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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
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Role of Charges of the Surface-grafted Polymer Chains for Aqueous Lubrication at a Nonpolar Interface
Ron, Troels ; Madsen, Jan Busk ; Nikorgeorgos, Nikolaos ; Lee, Seunghwan ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 5, 2014, Pages 247~255
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.5.247
Charged polymer chains, i.e., polyelectrolytes, are known to show superior aqueous lubricating properties compared to those of neutral polymer chains, especially in brush conformation. This is primarily because of the incorporation of a large amount of counterions within the polymer layers and the consequently increased osmotic pressure. However, this effect is active only when the polymer chains remain immobilized even under tribostress, which is not realistic for high-contact pressure tribological applications, especially when they are irreversibly immobilized on tribopair surfaces. In contrast, with free polymers, which can be included as surface-active additives in the base lubricant (water), long-term lubricating performance based on "self-healing" properties is readily expected. In order to assess whether the superior aqueous lubricating properties of polyelectrolyte chains are valid for free polymers too, this study reviews recent studies on the tribological properties of many charged biopolymer and synthetic copolymers at a nonpolar, hydrophobic interface. In contrast to the irreversibly immobilized polyelectrolyte chains, free polyelectrolyte chains show inferior aqueous lubricating properties compared to their neutral counterparts owing to charge accumulation and the consequently impeded surface adsorption on the nonpolar surface. Nevertheless, bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM), a representative biopolymer, shows a sufficiently effective surface adsorption and aqueous lubricating capabilities even at neutral pH without losing the polyanionic characteristics.
Synthesis and Lubricant Properties of Estolides based on Fatty Acid
Son, Jeong-Mae ; Yoo, Seunghyun ; Lee, Sangjun ; Shin, Jihoon ; Chung, Kunwo ; Yang, Youngdo ; Kim, Young-Wun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 5, 2014, Pages 256~264
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.5.256
Enhancing the value of fine chemicals based on biomass resources is an important objective for addressing environmental and other concerns such as demand for renewable or green products, as well as from the political perspective to reduce dependence on fossil feedstock associated with the use of petroleum-based products. Based on these considerations, we studied the synthesis of estolide using waste plant-based oil materials and their application as lubricants and pour point depressants. Five estolides were prepared by varying molar ratio of palmitic acid (PA) to oleic acid (OA) using a reaction time of 48 h. The estolides were characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The isolated yields were in the range of 57-78 % and purity was 93-97%, showing iodine values of 18.2-37.8, total acid numbers (TANs) of 75.6-94.2 mg KOH/g and estolide numbers (ENs) of 1.2-1.8. Increasing the ratio of OA to PA in the synthesis decreased the kinematic viscosity and clouding point of the estolides. Four ball wear test of the estolides as a base oil demonstrated that the wear scar diameter (WSD) of the estolides was significantly lower (0.320-0.495 mm) than the WSD of general base oils such as 150N and Yubase (0.735 and 0.810 mm, respectively), indicating better wear resistance of the estolides. However, the lubricant property was found to be independent of the amount of OA in the estolides. These new materials are prospective candidates for application as a lubricant base oil.
Frictional Heat Generation in Wet Clutch Engagement according to Groove Pattern on Clutch Pad
Kim, HaeYong ; Jang, Siyoul ; Kim, WooJung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 5, 2014, Pages 265~270
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.5.265
Frictional heat greatly influences the friction behaviors during clutch engagement. Therefore, the engagement of a wet or dry clutch is frequently not under control by the frictional heat. In a wet clutch, the frictional temperature also specially needs to be controlled, and in many cases, the clutch material is selected to prevent a temperature rise from the friction between friction pad and separator. However, only the selection of the clutch material cannot ensure sufficient control of the temperature rise by the friction. The groove pattern on a friction pad is designed for more flow rates of transmission fluid between the contact gap of clutch pad and separator for the cooling effect. In this work, grove patterns are designed for more flow rates out of the contact gap between friction pad and separator plate. Selected groove design shows the improvement flow rates of transmission fluid through both inner and outer radius, where most of the transmission fluid flows through the outer radius when the clutch is engaged due to the centrifugal force in conventional wet clutch groove. Several comparisons of the amounts of frictional heat generated on clutch pads are made in order to verify the decrease of the temperature rise according to the flow rates along the groove patterns.
