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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers
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The Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
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Effect of Vibrational Amplitude on Friction and Wear Properties of Magnetorheological Elastomer
Lian, Chenglong ; Lee, Kwang-Hee ; Lee, Chul-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 39~43
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2016.32.2.39
Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are a type of “smart” material, and their properties can be controlled rapidly and reversibly under the influence of an external stimulus. The application of an external magnetic field can change the shear modulus, hardness, and friction coefficient of MREs. The friction can cause vibration; moreover, the vibration can affect friction. The change of friction depends on the relative motion, normal force, roughness of the rubbing surfaces, material type, temperature, lubrication, relative humidity, and vibration condition. As MREs are a type of “smart material,” their friction coefficient can be reduced by applying an external magnetic field—the applications of this feature in engineering have been widely studied. However, the friction properties of MREs under vibration have not been tested to date. In this study, MRE samples and a reciprocating friction tester were fabricated. The friction coefficient was measured to evaluate the friction properties under various vibration conditions; subsequently, the wear depth and wear surface profile of the MRE were observed in order to evaluate the wear properties. The results show that the friction coefficient of the MREs decreased when a magnetic field was applied. Moreover, the friction coefficient decreased when the vibrational amplitudes increased. The wear depth of the MRE also decreased as the vibrational amplitudes increased.
Study on the Lapping Characteristics of Sapphire Wafer by using a Fixed Abrasive Plate
Lee, Taekyung ; Lee, Sangjik ; Jo, Wonseok ; Jeong, Haedo ; Kim, Hyoungjae ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 44~49
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2016.32.2.44
Diamond mechanical polishing (DMP) is a crucial process in a sapphire wafering process to improve flatness and achieve the target thickness by using free abrasives. In a DMP process, material removal rate (MRR) is a key factor to reduce process time and cost. Controlling mechanical parameters, such as velocity and pressure, can increase the MRR in a DMP process. However, there are limitations of using high velocities and pressures for achieving a high MRR owing to their side effects. In this paper, we present the lapping characteristics and improvement of MRR by using a fixed abrasive plate through an experimental study. The change in MRR as a function of velocity and pressure follows Preston's equation. The surface roughness of a wafer decreases as the plate velocity and pressure increases. We observe a sharp decrease in MRR over the lapping time at a high velocity and pressure in the velocity and pressure test. An analysis of surface roughness (Rq and Rpk) indicates that wear of abrasives decreases the MRR sharply. In order to investigate the effect of abrasive wear on the MRR, we utilize a cutting fluid and a rough wafer. The cutting fluid delays the wear of abrasives resulting in improvement of MRR drop. The rough wafer maintains the MRR at a stable rate by self-dressing.
Characteristics of Heat Transfer in DLG Platen According to Flow Rate of Coolant
Kim, Dongkyun ; Kim, Jongyun ; Lee, Hyunseop ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 50~55
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2016.32.2.50
Recently, a double-side machining process has been adopted in fabricating a sapphire glass to enhance the manufacturability. Double-side lap grinding (DLG) is one of the emerging processes that can reduce process steps in the fabrication of sapphire glasses. The DLG process uses two-body abrasion with fixed abrasives including pallet. This process is designed to have a low pressure and high rotational speed in order to obtain the required material removal rate. Thus, the temperature is distributed on the DLG platen during the process. This distribution affects the shape of the substrate after the DLG process. The coolant that is supplied into the cooling channel carved in the base platen can help to control the temperature distribution of the DLG platen. This paper presents the results of computational fluid dynamics with regard to the heat transfer in a DLG platen, which can be used for fabricating a sapphire glass. The simulation conditions were 200 rpm of rotational speed, 50℃ of frictional temperature on the pallet, and 20℃ of coolant temperature. The five cases of the coolant flow rate (20~36 l/min) were simulated with a tetrahedral mesh and prism mesh. The simulation results show that the capacity of the generated cooling system can be used for newly developed DLG machines. Moreover, the simulation results may provide a process parameter influencing the uniformity of the sapphire glass in the DLG process.
