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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
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The Evaluation of Reliability for the Combined Refractive Power of Overlapping Trial Lenses
Lee, Hyung Kyun ; Kim, So Ra ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 263~276
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.263
Purpose: The current study aimed to evaluate the reliability for the combined refractive power when a spherical lens and a cylindrical lens were overlapped in a trial frame. Methods: The refractive powers, central thickness and peripheral thickness of spherical trial lenses and cylindrical lenses with negative power were measured. The combined refractive power of the spherical and cylindrical lenses was measured by auto lens meter. Measurement was repeated by changing the insertion order, and their results were further compared with the calculated combined refractive power. Results: There was no correlation between the variation of central and peripheral thickness in trial lenses and that of the lens power. Among 79 trial lenses, 3 trial lenses wasn't met the international standard. The refractive power calculated by Gullstrand's formula that could compensate vertex distance had smaller difference with the estimated power when compared with that calculated by thin lens formula however, it was significantly different from the estimated power. The refractive powers were generally apparent regardless of the insertion order of a spherical lens and a cylindrical lens: thin lens formula > actual measurements > Gullstrand's formula. The error was only found in cylindrical power calculated by Gullstrand's formula when inserted a spherical lens inside and a cylindrical lens outside however, the error was found in both of cylindrical and spherical powers calculated by Gullstrand's formula when inserted as a opposite order. By comparing actual measurements of equivalent spherical power, the accuracy was higher and the possibility of over-correction was lower when inserted a spherical lens inside and a cylindrical lens outside. Conclusions: From the results, those were revealed that the combined refractive power is influenced by the factors other than the vertex distance and the refractive power varies in accordance with the insertion order of a spherical lens and a cylindrical lens. Thus, it can be suggested that the establishment of standard for these is neccesaty.
The Evaluation of Visual Quality by Employing Double-pass Principle in Circle Contact Lens Wearers after Refractive Surgery
Kwon, Ki Nam ; Kim, So Ra ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 277~284
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.277
Purpose: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of circle contact lens wearing on visual quality of the eyes after a refractive surgery. Methods: The objective visual quality was evaluated for 40 eyes who did not get refractive surgery and 30 eyes who got a refractive surgery after applying plano circle contact lenses on their eyes, respectively. Modulation transfer function (MTF), objective scatter index (OSI) and the focusing ratio on retina (Strehl ratio) were measured by using optical quality analysis system (OQAS) and the correlation between pupil size and objective visual quality was analyzed by measuring the pupil size. Results: When wearing circle contact lens on the eyes after refractive surgery, MTF and Strehl ratio were reduced and OSI was increased compared with the eyes without refractive surgery. The eyes after a refractive surgery showed more significant difference changes in MTF, OSI and Strehl ratio according to the pupil size compared with those without refractive surgery. Conclusions: The results showed that wearing of circle contact lens after the refractive surgery has deteriorated the objective visual quality based on the quality of focused image on the retina. Therefore, we suggest that sufficient understanding and consideration about the deterioration of visual quality is necessary in the case of circle contact lens wearing after refractive surgery.
Development of Hyaluronic Acid-Functionalized Hydrogel Lens and Characterization of Physical Properties and Lysozyme Adsorption
Lim, Hwa-lim ; Kim, Ho-joong ; Jun, Jin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 285~291
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.285
Purpose: The hydrogel lenses have been functionalized with HA(Hyaluronic Acid) using two different methods: construction of an IPN(Interpenetrating Polymer Networks) and formation of CCB(Chemical Covalent Bonding). The lysozyme adsorption and physical properties such as optical transmittance and water content of the hydrogel lenses have been investigated in order to determine whether method is suitable for the application potentials in contact lens industry. Methods: HA have been added to the hydrogel lenses prepared in the Lab using the two different method, e.g. IPN and CCB. The optical transmittance was measured in the wavelength range of 300~800 nm. The water content was measured by the gravimetric method using 0.9% NaCl saline solution. The amounts of adsorbed lysozyme on the contact lenses was analyzed by HPLC after incubation for 12h in artificial tears. Results: The water content of the HA added hydrogel contact lenses was increased, and the lens made by IPN method showed higher water content than the lens made by CCB method. The optical transmittance was over 90% both before and after addition of HA. Comparing the lysozyme adsorption reduction ratio, contact lens manufactured by IPN method was 60.0%, and the lens made by CCB method was 40.4%. Conclusions: CCB method is appropriate to distribute the functional material evenly throughout the lens, whereas IPN method is effective for the case of giving the functionality on the lens surface without phase separation.
