were measured and analyzed by using a thermal camera (Cox CX series, Answer co., Korea). Results: In the normal eye group's Central Ar.1, Nasal Ar.2, Temporal Ar.3, Superior Ar.4, Inferior Ar.5, the measured amount of temperature change on each area was
. The dry eye group's results were
. When compared with the normal eye group, the values of Ar.1, Ar.3, Ar.5 were significantly different in the dry eye group(p<0.05). The amount of temperature change, which was observed on the palpebral conjunctiva(Ar.1:central, Ar.2: nasal, Ar.3: temporal) of the normal eyes, measured by thermography, was
on each area. Same values taken from the dry eye group was
on each area. The values of Ar.1, taken from the dry eye group, had a significant difference, compared to the values of the normal eye group(p=0.05). Conclusion: The temperature of the ocular surface decreased faster on the dry eyes, compared to the normal eyes. The temperature measured on the palpebral conjunctiva of the dry eyes were also lower than the normal eyes. The temperature changes on the ocular surface, observed with a thermal camera, were objective values to assess the stability of tear films, and might provide useful data for studies related to dry eye syndrome.
The Purchasing Trends of Purchase of Functional Progressive Addtions Lenses and Correlation Analysis of Binocular Function Value
Kim, Dong-min ; Lee, Gi-yung ; Park, Hyun-ju ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 2, 2015, Pages 255~261
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.2.255
Purpose: purchasing status and understanding trends of Functional progressive addtions lenses buyers', Correlation analysis of the Binocular Function value to determine ADD then can be apply sales and prescriptions. Methods: Years 2011 to 2014, 298 patients who were prescribed functional progressive lenses were analysed based on the prescription data and SPSS (Ver. 20.0) was treated using the statistics. Results: Results: The average age of our customers are
years, average addition power is
, customers are using take a prescription of ADD
was the highest 44.33% to 132 people. Near point of convergence of 276 people (92.62%) was mostly less than 10 cm, and near point of accommodation of 134 people (44.97%) was also below 10 cm, within 11~15 cm were 122 people (40.94%). Most of people were within normal range in terms of Near point of convergence and near point of accommodation, near point of accommodation tend to be longer than Near point of convergence. As you can see this result shows most of customers need extra help in their near point of accommodation instead of they are leak at it. FCC (Fused cross cylinder) check Value and ADD (addition power) tests showed that the value of a strong correlation (p=0.00), NPC and NPA were also p=0.001, the correlation of the NPC and ADD is p=0.003, In addition, NPA and ADD also showed a significant correlations (p=0.005). Near Point of Accommodation, negative relative accommodation, and positive relative accommodation are all significantly correlated (p=0.00). The short distance-related variables of the ADD which are NPC, NPA, Age, also appeared to side correlate significantly with each other. Conclusion: Binocular function values of the subjects were highly correlated with each other so precise examination is required. when Age young people are working at short distance, low ADD values was prescribed for solving discomfort. So, in the case of early presbyopia, accommodative insufficiency, or people feel fatigue when they often working at near although their accommodation function is normal, when functional progressive lenses are prescribed, expectation of this should be exactly notified.