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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
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Synthesis and Antiwear Properties of Ammonium Dithiocarbamate-based Ionic Liquid (I)
Baek, Seung-Yeob ; Kim, Nam-Kyun ; Shin, Jihoon ; Chung, Keunwo ; Kim, Young-Wun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 6, 2014, Pages 323~329
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.6.323
The friction-reducing properties of lubricants containing ionic liquids based on ammonium dithiocarbamate are studied. The ionic liquids are produced through the following two steps: the synthesis of sodium alkyl dithiocarbamates via the substitution reaction of dialkylamine and carbon disulfide and their subsequent conversion into ammonium dithiocarbamate-based ionic liquids through an ion-exchange reaction with a quaternary alkyl ammonium halide salt. The structures of the ionic liquids are characterized by NMR spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The isolated yields of the ionic liquids, which are viscous and pale yellow, are approximately 92%. The Brookfield viscosities and pour points of the ionic liquids are determined. Further, their wear resistances are measured through the four-ball wear test and the Schwingung Reibung Ver-schleiss (oscillation, friction, wear) test. The wear scar diameter of the lubricants containing 1 wt of the quaternary alkyl ammonium dithiocarbamate-based ionic liquids (0.475-0.631 mm) is significantly lower than that of the base oil (0.825 mm), proving that the ammonium dithiocarbamate-based ionic liquids have good friction-reducing characteristics. However, these friction-reducing characteristics fade significantly after long-term storage, owing to the degradation of the ionic liquids.
Effects of Composition of Metallic Friction Materials on Tribological Characteristics on Sintered Metallic Brake Pads and Low-Alloy Heat-Resistance Steel for Trains
Yang, Yong Joon ; Lee, Hi Sung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 6, 2014, Pages 330~336
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.6.330
Sintered metallic brake pads and low alloy heat resistance steel disks are applied to mechanical brake systems in high energy moving machines that are associated with recently developed 200km/h trains. This has led to the speed-up of conventional urban rapid transit. In this study, we use a lab-scale dynamometer to investigate the effects of the composition of friction materials on the tribological characteristics of sintered metallic brake pads and low alloy heat resistance steel under dry sliding conditions. We conduct test under a continuous pressure of 5.5 MPa at various speeds. To determine the optimal composition of friction materials for 200 km/h train, we test and the evaluate frictional characteristics such as friction coefficients, friction stability, wear rate, and the temperature of friction material, which depend on the relative composition of the Cu-Sn and Fe components. The results clearly demonstrate that the average friction coefficient is lower for all speed conditions, when a large quantity of iron power is added. The specimen of 25 wt% iron powder that was added decreased the wear of the friction materials and the roughness of the disc surface. However when 35 wt% iron powder was added, the disc roughness and the wear rate of friction materials increased By increasing the amount of iron powder, the surface roughness, and temperature of the friction materials increased, so the average friction coefficients decreased. An oxidation layer of
was formed on both friction surfaces.
Effects of Friction Plate Area and Clearance on the Drag Torque in a Wet Clutch for an Automatic Transmission
Ryu, Jin Seok ; Sung, In-Ha ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 6, 2014, Pages 337~342
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.6.337
The reduction of drag torque is an important research issue in terms of improving transmission efficiency. Drag torque in a wet clutch occurs because of the viscous drag generated by the transmission fluid in a narrow gap (clearance) between the friction plate and a separate plate. The objective of this paper is to observe the effects of the friction plate area and the clearance on the drag torque using finite element simulation. The two-phase flow of air and oil fluid is considered and modeled for the simulation. The simulation analysis reveals that as the rotational speed increases, the drag torque generally increases to a critical point and then decreases sharply at a high speed regime. The clearance between the two plates plays an important role in controlling drag torque peak. An increase in the clearance causes a decrease in shear stress; thus, the drag torque also decreases according to Newton`s law of viscosity. An observation of the effect of the area of contact between transmission fluid and friction plate shows that the drag torque increases with the contact area. The flow vectors inside the flow channel present clear evidence that the velocity of the fluid flows is faster with a larger friction plate, that is, in the case of a larger contact area. Therefore, the optimum size of the friction plate should be determined carefully, considering both the clutch performance and drag reduction. It is expected that the results from this study can be very useful as a database for clutch design and to predict the drag torque for the initial design with respect to various clutch parameters.