Evaluation of Blue Light Hazards in LED Lightings
Jung, Myoung Hoon ; Yang, Seok-Jun ; Yuk, Ju Sung ; Oh, Sang-Young ; Kim, Chang-Jin ; Lyu, Jungmook ; Choi, Eun Jung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 293~300
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.293
Purpose: To evaluate blue light hazards of LED lightings in an optical store with blue light radiance used as the quantitative indicators of photobiological hazard. Methods: The spectral radiance of each LED lightings was measured, and blue-light radiance and the corresponding maximum exposure time were calculated. Then each LED lighting was classified according to the risk group from IEC 62471 standard. Results: The yellow LED lightings used in showcases and white LED lightings used on ceilings and logo were classified into risk group RG0. But the white LED lightings used on showcases were classified into risk group RG1. The blue light radiances of white LED lightings used in showcases are dozens of times larger than that of fluorescent lamp. Conclusions: Using the value of the blue light radiance could quantitatively express the blue light hazard to various lightings. It was confirmed that white LED lightings for the showcases had high blue light hazards because of their high luminance and color temperature. Therefore, when replacing lightings in optical shop it is necessary to select the appropriate brightness and color temperature for eye health in the long term.
Simulations of Finite Schematic Eyes for Presbyopia Using the Navarro Eye Model
Kim, Shin-Hwa ; Kim, Dal-Young ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 301~309
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.301
Purpose: This study was aimed to design new schematic eyes for presbyopia using the Navarro eye model and clinical data. Methods: We collected clinical data of eye-optical parameters of males in their age of 40, 50, and 60 from previous studies, and designed schematic eyes for presbyopia using the ZEMAX program. Results: The presbyopic process and features of the designed schematic eyes well accorded with the clinical data of previous studies. Conclusions: On the basis of the Navarro eye model, a finite schematic eyes for presbyopia were newly designed corresponding with clinical data.
The Study of Prevalence Rate of Refractive Error among the Primary Students in Jeollanamdo
Jang, Jung Un ; Park, Inn-Jee ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 311~318
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.311
Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the prevalence rate of refractive error with gender and age presenting visual acuity of primary student in Jeonnam. Methods: Subjective refraction, objective refraction and visual acuity test were examined on 735 primary school children who ages of 8~13 years lived in Jenman. Presenting visual acuity test was using Han's visual acuity chart and objective refraction was carried out using auto-refractometer. Results: The presenting visual acuity was 0.1 worse in the eye of 54(7.3%) students and 49(7.3%) of them wearing the glasses. The rate of the wearing glasses were 79.3% in 0.125~0.25 visual acuity, 64.2% in 0.3~0.5 visual acuity and 61.6% in 0.6~0.8 visual acuity. It was appeared that 269(36.6%) of them were emmetropia, 321(43.7%) of them were myopia and 56(7.6%) of them were hyperopia, and 89(12.1%) of them were astigmatism. The prevalence rate of myopia was the highest and followed by the prevalence rate of astigmatism. The low degree of myopia occupied the most and the medium degree of myopia showed the tendency of increase as the students get olds. The prevalence rate of the hyperopia showed the tendency of decrease as the students get olds. The prevalence rate of with the rule astigmatism were 50.6% students and against the rule astigmatism were 48.3% of students. Conclusions: The present study reveals the considerable prevalence rates, 466(63.4%) of included subjects, of refractive errors among primary students in Jeonnam province. The rate of the wearing glasses were 313(42.6%). The prevalence of myopia increases as the students get older. Therefore students of visual management is considered necessary through the visual acuity test and refractive examination.