Component and Bench Tests of Polyurethane Hydraulic Reciprocating Seal for Accelerated Life Testing
Je, Youngwan ; Kim, Hansol ; Kim, Lyu-Woon ; Chung, Koo-Hyun ; An, Joong-Hyok ; Jeon, Hong-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 5, 2014, Pages 271~277
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.5.271
Hydraulic reciprocating seals have been widely used to prevent fluid leakage and to provide lubricant film on counter surface in various hydraulic system. The degradation of the seal may cause the catastrophic failure of the hydraulic system. To assess the durability of the seals and the compatibility with counter surface, accelerated life testing (ALT) has been typically employed from industry. However, ALT often takes up to a few months to cause a failure of the seals, and therefore, there is a need to develop more efficient ALT methods. In this work, the degradation characteristics of polyurethane (PU) seals from field test are investigated and they are compared to those from the component and bench tests, with an aim to contribute to the development of ALT method. From the comparison of the cross-sectional profiles of the sealing surface of the PU specimens before and after the tests, both wear and compression set are found to be responsible for degradation of the PU seals. It is also shown that the major wear mechanisms of the PU seals from the field is abrasive wear and formation of pits. The component and bench tests performed in this work are shown to reproduce such wear mechanisms, and therefore, those test methods can be used as an ALT method for PU seals. In particular, the bench test proposed in this work may be effectively utilized to assess the durability and the compatibility of the seals with the counter surface. The results of this work are expected to aid in the design of ALT for PU seal.
Evaluation of MWCNT Exposure and the Wear Characteristics of MWCNT-containing PC/ABS Composites
Lee, Hyun-Woo ; Kim, Kyung-Shik ; Lee, Jae-Hyeok ; Kim, Hyo-Sop ; Kim, Jae-Ho ; Oh, Dong-Hoon ; Ryu, Sang-Hyo ; Jang, Young-Chan ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Lee, Hak-Joo ; Kim, Kwang-Seop ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 5, 2014, Pages 278~283
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.5.278
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used in various composite materials to enhance electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of composite materials. In this study, we investigate the wear characteristics of polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PC/ABS) blends containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). PC/ABS blends are commonly used in many industrial applications such as cellular phones and display cases and MWCNTs have been added to the PC/ABS blends to improve their electromagnetic interference shielding (EMS). We performed wear tests on PC/ABS blends containing MWCNTs under reciprocating linear sliding conditions with chrome steel balls as a counterpart material. The normal loads were 10, 30, 50, 70, 100 N, the sliding speed was 10 mm/s, the stroke length was 15 mm, and the tests lasted 900 s. The MWCNTs included in the PC/ABS blends lower the wear volume and friction coefficient of the composites. We analyzed the wear debris collected from the composites during the tests in terms of the MWCNT concentration using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The results show that the quantity of MWCNTs in the debris is proportional to the concentration of MWCNTs in the composite, indicating that the exposure of the MWCNTs to environments by wear could be increased with their concentration in the composite.
Lubrication Effect of Slider Bearing with Round Embossed Surface According to Its Slider Slope
Chin, DoHun ; Yoon, MoonChul ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 5, 2014, Pages 284~290
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.5.284
The influence of round embossed surface on slider bearing characteristics and its load carrying capacity is discussed for thin film effect of embossed slider bearing. For the numerical computation of lubrication parameters such as pressure, load capacity and shear stress that are normalized and a Reynolds equation is used for the analysis of embossed slider bearing characteristics. For this purpose, the finite difference method of central difference scheme is used in this study. In a slider bearing with embossed form, several simulation parameters such as pressure, load capacity and shear stress of the bearing can be obtained according to independent parameters such as the slope of the slider bearing and number of embossing in the upper slider. Also this results can be summarized and be stored in sequential data file for latter analysis. After all, their distribution of the pressure and shear stress parameters can be displayed and be analyzed easily by using the developed program with matlab GUI technique. The independent parameters such as a number of embossing and a slope of the embossed surface slider are used for discussing simulation parameters of pressure distribution, shear stress and load carrying capacity of the round embossing. These study results reported in this paper should be applied to the other shaped slider bearing with a rectangular embossed surface or rectangular waved surface.