Development of a Water-soluble Dry Lubricant for Nuclear Fuel Rod Protection
Chung, Keunwoo ; Kim, Young-Wun ; Lee, Sangbong ; Hong, Jongsung ; Han, Sangjae ; Oh, Myoungho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 6, 2014, Pages 343~349
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.6.343
Currently, in order to resist the scratching of the fuel rod surface while fabricating the fuel assembly of the light-water nuclear reactor, we use a solution of nitrocellulose, an explosive material, as a dry lubricant along with its solvent. However, the demand for developing safe and harmless aqueous alternative materials for environment-conservation and field-worker safety has increased. In this study, we demonstrate the preparation of a novel aqueous resin composite using a formulation of aqueous polymeric resin, alcoholic solvent, and water. Subsequently, we characterize this composite on the basis of hardness, adhesive property, and water solubility using plates similar to the fuel rod material. The insertion test of a fuel rod coated with the YS-3 composite shows load values of
, which is comparable with
of the nitrocellulose coating agent. In addition, the depth and width of longitudinal scratches caused by the YS-3 composite test are 50% higher than those of the standard. We can develop a harmless and safe aqueous dry lubricant to replace the existing NC products through field testing of 264 pieces of fuel rods, after producing 350 kg of the YS-3 prototype. The scratch test for the rod surface showed that weight of chip of YS-3 prototype was smaller than that of NC before and after solvent treatment, indicating the properties of YS-3 prototype was comparable to the counterpart.
Remanufacturing Process and Improvement in Fatigue Life of Spherical Roller Bearings
Darisuren, Shirmendagva ; Amanov, Auezhan ; Kim, Jun-Hyong ; Lee, Seung-Chul ; Choi, Gab-Su ; Pyun, Young-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 6, 2014, Pages 350~355
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.6.350
This study proposes a sustainable bearing remanufacturing process using the ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) technique. The UNSM technique is a newly developed and sophisticated surface modification technique that can increase the mechanical properties and improve the friction and wear performance of materials. Taking advantage of the bearing manufacturing process is the most significant way of optimizing the life of a bearing. The proper maintenance and usage of repaired bearings can increase their life to be equal to or greater than that of new bearings. This paper discusses the restoration of certain mechanical properties of worn, damaged, and discarded bearings, and suggests a remanufacturing process for used bearings, which can impart them with a lifespan equivalent to that of new bearings. The most damaged part of the discarded bearings is the raceway, which is the site of accumulated fatigue. The existing polishing or barrel finishing processes can recover the accumulated fatigue only partially. Rolling contact fatigue tests performed on UNSM-treated new and used specimens polished after
cycles reveal that UNSM-treated new specimens exhibit the longest fatigue life compared to other specimens. This study verifies the proposed complete fatigue recovery process, which can increase the fatigue life of used bearings to a level greater than that of new bearings.
Application of Neural Network for Damage Diagnosis of Marine Engine Cylinder Liner
Cho, Yonsang ; Koo, Hyunhoo ; Park, Junhong ; Park, Heungsik ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 6, 2014, Pages 356~363
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.6.356
Marine diesel engines operate in environments in which damage easily occurs from corrosion. Recently, damage to cylinder liners has increased from corrosion wear caused by increased engine power. This damage can cause serious problems in the economy. Thus, many researchers have treated and studied damaged cylinder liners. However, a method is necessary for real-time monitoring of damage to cylinder liners during operation of the engine, before serious damage can occur. This study carries out reciprocating friction and wear tests on a cast iron specimen under various corrosion atmospheres and verifies the variations of friction coefficient and friction surface. Additionally, the friction coefficient and friction status are predicted by using a neural network that learns the vibration and frequency spectrum data from an acceleration sensor. According to our conclusions, amplitude is distributed highly at high frequencies, and values of standard deviation and kurtosis are high when damage to the friction surface is serious. The accuracy rate of the friction coefficient predicted by the neural network is over 80% of the real measured value without NaCl, and application of the neural network is very effective for diagnosing the friction condition and damage to the cylinder liner.
