Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Effect of Brush Treatment and Brush Contact Sequence on Cross Contaminated Defects during CMP in-situ Cleaning
Kim, Hong Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 239~244
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.6.239
Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is one of the most important processes for enabling sub-14 nm semiconductor manufacturing. Moreover, post-CMP defect control is a key process parameter for the purpose of yield enhancement and device reliability. Due to the complexity of device with sub-14 nm node structure, CMP-induced defects need to be fixed in the CMP in-situ cleaning module instead of during post ex-situ wet cleaning. Therefore, post-CMP in-situ cleaning optimization and cleaning efficiency improvement play a pivotal role in post-CMP defect control. CMP in-situ cleaning module normally consists of megasonic and brush scrubber processes. And there has been an increasing effort for the optimization of cleaning chemistry and brush scrubber cleaning in the CMP cleaning module. Although there have been many studies conducted on improving particle removal efficiency by brush cleaning, these studies do not consider the effects of brush contamination. Depending on the process condition and brush condition, brush cross contamination effects significantly influence post-CMP cleaning defects. This study investigates brush cross contamination effects in the CMP in-situ cleaning module by conducting experiments using 300mm tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) blanket wafers. This study also explores brush pre-treatment in the CMP tool and proposes recipe effects, and critical process parameters for optimized CMP in-situ cleaning process through experimental results.
Lubrication Characteristics in Fuel Injection Pump with Variation of Fuel Oils
Hong, Sung-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 245~250
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.6.245
This study investigates the lubrication characteristics of fuel injection pumps with reference to different fuel oils. Medium-speed diesel engines use fuel oils with various viscosities, such as heavy fuel oil (HFO, which is a high-viscosity fuel oil) and light diesel oil (LDO, which is a low-viscosity fuel oil). When fuel oil with a low viscosity is used, both fuel oil and lubricating oil lubricate the system. Thus, the lubrication of the fuel injection pump is in a multi-viscosity condition when the fuel oil in use changes. We suggest three cases of multi-viscosity models, and divide the fuel injection pump into three lubrication sections: a, the new oil section; b, the mixed oil section; and c, the used oil section. This study compares the lubrication characteristics with variation of the multi-viscosity model, clearance. The volume of Section b does not affect the lubrication characteristics. The lubrication characteristics of the fuel injection pump are poor when high-viscosity fuel oil transfers to low-viscosity fuel oil. This occurs because the viscosity in the new oil section (i.e., Section a) dominates the lubrication characteristics of the fuel injection pump. However, the lubricant oil supply in the used oil section (i.e., Section c) can improve the lubrication characteristics in this condition. Moreover, the clearances of the stem and head significantly influence the lubrication characteristics when the fuel oil changes.
Dispersing Properties of Heavy Crude Oil according to Dispersant Structures
Son, Jeong-Mae ; Kim, Nam-Kyun ; Shin, Jihoon ; Yang, Youngdo ; Kim, Young-Wun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 251~257
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.6.251
Heavy oil production is receiving significant attention because of increased demands for thermal power generation systems of the diesel engine and boilers. However, asphaltene, which is a heavy oil components (6-8 wt%), reduces the heat efficiency of the fuels owing to its agglomerated sludge of asphaltene during the burning process. Therefore, for hassle-free operation, we should develop asphaltene dispersants to suppress the formation of the sludge. We prepare variable salt-type polymeric dispersants using poly(isobutenyl succinic anhydride) and poly(amine) through both condensation esterification and acid-base neutralization reactions, which we subsequently evaluate for dispersing performance, using Turbiscan measurement. Total acid number (TAN) and total base number (TBN) of 75Lec-25SynDis.2 composed of lecithin and the prepared polymeric salt having the ratio of 3 : 1 are 18.9 and 33.7 mg KOH/g, respectively, which are comparable to those of the commercial dispersants (15.8 and 26.5 mg KOH/g). We determine the initial turbidity observed for 15 min of the polymeric dispersant was determined with transmittance (%), which can be calculated to separability number (SN). The SN value of 75Lec-25SynDis.2 is close to zero, which is superior to that of commercial dispersants and lecithin (0.015 and 0.017).
Effect of Amine-Based Antioxidants as Stabilizers for Biodiesel
Park, Soo-Youl ; Kim, Hun-Soo ; Kim, Seung-Hoi ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 258~263
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.6.258
Biodiesel is an environmentally-friendly fuel with low smoke emission because it contains about 10% oxygen. Biodiesel fuel prepared by transesterification of vegetable oil or animal fats is susceptible to auto-oxidation. The rate of auto-oxidation depends on the number of methylene double bonds contained within the fatty acid methyl or ethyl ester groups. Biodiesel may be easily oxidized under several conditions, i.e., upon exposure to sunlight, temperature, oxygen environment. Maintenance of the fuel quality of biodiesel requires the development of technologies to increase the resistance of biodiesel to oxidation. Treatment with antioxidants is a promising approach for extending the shelf-life or storage time of biodiesel. The chemical properties of various amine-based antioxidants were evaluated after synthesis of the antioxidants by condensation of phenylenediamine with alkylamines at room temperature. In general, the oxidative stability can be assessed based on various experimental parameters. Such parameters may include temperature, pressure, and the flow rate of air through the samples. The Rancimat method (EN14112) was selected because it is a rapid technique that requires very little sample and provides good precision for oxidative degradation analysis. Specifically, the EN 14112 technique provides enhanced efficiency for oxidative stability evaluation when a larger ester head group is utilized. Therefore, this technique was employed for evaluation of the oxidation stability of biodiesel by the Rancimat method (EN14112).