Study on Wear Characteristics of Lubricants with Nano-diamond Additives
Kim, Seung Taek ; Kim, Seung Mok ; Park, Tae Hee ; Lee, JungSeok ; Lee, YoungZe ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 5, 2014, Pages 291~294
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.5.291
Multiple additives can help improve the performance of generally used lubricants. These additives include MoS2, cadmium, chloride, indium, sulfide, and phosphide, which are harmful to both humans and the environment. Thus, researchers in this industry have been trying to reduce the use of these additives by finding alternatives. Nanodiamonds are one of these candidates. Nanodiamond particles are very hard, chemically stable, and highly heat-conductive. This research involved uniformly dispersing nanodiamond particles in marine engine oils via a matrix synthesis method at various concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 wt). Friction and wear tests involved constant loads on ball-on-disk specimens, where the ball was AISI 51200 steel, the disk was AISI 1020 steel, and the sliding speed was 0.217 m/s. The lowest wear occurred at a suitable concentration of nanodiamonds (0.3 wt). However, excessive amounts of nanodiamonds caused them to act as abrasive debris because of their hardness, which increased the wear amount. The friction coefficient decreased as the nanodiamond concentration increased because their octagonal, almost spherical shape caused them to act as rolling contact elements between two surfaces.
Tribological Behavior of Fe-based Bulk Amorphous Alloy in a Distilled Water Environment
Jang, Beomtaek ; Yi, Seonghoon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 5, 2014, Pages 295~302
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.5.295
The tribological behavior of an Fe-based bulk amorphous alloy while sliding against a AISI 304 disc is investigated using a unidirectional pin-on-disc type tribometer in dry and distilled water environments. The rod-shaped bulk pins are fabricated by suction casting. The crystallinities of the bulk amorphous alloys before and after the friction tests are determined by X-ray diffraction. The friction coefficient and specific wear rate of the amorphous pin in the water environment are found to be twice and thrice as much as in the dry environment at a low applied pressure, respectively. However, at a higher pressure, the friction coefficient and specific wear rate are 0.4 and 1.02 mg/(Nm/s), respectively, in the water environment. A microstructure analysis shows that the worn surface of the alloy is characterized by delamination from the smooth friction surface, and thus delamination is the main wear mechanism during the friction test in dry sliding environment. In contrast, brittle fracture morphologies are apparent on the friction surface formed in distilled water environment. For the sample tested at a lower sliding speed, the XPS data from the oxide layer are similar to those of the pure element with weak suboxide peaks. For higher sliding speeds, all the main sharp peaks representing the core level binding energies are shifted to the oxide region.
THD Analysis of a Surface Textured Parallel Thrust Bearing: Effect of Dimple Radius and Depth
Jeong, YoHan ; Park, TaeJo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 5, 2014, Pages 303~310
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.5.303
In order to reduce friction and improve reliability, researchers have applied various surface texturing methods to highly sliding machine elements such as mechanical seals and piston rings. Despite extensive theoretical research on surface texturing, previous numerical results are only applicable to isothermal and iso-viscous conditions. Because the lubricant flow pattern of textured bearing surfaces is much more complicated than that for non-textured bearings, the Navier?Stokes equation is more suitable than the Reynolds equation for the former. This study carries out a thermohydrodynamic (THD) lubrication analysis to investigate the lubrication characteristics of a single micro-dimpled parallel thrust bearing cell. The analysis involves using the continuity, Navier?Stokes, energy, temperature?viscosity relation, and heat conduction equations with the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. This study discretizes these equations using the finite volume method and solves them using the SIMPLE algorithm. The results include finding the streamlines, pressure and temperature distributions, and variations in the friction force and leakage for various dimple radii and depths. Increasing the dimple radius and decreasing the depth causes a recirculation flow to form because of a strong vortex, and the oil temperature greatly increases compared with the non-textured case. The present numerical scheme and results are applicable to THD analysis of various surface-textured sliding bearings and can lead to further study.