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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Energy Engineering
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Journal DOI :
The Korea Society for Energy Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Sep 1998
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
Selecting the target year
An Economic Analysis for the Domestic Natural Gas Demand Side Management : Case Study in Introducing the High Efficiency Gas Boiler
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 1~6
We consider the economic analysis of the domestic natural gas DSM (Demand Side Management). Since the demand of the domestic natural gas decreases in the summer and dramatically increases in the winter, the necessity of the DSM that will smooth the demand pattern of the natural gas is emerged. The economic analysis of the DSM program is used as a main tool for screening the DSM. This paper suggests an economic evaluation method for the domestic gas DSM from the perspectives of participants, Korea Gas Corporation, local distribution company, non-participants, and total resource. The high-efficiency gas boiler is selected as a case study to illustrate the economic analysis of the natural gas DSM.
Computational Investigation on in a Entrained-bed Coal Gasifier
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 7~16
Numerical computations were performed for the gasification of five different coals such as Lewis-Stockton bituminous, Utah bituminous. Illinois #6 bituminous, Usibelli sub-bituminous and Beulah-Zap lignite, to assess the effect of variation in oxygen to coal ratio and steam to coal ratio on reactive flow fields within an axisymmetric, entrained-flow gasifier. The concentrations of major products, CO and
, were calculated with varying oxygen to coal ratio(0.7~1.4) and steam to coal ratio. To verify the validity of predictions, the predicted and the measured values of CO and
concentrations at the exit of the gasifier were compared for Roto coal. Reasonable agreement was obtained between the predicted and measured values. Predictions showed that the (
) concentration increased gradually to its maximum value with increasing oxygen-coal ratio, and CO concentration decreased, but
concentration increased to some extent with increasing steam-coal ratio. When the oxygen-coal ratio was between 1.0 and 1.2, and the steam-coal ratio was between 0.3 and 0.4, high values of the cold-gas efficiency were obtained.
Atomization Characteristics Experiment of Pintle Type Nozzle by the PDPA
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 17~23
A simplified experiment was performed to figure out the atomization characteristics of highly viscous liquid of rice-bran oil by applying ultrasonic energy to improve the atomization of spray droplets. A spray system, an ultrasonic system, and three kinds of pintle-type nozzles(pin-edge angle: 5 , 10 , 15 ) were manufactured. To investigate the effects of ultrasonic energy on the atomization of a highly viscous liquid, a phase doppler particle analyzer was used for the measurement and calculation of spray droplets data. Nozzle opening pressures were chosen of 3 levels, i.e, 10, 13, 16 MPa. As a result, it could be concluded that the ultrasonic energy was effective to improve the spray atomization when applied to the fuel by means of 3 different nozzles because of the effects of the liquid fuel cavitation and relaxation between molecules caused by ultrasonic energy. The improvement rate of the spray atomization by the ultrasonic spray atomization by the ultrasonic spray compared with the conventional spray was about 10% increase in the case of pintle type nozzles. With the increase of pin-edge angles the distribution lines by nozzle opening pressures are declined for both conventional and ultrasonic sprays. This means that the increase of the pin-edge angle improves the atomization of sprays.
A Study on Reactivity of Zinc-Based Sorbents
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 24~34
In this research, effects of the types and amounts of binders and additives on desulfurization and regeneration reactivities of zinc titanate were investigated. Bentonite and kaolinite were used as binders and Mo-based, Ni-based, and Cu-based compounds were used as additives. A thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) was utilized to investigate reactivities of desulfurization and regeneration for each sorbent. Two-cycle reactions of desulfurization-regeneration were performed in the TGA reactor. Results of XRD analysis showed that all sorbents had the crystalline phases of
irrespective of the type and amount of binder and additive. Kaolinite-bound sorbents gave higher surface areas than bentonite-bound ones and the surface areas and pore volumes of sorbents increased with amount of binder increased. It was found that the most suitable temperatures for desulfurization and regeneration were 680
C and 730
C, respectively, and the sorbent prepared by the addition of 3 mol% CuO showed the best performance in terms of desulfurization and regeneration. Nio-added sorbents had good regenerability whereas
sorbents showed poor performance. In cycle experiments in a fixed bed reactor 3 mol% CuO-added sorbents showed high reactivity.
