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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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The Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2016
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2016
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Changes of Visual Acuity and Visual Function in the Elderly Generation and their Subjective Satisfaction by the Use of Tinted Ophthalmic Lenses
Ryu, Deok-Hyeon ; Park, Mijung ; Kim, So Ra ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 21, issue 1, 2016, Pages 1~10
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2016.21.1.1
Purpose: The study was aimed to suggest the most effective color of the tinted lenses by evaluating the effect of the prescription with tinted lenses on the visual quality of the elderly at the age of the sixty or more. Methods: The visual acuity of fifty subjects at the age of sixty or more (17 males, 33 females with the averaged age of
) were corrected to have the visual acuity at a far distance of 0.5 or more using a trial lens frame, and non-tinted, brown-tinted, and gray-tinted lenses were randomly applied on the trial frame. The minimum legibility and minimum separability were measured at a far distance in the aspect of the visual acuity and calculated as LogMAR and then, the visual acuity was compared. The stereopsis and contrast sensitivity were also estimated at a near distance in the aspect of the visual function. The participants' preference for tinted lenses and their subjective symptoms of the visual perception and the movement were further surveyed. Results: The best minimum legibility and minimum separability was shown when wearing non-tinted lenses, and brown-tinted and gray-tinted lenses were in the next. The stereopsis and the contrast sensitivity at a near distance and the visual perception was the best when wearing brown-tinted lenses. It was surveyed that the subjective discomfort was the biggest when wearing gray-tinted lenses, and brown-tinted lenses were the best in the aspect of the subjective preference. Conclusions: As the result of this study, it was revealed that the visual acuity and visual function could be improved by the use of tinted ophthalmic lenses however, its change of visual acuity and visual function was not completely correlated with the subjective satisfaction. Therefore, the appropriate color of ophthalmic lenses should be selected in accordance with the individual visual perception and the main vision lifestyle in the elderly generation. From the present study, the use of non- or brown-tinted lens and brown- or gray-tinted lens can be recommended for distance work and near work, respectively, in the elderly generation under the illumination of about 1,000 lux.
The Difference in Tear Film Stability between Normal and Dry Eyes by Wearing Clear and Circle Contact Lenses made of the Same Materials
Lee, Sehee ; Park, Mijung ; Kim, So Ra ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 21, issue 1, 2016, Pages 11~21
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2016.21.1.11
Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the difference in tear film stability according to the wearing time when wearing clear and circle soft contact lens(circle lens) made of same material. Methods: The clear and circle contact lenses of hilafilcon B and nelfilcon A materials were respectively applied on the subjects classified as normal and dry eyes depending on their tear volume, and their tear film stability was investigated by measuring the non-invasive tear film break-up times, lens centration and the first appearing area of tear breakup after 30 mins and 6 hrs of lens wearing. Results: Non-invasive tear film breakup time significantly reduced with increase of the wearing time for normal and dry eyes when wearing clear and circle contact lenses. The starting ratio of tear film break-up was higher at the peripheral area of clear and circle lenses in all two different materials, and higher at the peripheral area of dry eyes than normal eyes. Starting ratio of tear film break-up was higher at the peripheral area of nelfilcon A lenses compared with hilafilcon B lenses, however, its change with the increase of wearing time showed a different aspect. The number of tear film break-up per unit area when wearing circle lenses of nelfilcon A increased at the central area with the wearing time while its number was higher at the peripheral area when wearing circle lenses of hilafilcon B. The centration of clear lenses made of two materials was closer to pupil compared to circle lenses with the increase of wearing time, however, a larger decentration was shown in dry eyes compared with normal eyes. Conclusions: The research revealed that an effect on tear film stability may be changed by clear lenses as well as circle lenses with coloring process according to the increase of wearing time, and the factors affecting on tear film stability may also vary depending on lens materials. Thus, the appropriate lenses should be selected by the consideration of lens material as well as coloring method/dyes according to the wearers' habit such as daily wearing time and wearing period when trying to wear clear and circle lenses.
The Changes in Contrast Sensitivity and Glare Sensitivity when Wearing Circle Contact Lenses after the Refractive Surgery
Kwon, Ki Nam ; Park, Sang Hee ; Kim, So Ra ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 21, issue 1, 2016, Pages 23~34
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2016.21.1.23
Purpose: In the present study, the effect of circle contact lenses wear on contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity in a refractive surgery group was investigated. Methods: The contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity were evaluated using by CGT-1000 for a non-refractive surgery group as control group(40 eyes) and a refractive surgery group(30 eyes) applied plano circle contact lenses, and pupil size was also measured. The correlation between contrast/glare sensitivity and the pupil size was analyzed. Results: In the refractive surgery group, contrast sensitivity in the range of high spatial frequency decreased with wearing circle contact lenses, and amount of decrease for the refractive surgery group was larger than for the control group. The correlation between pupil size and the change of contrast sensitivity was decreased by wearing circle contact lenses, and the correlation was lower in the refractive surgery group than the control group. Furthermore, the wear of circle contact lenses affected on glare sensitivity. In analyzing the change of glare sensitivity by pupil size, the glare was larger in the refractive surgery group than control group. Circle contact lenses in refractive surgery group were not fitted on the center of cornea. Conclusions: In the present study, it is suggested that the sufficient understanding and consideration about the decrease of contrast sensitivity and the increase of glare by wearing circle contact lenses after the refractive surgery is necessary.