A Study on the Rail Materials Technology for Subway Based on its Sliding Wear Behavior
Lee, Han-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 6, 2014, Pages 364~369
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.6.364
To assess the wear behavior of rails against subway rail car wheels, we investigate the sliding wear behavior of pins derived from two types of rails (normal rails and heat-treated rails) against a disc derived from a subway rail car wheel, using a pin-on-disc-type tribometer. We base the sliding wear test conditions on the sliding conditions for wheel flange-rail gauge corner contact. We demonstrate the remarkable transition in the wear behavior of the pins derived from the rails, from severe wear to mild wear, as a function of the sliding distance. The wear rate of the heat-treated rail material in the running-in wear region is much lower than that of the normal rail material. Furthermore, the wear rates of the pins in the running-in wear region decrease with increasing hardness and with decreasing sliding speed. However, there is little difference between the heat-treated rail pin and the normal rail pin in the wear rate in the steady-state wear region. Stricter controls on the decarburized layer beneath the surface of rails are required to reduce the wear rate in the running-in wear region.
Friction Characteristics of the Tip Seal in a Scroll Compressor
Jeong, Bong Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 6, 2014, Pages 370~377
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.6.370
The basic elements in a rotary-type scroll compressor are two identical spiral scrolls containing refrigerant gas. The pressure variations in the compression pockets of a scroll compressor change the forces acting on the orbiting scroll, and these forces affect the dynamic behavior of the compression mechanism parts. To achieve high efficiency, using a self-sealing mechanism as a tip seal mechanism is very effective. Tip seals, which are placed on top of the scroll wraps, accomplish thrust sealing. This study calculates the friction force between the tip seal and the side plate of a scroll compressor using the numerical model considered in the Reynolds equation. The calculated friction force is verified by an experiment using a pin-on-disk apparatus. A hydraulic servo valve that controls the pressure of the oil hydraulic cylinder applies the normal load for the test, and a DC servo motor controls the sliding velocity of the disk. The friction force and normal load are measured by the force sensors attached to the supporting parts. The results show that the theoretical and experimental results are similar and that the friction is influenced by the viscosity of the oil and the sliding velocity of the scroll.
Predictive Study of Hysteretic Rubber Friction Based on Multiscale Analysis
Nam, Seungkuk ; Oh, Yumrak ; Jeon, Seonghee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 30, issue 6, 2014, Pages 378~383
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2014.30.6.378
This study predicts the of the hysteretic friction of a rubber block sliding on an SMA asphalt road. The friction of filled rubber on a rough surface is primarily determined by two elements:the viscoelasticity of the rubber and the multi-scale perspective asperities of the road. The surface asperities of the substrate exert osillating forces on the rubber surface leading to energy dissipation via the internal friction of the rubber when rubber slides on a hard and rough substrate. This study defines the power spectra at different length scales by using a high-resolution surface profilometer, and uses rubber and road surface samples to conduct friction tests. I consider in detail the case when the substrate surface has a self affine fractal structure. The theory developed by Persson is applied to describe these tests through comparison with the hysteretic friction coefficient relevant to the energy dissipation of the viscoelastic rubber attributable to cyclic deformation. The results showed differences in the absolute values of predicted and measured friction, but with high correlation between these values. Hence, the friction prediction model is an appropriate tool for separating the effects of each factor. Therefore, this model will contribute to clearer understanding of the fundamental principles of rubber friction.