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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers
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The Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
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Effect of Current Density on Material Removal in Cu ECMP
Park, Eunjeong ; Lee, Hyunseop ; Jeong, Hobin ; Jeong, Haedo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 79~85
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.3.79
RC delay is a critical issue for achieving high performance of ULSI devices. In order to minimize the RC delay time, we uses the CMP process to introduce high-conductivity Cu and low-k materials on the damascene. The low-k materials are generally soft and fragile, resulting in structure collapse during the conventional high-pressure CMP process. One troubleshooting method is electrochemical mechanical polishing (ECMP) which has the advantages of high removal rate, and low polishing pressure, resulting in a well-polished surface because of high removal rate, low polishing pressure, and well-polished surface, due to the electrochemical acceleration of the copper dissolution. This study analyzes an electrochemical state (active, passive, transpassive state) on a potentiodynamic curve using a three-electrode cell consisting of a working electrode (WE), counter electrode (CE), and reference electrode (RE) in a potentiostat to verify an electrochemical removal mechanism. This study also tries to find optimum conditions for ECMP through experimentation. Furthermore, during the low-pressure ECMP process, we investigate the effect of current density on surface roughness and removal rate through anodic oxidation, dissolution, and reaction with a chelating agent. In addition, according to the Faraday’s law, as the current density increases, the amount of oxidized and dissolved copper increases. Finally, we confirm that the surface roughness improves with polishing time, and the current decreases in this process.
Study on Lacquer Formation in Combined of Marine Fuel Oil and Marine Lubricant Oil
Hong, Sung-Ho ; Park, JongKuk ; Ryoo, Young Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 86~94
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.3.86
We perform lacquer formation experiments with various combinations of marine fuel oils and lubricant oils. We also investigate the influences of base number (BN) in lubricant oil and sulfur content in fuel oil. A dissolution test with 10% dilute sulfuric acid and pull-off force test are accomplished to distinguish whether the residual layers are lacquering or not. The lacquering layers are dissolved by dilute sulfuric acid and have a strong pull-off force. Moreover, the calcium content detected in the residual layers is compared by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). More calcium is detected in the lacquer layers than in other residual layers. Distillate fuels containing low sulfur levels are more prone to lacquering when mixed with lubricant oil with a high BN. On the other hand, residual fuels with a high sulfur content do not form lacquer. We investigate the effect of mixture volume ratio. The mixture with higher fuel oil content is more prone to generate lacquer. These experiments indicate that a lubricant with an appropriate BN should be used to prevent lacquer forming on the surfaces such as cylinder liners depending on the sulfur content of fuel oil.
Effects of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes on Electrical and Wear Characteristics of High Impact Polystyrene Composites
Jeong, Yeon-Woo ; Kim, Kyung-Shik ; Lee, Hyun-Woo ; Jeong, Man-Woo ; Lee, Jae-Hyeok ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Lee, Hak-Joo ; Kim, Kwang-Seop ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 95~101
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.3.95
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in polymer composites as filler materials to enhance various characteristics of the composites because of their remarkable mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. In this study, we investigate the effects of MWCNTs on the electrical and wear characteristics of high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites, and compare the results with the effects of carbon black (CB). The HIPS composites are classified as Bare-HIPS, MWCNT-HIPS composites containing 2, 3, 4, and 5 wt% MWCNTs, and CB-HIPS containing 17 wt% CB. Electrical characteristics are evaluated by measuring the surface resistance using a 4-point probe. Wear characteristics are evaluated using the reciprocating wear test, and a chrome steel ball with a curvature of 6.3 mm is used as the counterpart. The results show that the addition of MWCNTs or CB can improve the electrical and wear characteristics of HIPS composites. In the case of MWCNT-HIPS composites, surface resistance, friction coefficient, and specific wear rate decrease as the concentrations of MWCNTs increase. Moreover, the addition of MWCNTs is more effective in improving the electrical and wear characteristics of HIPS composites compared to the addition of CB. To fabricate the HIPS composite with appropriate electrical and wear characteristics, more than 4 wt% MWCNTs is added to HIPS.