Oxidation Characteristics of Methanol on Pt/C and Pt-Ru/C Catalyst for the Anode of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 35~43
Electrodes using for the anode electrode of direct methanol fuel cell with Pt/C and Pt/Ru/C catalyst were prepared and characterized by SEM, TEM, thermal analysis and electrochemical analysis. The half cell tests were carried out with 1 M
electrolyte and 1 M
in order to evaluate the electrode performance. The employed electrochemical methods were cyclic vol-tammetry and potentiodynamic polarization experiments. It was found that 20 w% polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) content in catalyst showed the best performance due to the best platinum utilization on PTFE-containing catalyst layer. It was found that Pt/Ru/C binary catalyst inhibited the poisoning of anode electrode showing improved performance compared to the Pt/C catalyst by the adsorption of oxygen containing species on the electrode surface at same time. The apparent activation energy for methanol oxidation on the Pt/Ru/C and Pt/C catalyst layer was 11.60 kJ/mol and 26.85 kJ/mol, respectively.
A Study on the Operating Characteristics by Counter Flow and Parallel Flow in Separate Heat Pipe Exchanger
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 44~56
Separate heat pipe exchanger is considered as the high thermal transportation equipment, because evaporator and condenser are separately positioned in the long distance. Its characteristics are that the working fluid is circulated naturally by the position height of two exchangers. But the operating characteristics are restricted by the temperature of hot and cold fluid, flow pattern and diameter of vapor line, etc. in this study, the vapor pressure and the minimum height of two exchangers are studied about the factors restricting the operating characteristics.
Development and Basic Performance Characterization of Neutralized Fabric Filter
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 57~64
A neutralized fabric filter of which major raw materials were polyester and stainless steel fibers was developed and its physiochemical properties and basic filter characteristics were investigated. Four finds of dusts generated in the typical domestic industry were used, which were coke dust from a steel manufacturing process, cement dust from a cement manufacturing process, flu ash from a fluidized-bed combustor, and incinerator ash from a waste plastics incinerator. The physicochemical properties of the neutralized fabric filter were analyzed in terms of changes in tensile strength and initial elastic modulus under
atmospheres, mean flow pore pressure, bubble point pore diameter, mean flow pore diameter, and pore size distribution. In addition, the pressure drop, dust penetration, and figure of merit for the fabric filter were investigated in a bench-scale filter testing unit. The pressure drop increased as the filtration velocity and dust loading increased, and its increasing shape depended on the type of dust. The dust penetration rapidly decreased as the dust loading increased irrespective of the type of dust. The figures of merit for the fabric filters increased in the early stage of filtration and then showed rapid decreases followed maintaining a constant level.
A Study for Evaluating of Voltage Stability Margin Considering Shunt Capacitor
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 65~72
This paper presents a fast calculation method for evaluating of voltage stability margin (MW) using the line flow equation in polar form. Here, Line flow equations
are comprised of state variable,
, and line parameter, r and x. using the feature of polar coordinate, these becomes one equation with two variables,
. Moreover, if bus j is slack or generator bus, which is specified voltage magnitude in load flow calculation, it becomes one equation with one variable
that is, may be formulated with the second-order equation for
. Therefore, multiple load flow solutions may be obtained with simple computation. The obtained load flow multiple solutions are used for evaluating of voltage stability through sensitivity analysis or its closeness. Also, the method is proposed to calculate for voltage stability margin considering shunt capacitor, which is important element for evaluating of voltage stability. The proposed method was validated to sample systems.
Regeneration of Zinc Titanate Used for High Temperature Desulfurization of Fuel Gases
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 73~80
Zinc titanate sorbents were prepared and regeneration of used sorbents for high temperature desulfurization of fuel gases was studied. Zn/Ti molar ratio of prepared sorbents was 1.5 and quartz fixed-bed reactors with 1 cm and 3 cm diameters were used. Regeneration of zinc titanate sorbents at high temperature is exothermic reaction; that brings about deterioration of sorbents. Therefore, we experimented regeneration reaction of zinc titanate sorbents for the purpose of obtaining the most suitable regeneration conditions by changing experimental parameters such as reaction temperature, oxygen concentration, flow rate and steam content.
breakthrough curves were obtained during desulfurization-regeneration. Also, properties of the sorbents before and after regeneration were analyzed using SEM, XRD, Hg-porosimetry and BET method. From such results, we obtained the most suitable regeneration conditions including regeneration temperature of 650
content of 5% and steam content of 10% in the gas stream.