The Evaluations of Phoria and AC/A Ratio by Watching 3D TV at Near
Son, Jeong-Sik ; Kim, Dong-Su ; Kim, Jung-Ho ; Kim, Jae-Do ; Hamacher, Alaric ; Yu, Dong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 319~324
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.319
Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the changes of phoria and calculated AC/A ratio, and their recovery time points by watching 3D television (3D TV). Methods: 50 subjects (male 30, female 20) of 20s to 40s ages who can watch 3D, were measured phoria using a Howell phoria card at 3 m for distance and 40 cm for near. The phoria was evaluated before watching 3D TV and every 10 minutes from starting of watching 3D TV for 30 minutes, and every 5 minutes after finishing of watching 3D TV for 30 minutes again. Results: For the distance phoria during and after watching 3D TV, it was increased to more exophoria
(prism diopters) after 10 minutes from starting of 3D TV watching (p=0.063) and increased to more exophoria
after 30 minutes (p=0.024), and started to decrease after finishing of watching 3D TV and recovered to the level of before 3D TV watching (
) after 20 minutes (p=0.32) with comparing to phoria of before watching 3D TV (
). For the near phoria, it was also increased to more exophoria
after 10 minutes from starting of watching 3D TV (p=0.000) and
after 30 minutes (p=0.000), and started to decrease after finishing of watching 3D TV and recovered to the level of before watching 3D TV after 20 minutes (
) (p=0.32) with comparing to the phoria of before watching 3D TV (
). AC/A ratio was decreased from
for before 3D TV watching to
for after 30 minutes from starting of watching 3D TV (p=0.000), and increased after the end of watching 3D TV and recovered to the level of before 3D TV watching (
) after 25 minutes (p=0.598). Conclusions: During watching 3D TV at near, it showed a tendency of convergence insufficiency by decrease of calculated AC/A ratio as result that exophoria at near was higher increased than exophoria at distance. However, the increased exophoria at both near and distance was recovered to the level of base line after 25 minutes from the end of watching 3D TV. Through this study, it seems to need rational proposals of advice for watching 3D TV.
Correlations between Exophthalmetry and Visual Functions
Kim, Guenhei ; Noh, Hyeran ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 325~331
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.325
Purpose: This study was to find the correlation between exophthalmetry and visual functions. Methods: Exophthalmetry and visual functions of 200 adults without ophthalmophathy and general disease were examined. Exophthalmetry were measured with Hertel's exophthalmometer. Visual functions (myopia, distance exophoria, near exophoria, near point of convergence, near point of accommodation) were measured for three times. Results: The exophthalmetry was
. Myopia, distance exophoria, near exophoria, near point convergence, and near point accommodation were measured as
. With increasing exophthalmetry, the unaided visual acuity, myopia and astigmatism were decreased. On the other hand, distance exophoria, distance esophoria, near exophoria, near point of convergence and near point of accommodation were significantly increased, while exophthalmetry was increased. Conclusions: The relationship between visual functions and exophthalmetry were found to be statistically significant. It could be used as the clinical criteria for prescription of binocular inspections.
Characteristics of Accommodative Lags Determined by Objective and Subjective Methods and Their Correlation
Yu, Dong-Sik ; Kwak, Ho-Weon ; Roh, Byeong-Ho ; Son, Jeong-Sik ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 333~339
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.333
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics of subjective accommodative lags determined by fused cross-cylinder (subjective method), and an open-field autorefractor (objective method) under uncorrected and corrected conditions. Methods: Thirty three healthy subjects (26 males and 7 females aged
years from 22 to 27 years) participated. Four methods were used to determine accommodative lag: (1) a subjective method with the fused cross-cylinder (FCC) under +2.00 D fogging lenses condition, (2) an objective method with the autorefractor under uncorrected condition (3) a corrected method (effective accommodative lag) using equations presented by Gwiazda et al. in objective methods, and (4) a corrected method using equations presented by Mutti et al. in objective methods. Results: The mean accommodative lags were 0.72 D for subjective method, 0.82 D for uncorrected objective method, 0.88 D for corrected method with Gwiazda's equations, and 0.78 D for corrected method with Mutti's equations. There were significant differences between the objective accommodative lags, but no significant differences between the objective and subjective accommodative lags. The effective accommodative lags showed significant correlations between phorias and refractive errors. The effective accommodative lag by Mutti's equations had a high correlation with uncorrected accommodative lags (r=0.99, p<0.001). Conclusions: The objective accommodative lag correlated with phorias and refractive errors. Especially, The effective accommodative lag using Mutti's equations may be considered for clinical availability and qualitative evaluation associated with symptoms.