Investigation of Adhesion force between Cylindrical Nanowire and Flat Surface through Molecular Dynamics Simulation
Kim, Hyun-Joon ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 264~271
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.6.264
Adhesion force of nanomaterials such as nanoparticle, nanowire, and nanorods should be significantly considered for its mechanical applications. However, examination of the adhesion force is limited since it is technically challenging to carry out experiments with such small objects. Therefore, in this work, molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) was conducted to determine the adhesion force between a nanowire and a flat surface, which could not be readily assessed through experiments. The adhesion force of a cylindrical-shaped nanowire was assessed by performing MDS and applying an equation of Van der Waals interaction. Simulation was conducted in two steps: indentation of a spherical tip on the flat surface and indentation of a cylinder on the flat surface, because the purpose of the simulation was comparing the results of the simulation and calculation of the Van der Waals interaction equation. From the simulation, Hamaker constant used for the equation of Van der Waals interaction was determined to be 2.93 °ø 10?18 J. Using this constant, the adhesion force of the nanowire on the flat surface was readily estimated by calculating Van der Waals equation to be approximately 65~89 nN with respect to the diameter of the nanowire. Moreover, the adhesion force of the nanowire was determined to be 52~77 nN from the simulation It was observed that there was a slight discrepancy (approximately 15~25%) between the results of the simulation and the theoretical calculation. Thus, it was confirmed that the calculation of Van der Waals interaction could be utilized to assess the adhesion force of the nanowire.
Fatigue Life Analysis of Rolling Contact Model Considering Stress Gradient Effect
Cho, InJe ; Yu, YongHun ; Lee, Bora ; Cho, YongJoo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 272~280
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.6.272
Recently, Luu suggested fatigue life equation that uses every term of the Crossland equation with stress gradient effect. Luu’s model, however, has a limit of being unable to coverage small radii that are less than a specified length. Furthermore, rolling model has a very small contact area compared to the rolling element size, and fatigue failure occurs on the small radius such as surface asperity by cyclic loading. Therefore, it is necessary to modify fatigue life equation in order to enable fatigue analysis for a small radius. In this paper, the fatigue life considering a stress gradient effect in rolling contact was obtained using Luu’s modified equation. Fatigue analysis was performed to study the effect of stress gradient on the fatigue life using newly adopted equation and to compare the results with pervious models. In order to do this, a series of simulation such as surface stress analysis, subsurface stress analysis, and fatigue analysis are conducted for two rolling balls of same size that contact each other. Through such a series of processes, the fatigue life can be calculated and equation that is proposed in this paper evaluates the fatigue life in case the contact area is small.
Improving the Endurance Life of Deep Groove Ball Bearings for Automotive Transmission
Baek, Hye-Yeon ; Pyun, Jung-Min ; Lee, Dae-Yong ; Park, Tae-Jo ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 281~286
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.6.281
Automotive transmission systems are assembled with a large number of gears and shafts, and rolling bearings are used to ensure their smooth operation. Gear oil in the gear box contains solid particles such as wear debris from contacting gears and metallic chips. This particle-enriched lubricating oil can cause premature failure of the rolling bearings. Research aimed at improving the service life of these rolling bearings has been confined mainly to design and lubrication of the inner/outer rings and the rolling elements. In this paper, we redesigned the shape of the cage pocket of a deep groove ball bearing to reduce the premature failure due to particle contamination. Test bearings are assembled with this new cage design containing a hole punched in the cage pocket. Endurance tests are carried out using the contaminated lubricating oil with miracle grid as hard particle. The duration and damaged bearing component shapes are compared for two different cages. The B
life of bearing with new cage is increased by about 66% compared to the conventional cage. This is because the hard particles can be easily discharged through the pocket hole without staying for a long time in the lubrication regions. This greatly decreases abrasive wear and dents on the highly stressed ball bearing surfaces. Therefore, the cage design of this study, containing a pocket hole, can significantly delay the premature failure of rolling bearings and improve the endurance life.