A Daily Operation Scheduling of Total Cogeneration System Connected with Auxiliary Devices of Different Posession Right
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 81~88
This paper describes the method decide to optimal sizing and operation scheduling of total cogeneration system which is interconnected with cogeneration unit of utility and auxiliary thermal devices of heating company. Optimal sizing and operation scheduling is established in order to minimize the fuel cost under national viewpoint. Simulations are carried out to show the reliability of method suggested by seasons and kinds. The simulated results can be effectively used as the guideline of operation scheduling between the utility and the heating company.
Generator's Maintenance Scheduling to Improve Supply Reliability
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 89~95
Maintenance scheduling of generators plays an important role in evaluating supply reliability of power systems. Since generators must be maintained and inspected, the generation planner must schedule planned outages during the year. Several factors entering into this scheduling analysis include: seasonal load-demand profile, amount of maintenance, size of the units, elapsed time from last maintenance, and availability of maintenance crew. This paper proposes a new maintenance scheduling algorithm for the alternatives of long-term generation expansion planning by using LOLP levelization method which is known as an effective method for the generator's maintenance scheduling. To get the best supply reliability of power systems, we change the maintenance period to levelize the reliability over all period. The proposed algorithm is applied to a real size power system and the better reliability results are obtained.
A Study on the Development of Test Facility for Safety System Software V/V in Nuclear Power Plant
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 96~102
The use of computers as part of nuclear safety systems elicits additional requirements-software verification and validation (v/v), hardware qualification-not specifically addressed in general industry fields. The computer used in nuclear power plants is a system that includes computer hardware, software, firmware, and interfaces. To develop the computer systems graded with nuclear safety class, the developing environments have to be required in advance and the developed software have to be verified and validated in accordance with nuclear code and standards. With this requirements, the test facility for Inadequate Core Cooling Monitoring System (ICCMS) as one of safety systems in the nuclear power plants was developed. The test facility consists of three(3) parts such as Input/Output (I/O) simulator, Plant Data Acqusition System (PDAS) cabinets and supervisory computer. The performance of the system was validated by manual test procedure.
Development and Characterization of High Temperature Filter
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 103~112
A high temperature fabric filter was developed and characterized in order to solve the various problems encountered in the operation of industrial fabric filters. Four kinds of dusts generated in the typical domestic industry were used for its characterization, coke dust from a steel manufacturing process, cement dust from a cement manufacturing process, fly ash from a fluidized-bed combustor, and incinerator ash from a waste plastics incinerator. The physical and chemical properties of the high temperature fabric filter were analyzed in terms of mean flow pore pressure, bubble point pore diameter, mean flow pore diameter, pore size distribution, and the changes in tensile strength and initial elastic modulus under
atmospheres. Pressure drop, dust penetration, and figure of merit for the fabric filter were also investigated in a bench-scale filter testing unit. The fabric filter developed in this study had good physical and chemical filter properties and showed a very applicability to typical industrial dusts treatments.
A Numerical Study for Natural Convective Heat Transfer by Finite Element Method
;Ashley F. Emery;
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 113~121
In natural convection flows, the fluid velocities are highly dependent on the thermal field and property variations can have a strong effect on both the flow and thermal fields. To examine the effect of property variations, at first, numerical analyses covering wide range of the Prandtl number under the same Rayleigh numbers have been carried out. Next, we have modeled the viscosity and thermal conductivity as parabolic functions of temperature and a comprehensive set of numerical solutions have been obtained to understand the effect. The Prandtl number dependence of Nusselt number is fairly strong even though the effect is still weak compared to the Rayleigh number dependence. When thermophysical properties are dependent on temperature, the flow field showed a fairly weak variation except near boundaries, whereas the temperature field is strongly affected, especially by the temperature dependent thermal conductivity.