Comparison between Response AC/A and CA/C Ratio according to Additional Spherical Powers and Prism Powers
Roh, Byeong-Ho ; Yu, Dong-Sik ; Son, Jeong-Sik ; Kwak, Ho-Weon ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 341~347
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.341
Purpose : This study was to examine a correlation of response AC/A ratio by additional spherical powers with PD(Pupilary distance) and relative accommodation, and was to investigate correlation of CA/C ratio by prism powers. The mean differences between a reciprocal response AC/A ratio and a CA/C ratio were compared, and were suggested to be used as data in the refractive power and prism prescriptions in the clinical. Methods: The open field autorefractometer (Nvision-K 5001, Shin nippon) and Howell target at 40 cm fixation distance to 62 persons with average
ages were used to measure the response AC/A ratio according to additional Spherical powers. The CA/C ratios were measured using the DOG card at 40cm according to prism powers. Results: When the response accommodation according to Additional Spherical power changes and the response accommodation according to prism power changes were compared, it was larger than the response accommodation according prism power change. These were significant differences statistically. The correlation of response AC/A ratio and PD is showed as r = -0.158, the CA / C ratio is shown as r = 0.093. The correlation of response AC/A ratio and relative accommodation showed as r = -0.253, the CA/C ratio showed as r = 0.566 that is predictable correlation. The correlation of response AC/A ratio and CA/C ratio showed as r = -0.355 that is low minus correlation (p = 0.000). The difference between a reciprocal response AC/A ratio and a CA/C ratio showed
with a significant difference statistically (p=0.000). Conclusions: The correlation of relative accommodation and CA/C ratio showed that depend on the individual, The more a relative accommodation is, the higher a response accommodation of convergence by convergence stimulus is. The reciprocal response AC/A and CA/C ratio showed significant differences statistically. This can have higher CA/C ratio in patients with low AC/A ratio in clinical as an independent variable. Thus when the abnormal binocular vision was prescribed in the clinical, it is necessary to consider the accommodative response even if the AC/A ratio is a normal range.
Changes of Corrective Astigmatism Values Depending on Position of Circle of Least Confusion in Astigmatic Refining Test Using Cross Cylinder
Kim, Sang-Yeob ; Lee, Min Jae ; Lee, Kang Cheon ; Lee, Tae Hui ; Moon, Byeong-Yeon ; Cho, Hyun Gug ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 349~354
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.349
Purpose: To investigate the changes of corrective values of astigmatism caused by the position of circle of least confusion on retina in refining astigmatic test using cross cylinder. Methods: 62 subjects (115 eyes) aged
years participated for this study. After astigmatic test using a radial chart, refining test was performed using a cross cylinder in a condition of maximum plus to maximum visual acuity (MPMVA). Astigmatic refining test was repeatedly performed in each condition of which S+0.75 D, S+0.50 D, S+0.25 D, S-0.25 D, S-0.50 D, and S-0.75 D are added to spherical lenses of MPMVA. The measured values were compared with the values in MPMVA condition. Results: As compared with values in condition of MPMVA, change of astigmatic axis was increased with add the power of (+) spherical lenses and (-) spherical lenses. In same spherical condition, change of astigmatic axis was decreased with increment of astigmatic power (p<0.05). The corrective power of astigmatism was reduced with increment of (+) spherical lenses (p<0.05), and was raised with increment of (-) spherical lenses compared with the power in MPMVA condition. In case of adding (+) spherical lenses, difference of astigmatic power increased with increment of corrective astigmatism power in same test condition. Conclusions: In order to obtain a proper values for corrective astigmatism, position of circle of least confusion should be accurately adjusted before the performing an astigmatism's refining test.
Effects of Transmittance of Diffusive Blur on Visual Acuity and Contrast Sensitivity
Yang, Seok-Jun ; Choi, Eun Jung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 355~362
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.355
Purpose: To investigate the effects of the transmittance of diffusive blurson visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Methods: Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured by using Optec
6500 in Healthy 30 subjects aged
(male 13, female 17) who were recruited from university students. Cataract simulator was used as a tool for diffusive blur. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were measured with varying the transmittance of diffusive blur in order to simulate progression of cataract and concentration in fog. Results: Visual acuity was reduced proportionally with decreasing the transmittance of the diffusive blur as follows:
. Contrast sensitivity was decreased in all spatial frequencies. Contrast sensitivity in a high spatial frequency band was a greater effect and was off the normal range of contrast sensitivity. The peak of contrast sensitivity was moved in the direction to low frequency. From an intersection point of contrast sensitivity function, we could calculated the transmittance of the diffusive blur being off the normal range and the shift to peak spatial frequency. The peak of contrast sensitivity function was observed to move from 6 to 3 cpd at transmittance of about 78.70%, the contrast sensitivities for all frequencies at transmittance of about 69.71% were deviated from the normal range. Conclusions: The transmittance of diffusive blur causes a reduction in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, a deviation of normal range of contrast sensitivity, and a shift of peak contrast sensitivity. Therefore the more attention is required when suffering from cataracts or driving in fog.