A Study on Sealing Performance of Elastomeric Rotary Lip Seals for Washing Machines
Kim, Tae-Hyung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 102~108
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.3.102
In this research, we experimentally investigated the sealing performance of elastomeric rotary lip seals for washing machines. In general, NBR is used as a material for elastomeric rotary lip seals in washing machines, but the mixing formula of the rubber material can affect the sealing performance. In this study, we manufactured rotary lip seals using three kinds of NBRs with a different mixing formula, and examined the sealing performance using an acceleration test mode. The results of an SEM investigation into the surfaces of three kinds of specimens showed a much smaller wear volume and better sealing performance for the specimens with smaller particle sizes of mixing composition than for the specimen with the larger. Repeated deformation and recovery by the shaft-to-seal eccentricity on rotation were shown to cause a phase difference in the rubber material, and we measured the recovery ratio to find the influence of this phase difference on the sealing performance. As another method for checking the phase difference, we also measured tan ä, and a lower tan ä was revealed as the recovery ratio increased for each specimen. Specimens with a higher recovery ratio (lower tan ä) were shown to have a better sealing performance. Consequently, specimens with a smaller particle size in the mixing composition had a better sealing performance because they show a higher recovery ratio.
Study on Wear of Journal Bearings during Start-up and Coast-down Cycles of a Motoring Engine - I. Theory and Analysis Procedure
Chun, Sang Myung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 109~124
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.3.109
This paper presents a wear analysis procedure for the journal bearings on a stripped-down single-cylinder engine during start-up and coast-down by motoring. A journal bearing is in the mixed elastohydrodynamic (EHL) lubrication region when the shaft speed is less than the corresponding lift-off speed. Below the lift-off speed, a wear scar can form on bearing surfaces. In part 1 of this paper, we develop the appropriate formulations and the calculation procedure for the analysis. Specifically, we formulate an equation for modified film thickness in a journal bearing considering the additional wear volume. In order to obtain the modified specific wear rate induced by the modified Archard’s wear coefficient, we utilized the extended non-dimensional diagram for the specific wear rate, k, the fractional film defect coefficient, Ψ and the asperity load sharing factor, γ
. This asperity load sharing factor is newly calculated by setting the Zhao-Maietta-Chang (ZMC) asperity contact pressure equation coupled with the central film thickness equation derived by using the ZMC asperity contact model equal to the modified central contact pressure derived by using the central (or maximum) contact pressure at the dry rough line-contact configuration. We can use the procedure introduced in this paper to determine the lifetime (or longterm) linear wear in radial journal bearings that is a result of repeated stop-start cycles.
Study on Wear of Journal Bearings during Start-up and Coast-down Cycles of a Motoring Engine - II. Analysis Results
Chun, Sang Myung ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 125~140
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.3.125
In this paper, we present the results of the wear analysis of journal bearings on a stripped-down single-cylinder engine during start-up and coast-down by motoring. We calculate journal bearing wear by using a modified specific wear rate considering the fractional film defect coefficient and load-sharing ratio for the asperity portion of a mixed elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime coupled with previously presented graphical data of experimental lifetime linear wear in radial journal bearings. Based on the calculated wear depth, we obtain a new oil film thickness for every crank angle. By examination of the oil film thickness, we determine whether the oil film thickness at the wear scar region is in a mixed lubrication regime by comparing dimensionless oil film thickness, h/σ, to 3.0 at every crank angle. We present the lift-off speed and the crank angles involved with the wear calculation for bearings #1 and #2. The dimensionless oil film thickness, h/σ, illustrates whether the lubrication region between the two surfaces is still within the bounds of the mixed lubrication regime after scarring of the surface by wear. In addition, we present in tables the asperity contact pressure, the real minimum film thickness at the wear scar region, the modified specific wear rate, and the wear angle, α, for bearings #1 & #2. To show the real shape of the oil film at wear scar region, we depict the actual oil film thickness in graphs. We also tabulated the ranges of bearing angles related with wear scar. We present the wear volume for bearings #1 and #2 after one turn-on and turn-off of the engine ignition switch for five kinds of equivalent surface roughness. We show that the accumulated wear volume after a single turn-on and turn-off of an ignition switch normally increases with increasing surface roughness, with a few exceptions.