Correlations between Axial Rotation of Toric Soft Contact Lenses and Corneal Eccentricity according to the Wearing Time and Gaze Directions
Seo, Woo Hyun ; Kim, So Ra ; Park, Mijung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 21, issue 1, 2016, Pages 35~45
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2016.21.1.35
Purpose: The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of corneal eccentricity on the axial rotation when wearing toric soft contact lenses were worn for certain time and changing the gaze directions. Methods: Toric soft contact lenses with double thin zone design applied on 85 of with-the-rule astigmatic eyes. Then, rotational direction and amount of contact lenses were measured after 15 minutes and 6 hours of lens wear. The difference was further compared and analyzed according to corneal eccentricity. Results: The rotation of toric lens showed a tendency to rotate to temporal direction in all gaze directions except temporal-upper direction in all groups of corneal eccentricity. The amount of lens rotation in the frontal gaze direction exhibited a negative correlation since the amount was decreased with increasing corneal eccentricity after both 15 minutes and 6 hours of lens wearing. In many cases, the cornea with small eccentricity also showed the lens rotation larger than
. The difference in rotational amount after 15 minutes of toric lens wear was small according to the corneal eccentricity however, the change of rotational amount of contact lens according to corneal eccentricity was shown after 6 hours of lens wear. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the amount of axial rotation was largely varied according to the wearer's corneal eccentricity when wearing toric lens and the rotational amount after certain time of lens was also affected by corneal eccentricity. Thus, it is suggested that the selection of toric soft contact lenses based on corneal eccentricity is necessary.
Change of Contrast Sensitivity Induced by Tinted Spectacle Lens
Seo, Jae-Myoung ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 21, issue 1, 2016, Pages 47~51
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2016.21.1.47
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the change of contrast sensitivity by prescribing tinted lenses and to provide the clinical manual. Methods: Contrast sensitivity was measured for twenty adults with normal vision while they wore yellow, orange and green tinted lenses. To measure contrast sensitivity, the 5 spatial frequencies (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 cpd) were used for 33 ms and 233 ms, respectively. Results: The contrast sensitivity was overall higher with 233 ms than 33 ms (p<0.05). The peaks of contrast sensitivity with 33 ms and 233 ms were 1.75 log unit with the yellow lens and 1. 85 log unit without the color respectively. However, there was no significance between the yellow and orange tinted lens (p>0.64) Conclusions: Yellowish tinted lens that reduces chromatic aberration and the scattering is prescribed for the various purposes to improve visual functions. Before prescribing tinted lens, identifying characteristic of user and tinted lens for cut off wavelengths is recommended.
Phoria Changes Caused by Lens Adaptation after Wearing of Horizontal Prism Lens and Spherical Lens
Lee, Min Jae ; Kim, Sang-Yeob ; Wee, Sung-Hyun ; Moon, Byeong-Yeon ; Cho, Hyun Gug ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 21, issue 1, 2016, Pages 53~59
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2016.21.1.53
Purpose: To investigate an individual phoria compensating effect by measuring the lens adaptation after wearing horizontal prism or spherical lenses at near. Methods: 103 subjects (63 males and 40 females) aged
participated for this study. Refractive errors of subjects were fully corrected, and subjects were classified into three groups; esophoria, orthophoria and exophoria. The adaptation test of prism and spherical lenses was performed immediately, 15 minutes and 30 minutes after wearing lenses with
and S+1.00 D for an esophoria group and
and S-1.00 D for orthophoria and exophoria groups, respectively. Each measured phoria was compared to phoria measured with fully corrected condition, and the phoria changing effects about both lenses was analyzed. Results: The mean of phoria by prism lenses significantly decreased for every group. The mean of phoria by spherical lenses also significantly decreased in orthophoria and exophoria groups. The esophoria group showed a decreasing tendency but has no significance. The decreased phoria value by prism lens was classified into three steps; 90~100%, 0~10% and 50% or more. According to results of individual distribution ratio, it was 5, 64 and 24 subjects at 30 minutes after wearing lenses, respectively. The decreased phoria value by spherical lens was classified into three steps; 90~100%, 0~10% and 50% or more. According to results of individual distribution ratio, it was 37, 53 and 41 subjects at 30 minutes after wearing lenses, respectively. The subjects having no phoria changed by both prism and spherical lenses were 37.9%. Conclusions: When prescribing to compensate the near horizontal phoria using prism or spherical lens, the pretest for lens adaptation should be taken before prescription.