The Direction and Level of Dominant Eye According to the Tests
Shim, Jun-Beom ; Joo, Seok-Hee ; Shim, Hyun-Suk ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 363~368
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.363
Purpose: In this study, dominant eye is monitoring and level of dominant was measured in subjective and objective test. Methods: The average age of 21.08 years old of 129 adult (69 male, 60 female) who was no underlying ocular disease were participated in this study. dominant eye was determined by monocular instrument in subjecttive test and using a thin ring (
) in objective test and level of dominant was measured direction of movement of the thin rim. Results: In the subjective test, there are 100 (77.52%) subjects whose dominant eye was right eye, and 29 (22.48%) subjects whose dominant eye was left eye. In the objective test, 90 (69.77%) subjects had right eye d and 33 (25.58%) subjects had left eye, as dominant eye, and 6 (4.65%) subjects had no dominant eye. Comparison of subjective test and objective test by dominant eye were equal in the 104 (80.62%) subjects, unequal in the 19 (14.73%) and center 6 (4.65%) subjects. The level of dominant eye in objective dominant eye test, there were middle 52 (57.78%) subjects, high 38 (42.22%) subjects in the right eye, and middle 25 (75.76%) subjects, high 8 (24.24%) subjects in the left eye. Conclusions: In this study O - Ring Test hasadvantage of direction and level of dominant eye, and middle or center dominant eye was shown in unequal. From this results, testing of dominant eye should be relationship equal and unequal, also required to be study in dominant eye level in binocular vision.
Relationship between Reading Speed and Blinking Rate according to Longitudinal Chromatic Aberration during Book Reading
Kim, Se-il ; Park, Mijung ; Kim, So Ra ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 369~375
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.369
Purpose: The current study was performed to estimate the changes in reading speed and blinking rate according to different background colors when reading paper book and further investigate their correlation. Methods: Twenty-nine adults (10 males, 19 females) who consented to the present study and had no ocular disease, ocular surgery history showing normal binocular vision were participated into the study. The subjects were asked to read the novels with black letter printed on white, red, green and blue background for 15 min, respectively. Then, the reading speed per page and blinking rate per page were measured during reading and analyzed according to background colors. Results: Reading speed per page according to the background color showed a tendency to accelerate in the white and green background as the reading time increased however, it was almost unchanged in the blue background and rather decelerated in the red background. On the other hand, the blinking rate per page tended to decrease in all background as the reading time was increased however, the smallest reduction was shown in the red background. There was a correlation that the reading speed increased as the blinking rate decreased in all backgrounds and the best correlation was shown in the green background. Conclusions: From the results, a correlation between the increasing reading speed and the reducing blinking rate while reading paper book with same demand on accommodation and convergence was confirmed however, the change in blinking rate and reading speed was varied depending on the main wavelength of light. It might mean that the working speed and visual fatigue can be varied depending on the difference of main wavelength when doing near work. Thus, it can be suggested that the adjustment of working environment and conditions should be made according to the kind of required perception.