Surface Texturing for Low Friction Mechanical Components
Iqbal, K. Y. Mohd ; Segu, D. Z. ; Pyung, H. ; Kim, J. H. ; Kim, S. S. ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 287~293
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.6.287
Laser surface texturing (LST), a surface engineering modification, has been considered as one of the new processes used to improve tribological characteristics of materials by creating artificially patterned microstructure on the contact surface of mechanical components. In LST technology, the laser is optimized to obtain or manufacture the dimples with maximum precision. The micro-dimples reduce the coefficients of friction and also improve the wear resistance of materials. This study investigates the effect of dimple density is investigated. For this purpose, a ball-on-disc type tester is used with AISI 52100 bearing steel as the test material. Discs are textured with a 5% and 10% dimple density. Experimental work is performed with normal loads of 5 N, 10 N, and 15 N under a fixed speed of 150 rpm at room temperature. The effect of the textured surface is compared to that of the untextured one. Experimental results show that the textured surface yields lower friction coefficients compared to those of untextured surfaces. Specifically, the 10% dimple density textured surface shows better friction reduction behavior than the 5% dimple density textured sample, and has an 18% improvement in friction reduction compared with the untextured samples. Microscopic observation using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows that the major friction mechanisms of the AISI 52100 bearing steel are adhesion, plastic deformation, and ploughing.
Rotordynamic Performance Predictions of Tilting Pad Journal Bearing with Rocker-Back Pivots and Comparison with Published Test Results
Kim, Tae Ho ; Choi, Tae Gyu ; Kim, Choong Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 294~301
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.6.294
In this paper, we predict the rotordynamic force coefficients of tilting pad journal bearings (TPJBs) with rocker-back pivots, and we compare the predictions to recently published predictions and test data. The present TPJB model considers the rocker-back pivot stiffness calculated based on the Hertzian contact-stress theory, which is nonlinear with the application of a force . For the five-pad TPJB in load-between-pad and load-on-pad configurations, the predictions show the pressure- and film-thickness distributions, the deflection and stiffness of the individual pivots, and bearing stiffness and damping coefficients. The minimum film thickness and peak pressure occur at the bottom pad on which the applied load is directed. Because of the preload, the pres- sure is positive even at the upper pad in the opposite direction to the applied load. The pivot deflection and stiff- ness are maximum at the bottom pad that receives the heaviest pressure load. The predicted stiffness coefficients increase as the static load and rotor speed increase, while the damping coefficients decrease as the rotor speed increases, but increase as the static load increases. In general, the predicted stiffness coefficients agree well with the test data. The predicted damping coefficients overestimate the test data, particularly for large static loads. In general, the current predictive model considering the pivot stiffness improves the accuracy of the rotordynamic performance compared to previously reported models.
Stability Analysis of Floating Ring Bearing Supported Turbocharger
Lee, Donghyun ; Kim, Youngcheol ; Kim, Byungok ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 302~307
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.6.302
The use of turbocharger in internal combustion engines has increased as it is a key components for improving system efficiency without increasing engine size. Because of increasing demand, many studies have evaluated rotordynamic performance so as to increase rotation speed. This paper presents a linear and nonlinear analysis model for a turbocharger rotor supported by a floating ring bearing. We constructed rotor model by using the finite element method and approximated bearings as being infinitely short. In the linear model, we considered fluid film force as stiffness and damping element. In nonlinear analysis, calculation of the fluid film force involved solving the time dependent Reynolds equation. We verified the developed model by comparing the results to those of previous research. The analysis results show that there are four unstable modes, which are rigid body modes combining ring and rotor motion. As the rotating speed increases, the logarithmic decrement shows that certain unstable modes goes into the stable area or the stable mode goes into the unstable area. These unstable modes appear as sub-synchronous vibrations in nonlinear analysis. In nonlinear analysis frequency jump phenomenon demonstrated in several experimental studies appears. The analysis results also showed that frequency jump phenomenon occurs when the vibration mode changes and the sequence of unstable mode matches the linear analysis result. However, the natural frequency predicted using linear analysis differs from those obtained using nonlinear analysis.
Tribology Characteristics in 300 μm of Hexagonal Array Dimple Pattern
Choi, H. J. ; Hermanto, A. S. ; Kwon, S. H. ; Kwon, S. G. ; Park, J. M. ; Kim, J. S. ; Chung, S. W. ; Chae, Y. H. ; Choi, W. S. ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 31, issue 6, 2015, Pages 308~315
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2015.31.6.308
In the tribological performance of materials, a textured surface reduces the friction coefficient and wear. This study investigates the effects of a pattern of 300 µm dimples in a hexagonal array on the tribological characteristics. Previous studies investigated 200 µm dimples by using a similar material and method. There are three frictional conditions based on the Stribeck curve: boundary friction, mixed friction, and fluid friction. In this experiment, we investigated the frictional characteristics by conducting frictional tests at sliding speeds ranging from 9.6 rpm to 143.3 rpm and a normal load ranging from 13.6 N to 92 N. We used a photolithography method to create dimples for surface texturing. We used five specimens with different dimple densities 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% in this study. The dimple density on the surface area is one of the important factors affecting the friction characteristics. The duty number graph indicates a fully developed fluid friction regime. Fluid friction occurs at a velocity of 28.7-143.3 rpm. We observed the best performance at a dimple density of 10% and a dimple diameter of 300 µm in the hexagonal array, the lowest friction coefficient at 0.0037 with 9.6 rpm 9.6N load, and the maximum friction coefficient at 0.0267 with 143.3 rpm 92N load.