Comparison of Stereoscopic Fusional Area between People with Good and Poor Stereo Acuity
Kang, Hyungoo ; Hong, Hyungki ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 21, issue 1, 2016, Pages 61~68
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2016.21.1.61
Purpose: This study investigated differences in stereoscopic fusional area between those with good and poor stereo acuity in viewing stereoscopic displays. Methods: Stereo acuity of 39 participants (18 males and 21 females,
) was measured with the random dot stereo butterfly method. Participants with stereo-blindness were not included. Stereoscopic fusional area was measured using stereoscopic stimulus by varying the amount of horizontal disparity in a stereoscopic 3D TV. Participants were divided into two groups of good and poor stereo acuity. Criterion for good stereo acuity was determined as less than 60 arc seconds. Measurements arising from the participants were statistically analyzed. Results: 26 participants were measured to have good stereo acuity and 13 participants poor stereo acuity. In case of the stereoscopic stimulus farther than the fixation point, threshold of horizontal disparity for those with poor stereo acuity were measured to be smaller than the threshold for those with good stereo acuity, with a statistically significant difference. On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups, in case of the stereoscopic stimulus nearer to the fixation point. Conclusions: In viewing stereoscopic displays, the boundary of stereoscopic fusional area for the poor stereo acuity group was smaller than the boundary of good stereo acuity group only for the range behind the display. Hence, in viewing stereoscopic displays, participants with poor stereo acuity would have more difficulty perceiving the fused image at farther distances compared to participants with good stereo acuity.
Blue-light Induces the Selective Cell Death of Photoreceptors in Mouse Retina
Kang, Seo-young ; Hong, Ji Eun ; Choi, Eun jung ; Lyu, Jungmook ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 21, issue 1, 2016, Pages 69~76
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2016.21.1.69
Purpose: The study was conducted to determine that photoreceptors of mouse having pigment in RPE(retinal pigment epithelium) can be damaged by blue-light and apoptosis of specific cells among photoreceptors are induced by blue-light, and to assist the investigation of AMD(Age-related macular degeneration) mechanisms and development of AMD drugs. Methods: C57Black mice were injured by irradiating
of 463 nm LED for 6 hours after 24 hours dark adaptation and eyes were enucleated 1, 3, 7 days. Damage of retina induced by blue-light was determined by western blotting GFAP(Glial fibrillary acidic protein) expression. In the light-injured retina, cell death of photoreceptors was determined by TUNEL(Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay. ERK(Extracellular signal-regulated kinases), JNK, and SRC(sarcoma) expression were assessed by western blotting to determine regulated pathway. Blue light-injured retina were immunostained with antibodies against Opsin and Rhodopsin as markers of photoreceptors to compared the damage cone cells with rod cells. Results: After 1, 3 and 7 days from exposure to blue-light, thickness of retina was more decreased than control, and more decreased at nuclear layer than at outer plexiform layer and GFAP expression was increased day 1 after blue-light injured. While phosphorylated ERK and SRC protein expressions at day 1 were increased after blue-light injured, phosphorylated c-JUN was decreased. Fluorescence intensity analysis showed that markers of cone and rod cells were decreased after blue-light injured and Opsin was more decreased than Rhodopsin. Conclusions: The study suggests possibilities that the blue-light promotes retinal damage and causes apoptotic cell death via ERK and SRC pathway in mouse retina, and blue-light retinal damage is more induced cone cells apoptosis than rod cells directly.
Loss of Corrected Visual Acuity According to Different Meridional Visual Acuity in Astigmatic Eyes
Jo, Na Young ; Kim, Sang-Yeob ; Moon, Byeong-Yeon ; Cho, Hyun Gug ;
Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society, volume 21, issue 1, 2016, Pages 77~81
DOI : 10.14479/jkoos.2016.21.1.77
Purpose: This study was performed to investigate the difference of meridional visual acuity and the loss of corrected visual acuity (VA) in order to emphasis the importance of astigmatic correction. Methods: 64 subjects (122 eyes) aged
participated in this study. After full correction of astigmatic refractive error, VA was measured in which the direction of the slit filter was matched with astigmatic axis and
to the astigmatic axis. Results: 52 eyes showed no difference in VA between the two direction. However 70 eyes had difference VA between them. 14 out of 52 eyes and 24 out of 70 eyes had under 1.0 in monocular VA. The astigmatic degree was higher in the existence of VA difference between the two direction than non-existence. The difference is higher with under 1.0 monocular VA. Monocular VA is closely related to the focal line having better VA in the principal focal line. Glasses replacement period was analyzed as 6~12 months for the preservation of better VA. Conclusions: The final glasses prescription has to be given with full correction because continued under-correction for astigmatism causes meridional VA difference.