The Comparasion of the Dynamic Stereoacuity with Two-Rods Test and Three-Rods Test
Shim, Hyun-Suk ; Kim, Sang-Moon ; Kim, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Young-Cheong ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 377~384
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.377
Purpose: On this study, we measured and compared the dynamic stereoacuity by two-rods test (Howard-Dolman Test) and three-rods test. And we analyzed the correlation between PD and refractive error with dynamic stereoacuity. Methods: Dynamic stereoacuity of two-rods test and three-rods test at 2.5 m distance for 93 adults 93 (50 males, 43 females), mean age of
(19~32) years old, were measured 5 times for two tests. Results: The mean of dynamic stereoacuity measured by two-rods test and three-rods test were
of arc and
of arc for total subjects, respectively. The mean of male and female were
of arc and
, respectively. Three-rods test showed better dynamic stereoacuity than two-rods test, but there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). For the average standard deviation of PD between 60.63 mm~66.19 mm, dynamic stereoacuity fo two-rod test and three-rod test were
of arc and
of arc, respectively. The results showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05), but the relationship between dynamic stereoacuity and PD was not great. Comparison between two tests on the basis of refractive error, dynamic stereoacuity by three-rods test was better than by two-rods test with no significant difference between both tests (p>0.05) and there was little correlation between refractive error and two dynamic stereoacuity. Conclusions: Three-rods test showing lower stereoacuity than two-rods tests could measure the lower minimum threshold of dynamic stereoacuity. It was found that both tests can be applied to dynamic stereoacuity test as a standard test, and PD and refractive error was found that little effect upon the dynamic stereoacuity. PD and refractive error was found that little effect upon the dynamic stereoacuity.
Comparison and Correlation between Distance Static Stereoacuity and Dynamic Stereoacuity
Kim, Young-Cheong ; Kim, Sang-Hyun ; Shim, Hyun-Suk ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 385~390
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.385
Purpose: This study evaluated the static stereoacuity by Distance Randot Stereotest (STEREO OPTICAL. Co., Inc. USA) and the dynamic stereoacuity by three-rods test (iNT, Korea). Criterion and correlation of stereoacuity between both tests and usefulness of two stereotest methods were also evaluated. Methods: For normal adults of 109 (male 61, female 48), mean age of 20.88 (19-32 years) years old, static stereoacuity by using Distance Randot Stereotest at 3 m distance, dynamic stereoacuity by using three-rods test at 2.5 m distance were measured. Results: The mean of distance static stereoacuity was
of arc and the mean of error distance dynamic stereoacuity
. With equivalent-conversion stereoacuity of
of arc, there was statistically significant differences (p=0.00) between two dynamic stereoacuity, but correlation was relatively low (
). In the case of dynamic stereoacuity, separated to normal range by criterion of the error distance 20 mm, it showed the error distance of less than 20 mm in 97 subjects(89%) whose average of error distance and conversion mean dynamic stereoacuity were
of arc. repectively. The error distance of was equivalent-conversion dynamic stereoacuity 40.99 sec of arc (PD 62 mm basis) was 20 mm. Conclusions: The results of lower correlation between static and dynamic stereoacuity suggest that seterotest should be applied separately to different functions. The results of this study also suggest that Distance Randot Stereotest can be applied to static stereoacuity excluding monocular cues. Three-rods test can be applied to dynamic stereoacuity containing the response of the eye-hand coordination in the daily life of natural vision condition, including the monocular cues. These different approaches canprovide a criterion of the two stereoacuity and parallel use of the two tests would be useful. For dynamic stereoacuity by three-rods test, error distance 20 mm in a normal range of adults can be used as a criteria to get statistical meaning of the results.
Localization of the Major Retinal Neurotransmitters and Receptors and Müller Glia in the Retina of the Greater Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum)
Lee, Jun-Seok ; Kwon, Oh-Ju ; Jeon, Tae-Heon ; Jeon, Chang-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 20, issue 3, 2015, Pages 391~396
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2015.20.3.391
Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the visual system of the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) by location analysis of some major neurotransmitters glutamate,
-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acetylcholine, and their receptors, and
glial cells in retina. Methods: Standard immunocytochemical techniques were used after vibratome section of retinal tissues of adult greater horseshoe bat for this study. Immnoreactions in immunofluorescence images were analyzed using confocal microscope. Results: Anti-glutamate-immunoreactive neurons were mainly localized in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). The majority of anti-GABA-immunoreactive cells distributed in the inner nuclear layer (INL), and GABAA receptors were localized in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Anti-choline acetyltransferase-immuoreactive cholinergic neurons were mainly located in the INL and GCL, and most of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were localized in the IPL. The
cells in the retina of the greater horseshoe bat stretched theirs range from the GCL to outer nuclear layer (ONL). Conclusions: This study revealed that the retinas of the greater horseshoe bats contain the same major neurotransmitters and receptors, and glial cell in visually functional mammalian retinas. The present results may suggest that the greater horseshoe bats have the functional retinas for visual analysis through the organized retinal neural circuits.