A Study of Material Removal Characteristics by Friction Monitoring System of Sapphire Wafer in Single Side DMP
Jo, Wonseok ; Lee, Sangjik ; Kim, Hyoungjae ; Lee, Taekyung ; Lee, Seongbeom ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 56~60
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2016.32.2.56
Sapphire has a high hardness and strength and chemical stability as a superior material. It is used mainly as a material for a semiconductor as well as LED. Recently, the cover glass industry used by a sapphire is getting a lot of attention. The sapphire substrate is manufactured through ingot sawing, lapping, diamond mechanical polishing (DMP) and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process. DMP is an important process to ensure the surface quality of several nm for CMP process as well as to determine the final form accuracy of the substrate. In DMP process, the material removal is achieved by using the mechanical energy of the relative motion to each other in the state that the diamond slurry is disposed between the sapphire substrate and the polishing platen. The polishing platen is one of the most important factors that determine the material removal characteristics in DMP. Especially, it is known that the geometric characteristics of the polishing platen affects the material removal amount and its distribution. This paper investigated the material removal characteristics and the effects of the polishing platen groove in sapphire DMP. The experiments were preliminarily carried out to evaluate the sapphire material removal characteristics according to process parameters such as pressure, relative velocity and so on. In the experiment, the monitoring apparatus was applied to analyze process phenomena in accordance with the processing conditions. From the experimental results, the correlation was analyzed among process parameters, polishing phenomena and the material removal characteristics. The material removal equation based on phenomenological factors could be derived. And the experiment was followed to investigate the effects of platen groove on material removal characteristics.
A Study on Pressure Distribution for Uniform Polishing of Sapphire Substrate
Park, Chul jin ; Jeong, Haedo ; Lee, Sangjik ; Kim, Doyeon ; Kim, Hyoungjae ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 61~66
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2016.32.2.61
Total thickness variation (TTV), BOW, and surface roughness are essential characteristics for high quality sapphire substrates. Many researchers have attempted to increase removal rate by controlling the key process parameters like pressure and velocity owing to the high cost of consumables in sapphire chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). In case of the pressure approach, increased pressure owing to higher deviation of pressure over the wafer leads to significant degradation of the TTV. In this study, the authors focused on reducing TTV under the high-pressure conditions. When the production equipment polishes multiple wafers attached on a carrier, higher loads seem to be concentrated around the leading edge of the head; this occurs because of frictional force generated by the combination of table rotation and the height of the gimbal of the polishing head. We believe the skewed pressure distribution during polishing to be the main reason of within-wafer non-uniformity (WIWNU). The insertion of a hub ring between the polishing head and substrate carrier helped reduce the pressure deviation. Adjusting the location of the hub ring enables tuning of the pressure distribution. The results indicated that the position of the hub ring strongly affected the removal profile, which confirmed that the position of the hub ring changes the pressure distribution. Furthermore, we analyzed the deformation of the head via finite element method (FEM) to verify the pressure non-uniformity over the contact area Based on experiment and FEM results, we determined the optimal position of hub ring for achieving uniform polishing of the substrate.
The Effect of Pressure and Platen Speed on the Material Removal Rate of Sapphire Wafer in the CMP Process
Park, Sanghyun ; An, Bumsang ; Lee, Jongchan ;
Journal of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 67~71
DOI : 10.9725/kstle.2016.32.2.67
This study investigates the characteristics of the sapphire wafer chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process. The material removal rate is one of the most important factors since it has a significant impact on the production efficiency of a sapphire wafer. Some of the factors affecting the material removal rate include the pressure, platen speed and slurry. Among the factors affecting the CMP process, we analyzed the trends in the material removal rate and surface roughness, which are mechanical factors corresponding to both the pressure and platen speed, were analyzed. We also analyzed the increase in the material removal rate, which is proportional to the pressure and platen speed, using the Preston equation. In the experiment, after polishing a 4-inch sapphire wafer with increasing pressure and platen speed, we confirmed the material removal rate via thickness measurements. Further, surface roughness measurements of the sapphire wafer were performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipment. Using the measurement results, we analyzed the trends in the surface roughness with the increase in material removal rate. In addition, the experimental results, confirmed that the material removal rate increases in proportion to the pressure and platen speed. However, the results showed no association between the material removal rate and surface roughness. The surface roughness after the CMP process showed a largely consistent trend. This study demonstrates the possibility to improve the production efficiency of sapphire wafer while maintaining stable quality via mechanical factors associated with the CMP process.