Derivation of a Simplified Heat Transfer Correlation for AP 600 Passive Containment Cooling System
Chung, Bum-Jin ;
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 122~130
A simplified heat transfer model for the cooling capability of the AP 600 PCCS is proposed I this paper. As the PCCS domain is covered with very thin and long water film, it is phenomenologically divided into 3 regions; water entrance effect region, asymptotic region, and air entrance effect region. As the length of the asymptotic region is estimated to be over 90% of the whole domain, the phenomena in the asymptotic region is focused. Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation, a new dependent variable combining temperature and vapor mass fraction was defined. The similarity between the PCCs phenomena in the asymptotic region and the buoyant air flow phenomena on a vertical heated plate is derived. Using the similarity, the simplified heat transfer correlations for the interfacial heat fluxes and the ratios of latent heat transfer to sensible heat transfer were established. To verify the accuracy of the correlation, the results of this study were compared with those of other numerical analyses performed for the same configuration and they are well within the range of 15% difference.
Evaluation of Generation Avoided Costs of a DSM Resource Using the Long-term Generation Expansion Planning Model
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 131~137
This paper discusses definition, concepts, approach methods, application areas, and evaluation of avoided generation costs based on the Korea's official long-term generation expansion plan. The main objective to evaluate avoided costs of resources is to supply decision makers with the breakeven costs of the resources. For the evaluation of avoided costs based on the Korea's generation system, we consider a DSM option which has 1,000MW peak savings, load factor with 70 percents, and life-time with 25 years. The DSM resource can save the fuel spending and capacity additions of a electric utility during its life time. The capacity and fuel savings are evaluated from two different cashflows with and without the DSM option, which are supplied with on the basis of the generation system optimization model (WASP-II), independently. The breakeven kWh costs of the DSM option is projected to be 31.3 [won/kWh], which is composed of generation capacity and fuel avoided costs with 15.0[won/kWh] and 16.3[won/kWh], respectively.
Characteristics of Coal/Polypropylene Coliquefaction
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 138~145
Synergistic effect and characteristics of coliquefaction with Alaskan subbituminous coal and polypropylene (PP) were investigated in a tubing-bomb reactor. Coliquefaction results showed considerable synergistic effect on conversions for various coal/PP compositions and tetralin addition. Therefore, coliquefactions conversions at 430
C and 450
C with (coal 2 g+PP 2g) and 4 ml tetralin appeared 20.0 and 11.6 per cent higher respectively compared to the conversion of (coal+tetralin) and (PP+tetralin) liquefactions. According to gas chromatographic analyses, hydrogen was not needed during PP liquefactions. On the other hand, 0.70~0.83 part of tetralin per part of coal was converted into naphthalene by donoring hydrogen to free radicals during liquefaction. Also, extraction results by decalin proved that synergistic effect of coliquefaction were mainly due to PP decomposition catalysed be coal.
Physical, Morphological, and Chemical Analysis of Fly Ash Generated from the Coal Fired Power Plant
Journal of Energy Engineering, volume 7, issue 1, 1998, Pages 146~156
Fly ash produced in coal combustion is a fine-grained material consisting mostly of spherical, glassy, and porous particles. A physical, morphological, and chemical characteristic of fly ash has been analyzed. This study may contribute to the data base of domestic fly ash, the improvement of combustion efficiency, ash recycling and ash collection in the electrostatic precipitator. The physical property of fly ash is determined using a particle counter for the measurement of ash size distribution and gravimeter. Morphological characteristic of fly ash is performed using a scanning electron micrograph and an optical microscope. The chemical components of fly ash are determined using an inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP). The distribution of fly ash size was ranged from 15 to 25
m in mass median diameter. Exposure conditions of flue gas temperature and duration within the combustion zone of the boiler played an important role on the morphological properties of the fly ash such as shape, relative opacity, coloration, cenosphere and plerosphere. The spherical fly ash might be generated at the condition of complete combustion. The size of fly ash was found to be increased the with particle-particle interaction of agglomeration and coagulation. Fly ash consisted of
with 85% and carbon with 3~10% of total mass.